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Chronology of the beginning of the academic researches of the region of Komi



display of the documentary in which various stages of development of science were reflected in the north became a izyuminka of evening. The documentary films which are stored in scientific archive of the center are the basis for the movie. Shots of a newsreel depicted founders of the academic science in the region. Behind the devices which were outdate now young faces nowadays all of the famous scientists flashed. The audience with great interest watched the movie showing events which they witnessed.

Participants of the meeting had an opportunity to get acquainted with the exhibition of archival documentary photographs reflecting scientific and public life of collective. The academic center was shown both in a historical foreshortening, and in a modern look. The staff of scientific library prepared an exhibition of works of scientists of the center.

N. VLadanova, A.V. Samarin

CHRONOLOGY of the BEGINNING of the ACADEMIC RESEARCHES of the REGION of KOMI

At the end of 2009 Komi the scientific center celebrated 70 years of stationary academic researches in the territory of the Komi Republic. Anniversary - a good occasion to look back and remember the main achievements of the academic science made for this period in the region.

We understand the scientific research conducted by Imperial academy of Sciences as the academic science (till 1917), Academy of Sciences of the USSR (till 1991) and the Russian Academy of Sciences, its institutes and branches. It is natural that with the organization in Syktyvkar of Komi of scientific center (Academy of Sciences of the USSR base in the Komi ASSR, Komi Academy of Sciences of the USSR branch) practically all academic researches in the region were conducted by this establishment or with its assistance.

From the moment of foundation of Academy of Sciences in 1725, up to the beginning of the 20th century the interest of Imperial academy of Sciences in the region of Komi had no systematic character. It is possible to mark out an expedition of the academician I.I. Lepyokhin in 1768-1772. The famous Russian traveler and the naturalist surveyed the extensive territory of Russia, including also the region of Komi where also Sysola, Letka and the Billiard pocket visited the Vychegda Rivers, having visited at the same time settlements [1] located on them. In 1837 A.I. Shrenk at the request of the St. Petersburg botanical garden made a trip on unexplored regions of a northeast part of the European Russia: through Arkhangelsk and Mezen to the Pechora River, further through Bolshezemelskaya Tundra, investigated the southern part of the island of Vaygach, then turned on the southeast for a research of a northern part of the Ural Mountains and from there through Pustozersk, Mezen and Arkhangelsk returned to St. Petersburg [2]. In 1843 at the request of A.A. Keyzerling's government made a trip across Pechora and its inflows. He gave the first scientific description of Timan Ridge, made the first geological map and offered the interpretation of creation of rocks along the river of Ukhta. Capital work became result of researches: "Wissenschaftliche Beobachtungen auf einer Reise in das Petschoraland" for which he got a full Demidovsky award and was chosen in honorary members and corresponding members of many Russians and foreign scientific societies and institutions [3].

At the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century the initiative in studying the territory of the region of Komi belonged to rather scientific organizations, than Academy of Sciences. Expeditions of the Russian Geographical Society laid the foundation for studying the Ukhta oil district. Researchers made significant progress in studying a stratigraphy and paleontology of the Pechora Urals, a research of phosphorites, sulfuric sulfide, iron ores. At the expense of society of fans of natural sciences, anthropology and ethnography, botanical, icthyological and zoological researches were conducted. At the beginning of the 20th century the researches were conducted as a part of the big complex expeditions organized by department of agriculture and land management, forest department, etc. [4, page 21-29].

A specific place in studying the region of Komi is held by the Pechora natural-historical station founded by A.V. Zhuravsky and existing under different names. Since 1905 A.V. Zhuravsky conducted researches on a wide range of questions from inspection of the Pechora region before experiments with crops and animals [5]. In 1909 the station was accepted under protection of Imperial academy of Sciences and received the charter and the name Station at Academy of Sciences. Many researchers call Zhuravsky's station "the first academic establishment in the Subpolar North of Russia" [4, page 26].

Presence of the academic science in the north considerably amplified with creation in 1914 of the constant Polar commission of Academy of Sciences which set the task of systematic studying northern territories. Members of the Polar commission took part in drawing up 15 physiographic and administrative maps of northern territories including maps of the Northern region which included the region of Komi [6].

Organized by the Polar commission in 1933. The Pechora crew had significant effect on scientific research in the Komi ASSR. Within three months the members of crew carried out a wide complex of the research works lighting geomorphology, geology, geochemistry, power and agricultural capacity of the region. The head of the Pechora crew president of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the chairman of the Polar commission academician A.P. Karpinsky held a set of business meetings in Syktyvkar. In conversations with heads of the republic and also ordinary inhabitants he told about richness of the nature of the region of Komi and about need of its scientific study. Following the results of work of Pechor-

sky crew the meeting of Presidium of Academy of Sciences of the USSR at which "The hypothesis of development of the Pechora region for 1935 - 1947 - 1950" was accepted took place and also the operating plan for the next years is drawn up. On the basis of these documents, governmental decrees were drafted and the strategy of economic development of the republic was defined [7]. The organization in the territory of the Komi ASSR of a scientific hospital of Academy of Sciences of the USSR had to become logical completion of researches of the Pechora crew. The evidence of this step was clear not only the capital scientist, but also here, in the republic. The letter of one of heads of Komi of the regional plan of A.I. Babushkin demonstrates to it. Having characterized industrial development of the Pechora region, he suggested "to create on Pechora complex base of Academy of Sciences" [4, page 65-66]. However by results of work of the Pechora crew the academic institution was created in Arkhangelsk. On December 15, 1933 the Bureau on studying the Northern region is organized that became direct result of work of the Polar commission in the European North, and in particular works of the Pechora crew [6, page 81].

Today we can express the opinion why the stationary academic institution was not organized in the territory of the Komi ASSR. First, this absence in the region of any scientific institutions with the developed material and technical resources of researches which could help the organized academic institution. In the 1930th the scientific research in the territory of the Komi ASSR was conducted by members of society of studying the region of Komi, institutions of GULAG and other manufacturing enterprises. The research institute opened on the basis of the Resolution of Presidium of VTsIK the same year as Bureau on studying the Northern region was the largest institution Komi. The second reason - absence of the prepared professional staff and a possibility of their completion. In 1932 in Syktyvkar it was discovered the Komi State Pedagogical Institute (KSPI) - the only then higher educational institution in the republic. But it could not train fully the graduates conforming to requirements of academic institution. Most of teachers were either school teachers, or graduate students, or worked in technical schools. There had to pass time before KGPI strongly got up, released enough teachers for the Komi ASSR. But even then it could not cover requirement of academic institution on all specialties. The third reason - lack of rail service - aggravated above-mentioned difficulties. The created scientific institution would be cut off from the central academic institutes. Arkhangelsk had the advantages in this plan. And besides there the meetings of subcommittees of the Polar commission devoted to summing up researches on northern subject were regularly held.

Work of Bureau on studying the Northern region was fruitful and demanded. Questions of planning of research works in the region, problems of perspective exploitation of natural resources were the focus of attention. In 1936. The presidium of Academy of Sciences made the decision to reorganize Bureau of the Northern region in Arkhangelsk into Northern Academy of Sciences of the USSR Base headed by the famous scientist, the honorary member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR N.M. Knipovich. Much attention was still paid to studying the territory of the Komi ASSR. Head of the botanical sector

A.I. Tolmachev headed works on a research of weed and field vegetation of the Northern region. The problem was not studied and extremely relevant for recently created collective farms and MTS. Yu.P. Yudin, I.S. Hantimer participated in these researches [8]. Geological works in the region were headed by the manager of the geological sector A.A. Chernov. Geological expeditions expanded borders of the Pechora coal basin, promoted opening of industrial deposits of oil on Central Pechora [9].

It is natural that the republican authorities with great interest monitored achievements of the academic science in the region and in every possible way sought to expand and deepen researches, to turn them to the course, most relevant for the republic. Formally Northern base was located in Arkhangelsk and in Komi there came only forwarding groups. It was necessary to create representation of science in the region to which it would be possible to address, charge researches on a concrete subject officially. For scientists it would also be more convenient to have research base in the Komi ASSR. On July 20-22, 1939 in Syktyvkar at a conference of research establishments of the Komi ASSR it is offered to organize in the Bureau republic on studying edge from Northern base Academy of Sciences of the USSR [10]. In development of this idea letters from the Chairman of the board of National Commissioners of the Komi ASSR I.I. Oplesnin and the director of Northern base A.I. Tolmachev who recently held a post on need of "expansion of scientific research of Northern base in the territory of the Komi ASSR" were sent to Presidium of Academy of Sciences [4, page 101]. The decision was quickly supported and at the beginning of August, 1939 the Syktyvkar group of Northern base is created. In fact, the Syktyvkar group was not independent institution. It was territorially isolated branch into which representatives of three of four sectors of Northern base entered. The Syktyvkar group included about a half of workers of the geological sector, the main forces of forestry and landscape group of the botanical sector and one employee of zoological sector [11].

Four large tasks which had to define development of the Komi ASSR and all European North were set for scientists of the Syktyvkar group:

1. Stratigraphy of Paleozoic deposits of the Northeast of the European part of the USSR as basis of search of minerals.
2. Transformation of the region of the Far North of the European part of the USSR from consuming in making on the basis of complex development of agriculture.
3. Forest resources and forestry of the Northeast of the European part of the USSR.
4. Trade fauna in the conditions of construction of Kamo - the Pechora and Vychegda water-engineering system [12].

In all directions plans of research works for the next five-years period were developed. Besides, at the request of SNK Komi ASSR attention was paid to coordination of scientific activity in the region. By 1940 in the Komi ASSR more than 40 institutions, generally production were engaged in research activity [13]. The Syktyvkar group of Northern base Academy of Sciences of the USSR had to play the leading role in coordination of their work.

At the beginning of the Great Patriotic War in the summer of 1941 after to Syktyvkar the Northern base Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the Kola base Academy of Sciences of the USSR of S.M. Kirov were evacuated, the Syktyvkar group of Northern base actually stopped existence. A part of scientists headed by the head of group P.D. Kalinin were mobilized for the front. Both bases were united by the solution of SNK USSR of September 30 of the same year in Academy of Sciences of the USSR Base on studying the North under the leadership of the academician A.E. Fersman. Moving to Syktyvkar of two large academic bases almost in full strength repeatedly increased the research capacity of the region. Plans of researches were cardinally reconsidered and expanded. Came out on top search of mineral and vegetable raw materials for needs of defense; identification of the new territories suitable for agricultural development and expansion of acreage; increase in productivity of crops and expansion of their range; introduction in production of the simplest receptions on preparation and processing of vegetable raw materials; studying internal reservoirs for the purpose of their fishery assessment [14].

By the end of war scientific Bases Academy of Sciences of the USSR on studying the North achieved considerable success. Geologists of Base proved existence in the territory of the republic of minerals. Maps of possible areas for investigations were made, potentially oil fields are defined. Summing up the result of researches of pre-war and military years, the prof. A.A. Chernov in the scientific report proved oil-and-gas content of a right bank of Central Pechora near Vuktyl [16]. Scientists-biologists under the leadership of S.A. Kasparova proved prospects of cultivation of potatoes in industrial conditions, the zoned grades are removed. Biologists under the leadership of E.N. Ivanova and O.A. Polyntseva covered all republic with network of expeditions which gave new knowledge of vegetation and soils of the Komi ASSR. Studying a soil cover was carried out, the general ideas of the main regularities of transition from some bioclimatic zones to others are made. On the basis of the received material, soil cards by scales 1:200,000 and 1:1,000,000 and also the card of vegetation 1 are made: 200,000 (A.A. Dedov,

V.M. Bolotova, A.N. Lashchenkova, O.A. Polyanskaya, I.S. Hantimer) [15].

In 1944 the research institute together with personnel, funds and library was a part of Academy of Sciences of the USSR Base on studying the North Komi [17]. Researches of Base were enriched with humanitarian subject. The collective was filled up by the most experienced erudite linguists and linguists - A.S. Si-dorov, A.I. Podorova, M.A. Sakharova working since the beginning of the 1930th in the most important directions of the Komi of literature and linguistics.

The researches conducted by scientists of Academy of Sciences of the USSR Base on studying the North significantly exceeded all researches which are carried out in the territory of the Komi ASSR to the previous period. The result was achieved thanks to high concentration of outstanding scientists in one scientific institution.

In 1944 the process of re-evacuation of academic institutions of rear areas which was followed by requests of decision-making bodies of the republics and regions everywhere began to keep the academic hospitals in places of temporary evacuation. Such request was directed also by SNK Komi ASSR. In Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow) minutes of meetings of Presidium of Academy of Sciences of the USSR which considered similar petitions [18] remained. Generally refused applications, motivating it with the fact that the Academy of Sciences has no financial, material and personnel opportunity to expand network of academic institutions. Also SNK Komi ASSR was refused. However decision-making bodies of the republic "stated a protest and repeatedly directed documents, insisting that at long-term cooperation the academic science will be able to turn the backward agrarian northern region into the region developed industrial" [19, page 124].

As a result according to the resolution of Presidium of Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the order of Council of branches and bases of July 3, 1944 No. 390 of BAZ for studying the North it was divided into two. The first-Kola Academy of Sciences of the USSR base of S.M. Kirov was a reevakuirovana to Apatity. The second Northern base Academy of Sciences of the USSR is left in Syktyvkar and renamed into Academy of Sciences of the USSR Base in the Komi ASSR (is later in 1949, owing to unification of institutions of Academy of Sciences, all scientific bases were renamed into branches, and Academy of Sciences of the USSR Base in the Komi ASSR began to be called Komi Academy of Sciences of the USSR branch). The staff of Northern base who at the beginning of war remained in Arkhangelsk for completion of researches and assistance in carrying out scientific applied researches as a result of reorganization were strengthened by shots and set the status in the form of the Arkhangelsk hospital which existed till 1957 then it finally was a part of Komi of Academy of Sciences of the USSR branch. Thus, separation of Academy of Sciences of the USSR Base on studying the North became a starting point of counting of the history Komi of scientific center OURO RAHN.

Academy of Sciences of the USSR base in the Komi ASSR, having kept considerable personnel and material the potential received from Northern base together with the new name got the new priority directions of researches which were connected with search of minerals, drawing up the soil and geobotanical map of the republic, selection of the most perspective crops and fight against weeds, expansion of knowledge in the field of writing and the theory of origin of the Komi of language [20].

Thus, in the academic studying the region of Komi it is possible to allocate several stages. The first - the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century - the incidental expeditions of members of Imperial academy of Sciences directed to the general acquaintance with the region. At the beginning of the 20th century the region of Komi is regularly visited by expeditions of various academic institutions. The prospects of search are studied got -

of ny minerals, flora, etc. The received results demonstrated high potential of the region. Process of the organization of academic institutions in the European North begins with the middle of the 1930th. In 1934 the Bureau on studying the North (in 1936 transformed to Northern base Academy of Sciences of the USSR) which became the base for all subsequent academic institutions in the European Northeast was organized. In 1939 the Syktyvkar group of Northern base Academy of Sciences of the USSR is organized. It was the beginning of stationary academic researches in the Komi ASSR. In the period of the Great Patriotic War Syktyvkar became concentration of all academic science in the European North. In 1944. The northern base Academy of Sciences of the USSR is reorganized into Academy of Sciences of the USSR Base in the Komi ASSR. Qualitatively new stage of study began the academic science of the European Northeast of the country.

to. and. N A.V. Samarin

Sources and literature

1. I.I. Lepyokhin. Continuation of Day notes of a travel of the doctor and Academy of Sciences of the graduated in a military academy Ivan Lepyokhin on different provinces of the Russian state. Part 4. SPb., 1805.
2. A.I. Shrenk. The travel to the northeast of the European Russia through the tundra of Samoyeds to the Northern Ural Mountains undertaken on the highest command in 1837 / the Lane with it. SPb., type. G. Trusova, 1855. 669 pages
3. Keyserlying, A.V. Wissenschaftliche Beobachtungen auf einer Reise in das Petschoraland im Jahre of 1843. St. Petersburg, 1846.
4. THAT Malkova. Scientific research of the territory of the Komi Republic in the first half of the 20th century (1901-1945). Syktyvkar, 2008. Page 180.
5. Ovchinnikov V. Azazel / Mode Pechorsky of access: http://www.ras. ru/digest/showdnews.

aspx? id=88b004cc-9bf4-487e-af94-903cefbaa615 Language=ru [Access mode: 08.07.2009]

6. Krasnikova OA. Academy of Sciences and researches in the Arctic: activity of the Polar commission in 1914-1936//Vopr. stories of natural sciences and equipment, 2006. No. 4. Page 64-81.
7. N.P. Yushkin. A role of Academy of Sciences in the solution of geological problems and in formation of a mineral and raw complex of the Timano-Severouralsky region//Vestn. OGGGGN RAHN, 1999. No. 2(8). Page 113-114.
8. Martynenko WA., Kotelina N.S. Alexander Innokentyevich Tolmachev: People of Science series. Issue 29. Syktyvkar, 1998. 32 pages
9. Yeliseyev A.I. Professor Alexander Aleksandrovich Chernov. Syktyvkar, 2002. 60 pages
10. Scientific archive of Establishment of the Russian Academy of Sciences of Komi F. Ouro RAHN'S NC 1. Op. 1. 43. L. 6.
11. RAS archive. T. 188. Op.1 (1931-1942). 1051. L. 1-7.
12. TO Komi F. Ouro RAHN'S NC 1. Op. 1. 42. L. 2.
13. GU RK NARK Hr. 1. River of 1329 Op. 1 679. L. 101-102.
14. TO Komi F. Ouro RAHN'S NC 1. Op. 1. 62 and. L. 5 about.
15. TO Komi NC OURO RAHN F.1 Op. 1, 98. L.145-160, 172-180.
16. TO Komi NC OURO RAHN F.1 Op. 1, 98. L.58-71.
17. TO Komi NC OURO RAHN F.1 Op. 18, 12. L.69.
18. RAS archive. T. 188. Op. 1 (1946-1950). 3. L. 2-5, 15-18.
19. M.P. Roshchevsky. Chosen articles and performances. Syktyvkar, 2003.
20. TO Komi NC OURO RAHN. T. 44. Op. 4 EL 28. L. 15-16.

REVIEW

on the edition "The documentary history Komi of scientific center of the Ural office of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Komi Academy of Sciences of the USSR branch

in 1944-1964" (Syktyvkar, 2009. 456 pages)

The work presented on reviewing "The documentary history Komi of scientific center of the Ural office of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Komi Academy of Sciences of the USSR branch of 1944-1964" is an important step in a research of formation not only the academic science of our republic. It is of scientific value for unbiased interpretation of many aspects of the history Komi ASSR. The reviewed work allows to enrich and quite often essentially to specify and expand knowledge of history of science of the USSR, functioning and interaction of the academic scientific institutions, influence on science of the state and local authorities, policy in general.

Unlike externally similar editions the authors of the reviewed work offer the structure. The sections "Preface", "Documents" and "Comments" were earlier traditionally selected. In this manuscript after "Preface" the section "Chronicle" which "Comments" follow is developed and only then the selection of documents is placed. Such structure is new and, in my opinion, very successful. On the one hand, comments connect the section "Chronicles" to the section "Documents", with another - significantly facilitate understanding of an essence of documentary materials.

Emily Dorothy
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