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Development of Yelets study of local lore and its current state (on the example of Yelets of the Lipetsk region and its historical the district)



RAZVITIYE of YELETS STUDY OF LOCAL LORE AND ITS CURRENT STATE (on the example of Yelets of the Lipetsk region and its historical the district)

Work is presented by department of the Russian history and archeology of the Yelets state university of I.A. Bunin. The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor N.A. Tropin

Article is devoted to problems of a historical repyunovedeniye within which the interests of study of local lore lie. The author the attempt of judgment of the cultural and historical phenomenon which received the name "Yelets study of local lore" of one, characteristic of development, of the country towns of Russia, Yelets of the Lipetsk region becomes. In work the functionality of Yelets study of local lore revealing deep sense of regional researches which in some corners of the country are decisive factor development of kulturnoobrazovatelny space in the provincial environment is structured.

The article is devoted to the problems of historical regional studies, which comprise interests of local studies. The author makes an attempt to conceive the cultural and historical phenomenon that has been named "Yelets local studies" and is characteristic of the development of Yelets, one of the provincial Russian towns in the Lipetsk region. The author views the problem of origin of Yelets local studies and analyses the conditions of keeping and maintenance of provincial traditions, which extend over the cultural, educational and spiritual spheres of a small town.

In modern researches the trend of consideration of history of Russia through a prism of allocation and judgment of regional features in historical processes was strongly approved. Studying a ratio of history of the state and the history of the region allows to reveal historical svo-

eobrazy which is formed in the environment of daily occurrence in certain kulturnoistorichesky conditions that sets special historical power to any regiono-obrazuyushy structure. To the middle of the 80th of the 20th century the attention of researchers concentrates on questions of study of local lore which

gains the scientific importance in studying problems of national history. The academician S.O. Schmidt notices that full perception of historical process is possible only through small particles of the past that is promoted by profound knowledge of history of the native land, vision of regularities of general historical development in the facts of "local" history. In this regard the beginning of the 90th of the 20th century becomes time of the beginning of formation of the concept of regional studies which basis achievements of study of local lore in Russia during the different historical periods were.

In the 20th of the 20th century the study of local lore was perceived as one of the characteristic phenomena of the Soviet Russia. According to D.S. Likhachev, it was recognized as "the grass-roots historical and cultural movement" which in the researches regarded compact geographical space as of paramount importance that designated a perception trend regio-

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on as parts of whole. But all achievements of study of local lore of the 1920th - were doomed the 1930th to a perelamyvaniye in millstones of state machinery of Stalinism at the beginning

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the 1930th, and "the Soviet study of local lore" got absolutely other ideological shade which finished pre-revolutionary local history heritage as soon as possible, and the current state of study of local lore demands the careful analysis and objective assessment.

Formation and development of scientific study of local lore on the example of one of the country towns of Russia, Yelets of the Lipetsk region, and its historical the district shows certain experience of regional researches and integration of their results into science and life.

The concept "Yelets study of local lore" was formed throughout one and a half centuries, but as the scientific area in historical (philological, pedagogical) researches exists the last two decades. History of Yelets study of local lore is represented as unique historical and cultural

model of interaction of the cultural and educational environment with social, economic, spiritual and moral spheres in life of society. The research of Yelets study of local lore as the systems of natural historical continuity in various areas of the sociocultural and educational environment of the small city is rather relevant for scientific community of historians, philologists, teachers, political scientists today. For this reason the specifics of Yelets study of local lore, despite issued (but not stood apart from each other) actually literary, historical, pedagogical scientific directions, consist in a peculiar solidity and at the same time unity of varieties of objects of researches.

The Yelets study of local lore takes very important place in the system of research space of the Central Black Earth region which is historically issued by 1930th

For the first time the history of Yelets draws attention of researchers in XIX - the beginning of the 20th century. In I. Uklein, M.A. Stakho-vich, N.A. Ridinger, I. Kozhukhov, A. Voskresensky's works the attempt of studying history of the Yelets earth, its complex characteristic becomes (the perspective of questions concerns both history, and ethnography, and statistics, and the analysis social and economic

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go conditions of the Yelets county). Long time scientists refused to put study of local lore in the system of scientific historical knowledge and did not recognize study of local lore as science. During the Soviet period there are editions of popular and informative level calculated on a wide range of readers, which are not of research value. To qualitatively new scientific level the study of local lore is brought by scientists-conceptualists M.N. Tikhomirov, S.O. Schmidt, 7

D.S. Likhachev. The important place among regional researches is taken by works

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And. N. Akinshina, A.D. Pryakhina who created conceptual components

concepts of uniqueness of Yelets both its historical the district and the laid foundation of scientific judgment of various aspects of Yelets study of local lore. The appeal of researchers to regional subject leads to search of the lost methodology in a local history research. In 1985 there is R.N. Voropayev and V.K. Pa-labugin's work, important for that level of development of study of local lore, "Essays of history of the Yelets earth",

applying for a role complex izu-

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cheniye of history of the city and its district. Further studying history of Yelets and its historical the district is connected with research activity of Yelets higher education institution within which complex studying Yelets study of local lore is carried out that allows to be published to a number of grants on historical, literary, pedagogical краеведению".

Issue of the book

became an important milestone in the history of development of Yelets study of local lore

V. P. Gorlova and A.V. Novoseltseva "Yelets

centuries was under construction" and series of brochures, it is devoted -

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ny stories Yelets храмов&. S.V. Krasnova acts as the active initiator of the edition of the books publishing the first krayevedche-

sky works about Yelets XIX - the beginnings of the 20th century which were not published earlier or were published limited circulation. Experience of studying creative heritage of outstanding fellow countrymen is widely presented

I.A. Bunina, M.M. Prishvina, V.V. Rose-14 "

it is new. The significant role in formation of scientific and historical study of local lore was played by the archaeological researches in the territory of the region which are conducted by Yelets scientists led by A.D. Pryakhin, N.A. Tropin, as a result of which

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a number of monographs and articles are published. In the mid-nineties of the 20th century create the Cultural and Educational Environment laboratory headed by E.P. Belozertsev, which nauchnoissledovatelsky activity

directed to study pedagogical

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aspects of Yelets study of local lore. Works as N.V. Borisova are devoted to study and

to the analysis of a spiritual component of Yelets study of local lore which researches show religious and moral richness of self-sacrifice of the island of Nektariya, the archimandrite Isaakiya, the Archbishop of Kherson and Tauride Innokenti.

Within philology two directions were allocated: linguistic and literary study of local lore where questions

are investigated
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toponymics, creativity of fellow countrymen, etc. Here much attention is paid to problems of maintaining patristical traditions, ethnography and topography. Research work of Yelets scientists shows unique experiment of scientific cooperation of philologists, historians, culturologists in an issue of studying the historical and cultural and literary heritage not only the Yelets earth, but also her neighbors.

Among the works affecting a perspective of historical study of local lore of the city, the book "The Russian fortress at the southern boundaries. Documents on construction of Yelets, settling of the city and vicinities in 1592 — 1594" is the most indicative and vesomoy19. In this work the remained documents on city building which remained unique in the 16th century are for the first time published. Continuation of experience of complex studying historical and cultural heritage of the Yelets earth is presented by the book devoted to the 50 anniversary of the Lipetsk region and the 65 anniversary of formation of the Yelets state university of I.A. Bunin "Formation of the cultural and educational environment of the Lipetsk region (Eletsky 20

edge)".

Apparently, the Yelets higher education institution since the middle of the 20th century played the leading role in business of formation and development of research potential in Yelets study of local lore. Since the beginning of the 90th the activization of local history work in Yelets is caused by a number of factors (new sociocultural conditions in the country, search of new methodology of history, etc.) solving from which there was a work of Yelets higher education institution over sozda-

niy the concept which basis the historical and cultural heritage of the region, its scientific and methodical processing and space-time interpretation in the made-out scientific directions was. These circumstances create favorable conditions for further integration of heritage of the region into science and contribute to the development of the most Yelets institute, its formation as the university (since 2000) as center for studying Yelets study of local lore as cultural and educational kernel of Yelets and its historical twist. The crucial role in this process belongs the idea of uniqueness of the territory of Yelets and its district which represents, in fact, a uniform scientific historical and cultural core of historical, literary, pedagogical study of local lore. Today the Yelets state university surely develops as a backbone factor of development of cultural and educational space not only Yelets and its historical the district, but also the Central Black Earth. In this regard it is possible to claim that Yelets and its historical districts is historical education which grew from a certain geographical environment, results of socio-political changes and cultural and educational space.

Speaking about assessment of the current state and the prospects of further development of Yelets study of local lore, It should be noted that it reflects interaction of various public and scientific and educational structures (the university, the city, the museums, libraries, schools, gymnasiums and lyceums). An important component of cultural and educational space of the region is the spiritual component without which judgment the perception of unique historical and cultural heritage of the Yelets earth would be imperfect. As confirmation to it serves existence of spiritual community "Yelets Association", obshchestven-

but - the patriotic movement "We From Yelets", the private museums and collections. Recognition of Yelets by the city of military glory, a special tourist zone gives huge social and economic opportunities in development of the city and prospect for implementation of application local history programs. Actually it reveals deep sense of regional history and allows to speak about presence of qualitatively new level of space-time communication of history and the present. Today in the cultural and educational environment of the small city there were favorable conditions for further development of study of local lore, for expansion of its scientific potential.

The Yelets study of local lore represents special region-forming structure which, on the one hand, during the specified periods was exposed to historical changes, was differentiated outside and in itself, being enriched with new elements, with another - managed to keep traditionalism in perception and scientific systematization of historical and cultural heritage of the region. The Yelets study of local lore is first of all tradition in study actually stories against the background of the all-Russian history.

To draw an accurate distinction between such concepts as study of local lore, regional studies, krayelyuby, it is very problematic. In view of that circumstance that the Yelets study of local lore represents set of traditions in study and development of historical knowledge it is possible to claim that it is on the verge of science and public structures. Diagnostics of the current state of Yelets study of local lore allows to speak about existence of obviously designated spiritual and moral motivation and the historical and cultural soil in scientific research and to allocate a number of its functionality which developed eventually, having a number of the general and regional features:

• scientific and educational function (shows highly professional

the level corresponding to serious science inherent in Yelets study of local lore);

• educational function (provides effective functioning of cultural and educational downtowns and public educational institutions in the field of study and promotion of study of local lore);

• the socializing function (opens a trend of the relation and perception of historical and cultural heritage by representatives of various social groups which carry out public practice on preservation and promotion of historical and cultural heritage of the region at different stages of development of Yelets study of local lore).

Above-mentioned functions reflect regional features of development of Yelets study of local lore. Along with it a number of scientific and applied projects which cornerstone results of local history researches are and which on the scale join in the system of national property is carried out today. In this regard allocation of federal function of Yelets study of local lore which realization reflects a trend of strengthening of interrelation and mutually definition of the all-Russian and regional historical processes will be natural.

I S.O. Schmidt. Responsibility to the future//Fatherland Monuments: VOOPIK publishing house. 1982. No. 1 (5). Page 131.

3 D.S. Likhachev. Great heritage. М: Science, 1975. Page 56.

A.N Akinjshin Fate of local historians (end of the 20-h-beginning of the 30th)//history Questions. 1992. No. 6.

of Page 113.

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I.I. Uklein. The short historical data on the city of Yelets made by the Yelets merchant Ivan I. Uklein 1846 and 1847//"Yelets byl". Issue 1. Lipetsk: Lipetsk publishing house, 1993. Page 23-152; N.A. Ridinger. Materials for history and statistics of Yelets. Eagle: Provincial printing house, 1865; M.A. Stakhovich. History, ethnography and statistics of the Yelets county. M.: I. Chuksin's printing house, 1858; A. Voskresensky. The city of Yelets in its present and the past (experience of a historical essay). Yelets: Printing house of the Poryadka Golos newspaper, 1911; I. Kozhukhov Yelets. Historical research. Yelets: Printing house 3. P. Zalkinda, 1911.

M.N. Tikhomirov. Russian annals. М: Education, 1979. Page 344.

& #34; S.O. Schmidt. Some questions of a source study of a historiography//Problems of history of social thought and historiography. M, 1976. Page 67.

D.S. Likhachev. Decree. soch. Page 411.

& #34; A.N. Akinjshin. Decree. soch. Page 118.

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A.D. Pryakhin. Archeology and archaeological heritage. Voronezh: Publishing house the Voronezh state. un-that, 1996.

R.N. Voropayev, V.K. Palabugin. Essays of history of the Yelets earth. Voronezh: Central Chernozem publishing house, 1985.

Pedagogical study of local lore of the Lipetsk region: Studies. a grant for learning and studying. Yelets: EGPI, 1999; Historical study of local lore in the Lipetsk region: Studies. a grant for middle and high school. Yelets: EGPI, 1999; Literary study of local lore in the Lipetsk region: Studies. a grant for middle and high school of comprehensive school. Yelets: EGPI, 1999.

V.P. Gorlov, A.V. Novoseltsev Ascension Cathedral in Yelets. Lipetsk: Lipetsk publishing house, 1992; V.P. Gorlov, A.V. Novoseltsev. Temple of an icon of the Yelets Mother of God. Lipetsk: Lipetsk publishing house, 1995; V.P. Gorlov, A.V. Novoseltsev Yelets for centuries was under construction. Lipetsk: Lipetsk publishing house, 1993.

Essays of history of the Yelets county. Yelets: Yelets chiming clock, 1993. Issue 1.

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Klimova G.L. Prishvinsky Yelets//Yelets byl. Lipetsk: Lipetsk publishing house, 1994. Issue 1.

S. 160-184; It. Buninsky Russia. Lipetsk region. Lipetsk: Lipetsk publishing house, 1995.

N.A. Tropin. The Yelets earth in the 12-15th centuries: Monograph. Yelets: EGPI, 1999; It. HP-HUvekov rural settlements of the southern territories of the Ryazan earth. Voronezh: Voronezh publishing house, state. unt, 2004; It. The southern territories Chernigovo-Ryazansky porubezhya in the 12-15th centuries Yelets: EGU of I.A. Bunin, 2006.

16belozertsev E.P. Cultural and Educational Environment of the small city: experience of study//Formation of the cultural and educational environment of the Lipetsk region (Yelets edge). Yelets: EGU of I.A. Bunin, 2004. Page 11.
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N.V. Borisova. Archbishop of Kherson and Tauride Innokenti (I.A. Borisov.)//Formation of the cultural and educational environment of the Lipetsk region (Yelets edge). Yelets: EGU of I.A. Bunin, 2004. Page 140-144.

T.V. Krasnova. Yelets toponymics in diachronic aspect: Studies. grant. Yelets: EGU of I.A. Bunin, 2004; Zamyatinsky encyclopedia. Lebedyansky context. Tambov: The Tambov state. 19n-t; Yelets: Yelets state. un-t, 2004.

V.N. Glazyev. The Russian fortress at the southern boundaries. Documents on construction of Yelets, settling of the city and vicinities in 1592-1594 Yelets: EGU of I.A. Bunin, 2001.

Formation of the cultural and educational environment of the Lipetsk region (Yelets edge). Yelets: EGU of I.A. Bunin, 2004.

Frank Murphy
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