The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Election system of officials of local governments drill at the XIX beginning of the 20th centuries.



Article is devoted to a problem of studying an election system of officials in the Buryat society in XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries

The article is devoted to the problems of the elections system of officials in Buryat self-governing authorities in the 19th - the beginning of the 20th centuries.

otepny thought, foreign justice, patrimonial management, taysha, common law; "steppe duma", alien board, tribal administration, taisha (head of Buryat local administration), usual law.

In 2011 the significant date — 350 years of accession of Buryatia to Russia will be celebrated. Three and a half centuries history of the Buryat people is inseparably linked with the history of Russia therefore there is relevant an addressing unknown or poorly studied pages of history of Buryatia. One of them is the history of local governments the Buryat in XIX — the beginning of the 20th centuries founded under the Charter about management of foreigners drafted by M.M. Speransky in 1822. According to the Charter the new three-stage management system of local governments of the nomadic people was founded.

1. The lowest administrative unit — patrimonial management, for the certain uluses and settlements of a sort containing not less than 15 families; submitted to a foreign justice.
2. An average step — the foreign justice consisting of several settlements and uluses or several patrimonial managements; submitted to a steppe thought.
3. The highest administrative unit — the steppe thought uniting many childbirth could consist of several patrimonial managements or several foreign justices; submitted to district administration.

Treated officials of a steppe thought: taysha, assessors, clerk, his assistant; foreign justice: head, two elective, clerk, his assistant; patrimonial management: patrimonial head and his assistant. Before adoption of the Charter of 1822 the Buryat societies when choosing officials were guided by N.I. Treskin's Position about the hereditary principle of transfer of power and norms of common law. The charter about management of foreigners of 1822 entered the hereditary and elective principle: "... ranks hereditary remain hereditary, the rank selective remains selective" 1. Such officials as a taysha, the assessor, the head, the head could be elected or inherited, offices elective and the clerk were only elective. Allowing inheritance of positions, the government at the same time reserved the right of final confirmation to a post by the civil governor or regional chief. "The main ancestor" — a taysh — was claimed by the governor general. Obstacles to a statement were: "the thin behavior proved by court"; disagreement at choice more than a half ro-


Tsydypmunkuyevna — to. and. N, deputy director of National archive of the Republic of Buryatia, Ulan-Ude

1 Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire (further t. XXXVIII, Article 29126. SPb., 1830, page 398.

PSZRI) - 1,

2011 & 01

dovichy; a valid response from a position of the most chosen. In all other cases "rodovich are obliged to choose or appoint implicitly the immediate family former. The right of inheritance of positions to appropriate to those persons who under laws or customs of each tribe have to be honored the immediate family" 1. It should be noted that women were excluded from similar inheritance.

The order of elections of officials was regulated also by norms usual prava2. According to the Selenga code of 1823 of officials it was necessary to choose "by inheritance from among well-born". In case of absence of the successor or his disease of the successor it was necessary to choose from among relatives. If the successor or the relative was a juvenile, then before achievement of 15-year age by him business was entrusted to be run to other relative elected on trust obshchestva3. So, in 1847 the head of the Byrke-Tsugolsky foreign justice Irdyni Sulkhayev died. Because he had minor children, in July, 1848 his brother Abida Sulkhayev was elected to a position of the head. In November, 1858 to Munch Irdyneev, the son Irdyni Sulkhayeva, on reaching majority was approved to a head position upravy4.

In 1853, according to position of the Siberian committee "About an Order of Election of the Siberian Foreigners of Western and Eastern Siberia in the Positions Replaced for Choice", the following requirements were imposed to applicants: "... not more young 21 years having own economy and not only not vicious court and which are not announced in bad behavior, but also not consisting under trial" 5. The Tsar's administration even more limited action of the hereditary principle, allowing election of "worthy people", i.e. not only "well-born" and well-founded, but also clever, educated, having

1 PSZRI-1, t. XXXVIII, Article 29126, page 400, 402, 403.
2 The Horinsky provision of 1851//Common law of horinsky is drilled. Monuments to the old Mongolian writing / lane with mong. — Novosibirsk, 1992, page 94.
3 Selenga code of 1823//B.D. Tsibikov. The common law of Selenga is drilled. — Ulan-Ude: The Buryat book publishing house, 1970, page 73 — 74.
4 NARB, t. 369, op. 2, 25, l. 12, 170.
5 PSZRI-2, t. XXVIII. - SPb., 1853, page 279.

experience of service, and reserving the right of final confirmation to a post of the elected person. The qualitative structure of the Buryat local government is shown clearly by the track records of officials of the Agin and Selenga steppe thoughts given below.

1. Market Tsybikov, head of the Mogoytuyevsky foreign justice. Studied in the Nerchinsk district school, in 1880-1883 served as the translator at the Chita district police department, in 1884 was a head of patrimonial management, in 1885 became the assessor of the Agin steppe thought. It was awarded 2 silver medals for diligence, one dark bronze medal for successful carrying out a census, had numerous thanks from the highest administration.
2. Linkhovo Sanzhiyev, head of the Turginsky foreign justice. In 1872 graduated from the Nerchinsk district school, in 1872-1876 worked as the clerk in the Transbaikal regional board, the Chita district police department, the accounting assistant of the Chita district treasury, in 1877-1879 served as the translator at the Agin steppe thought, in 1880-1883 - the clerk of a thought. It was awarded gold, two silver and one dark bronze with medals.
3. Dmitry Petrovich Mineev graduated from the Selenga parish school, in 1842-1854 served as the clerk of the Selenga steppe thought, in 1854 is chosen as the head of the Bumalgotolsky sort, in 1856 - the main Taishi's assistant, in 1860-1876 took up the main Taishi's position of Selenga drill.
4. Budazhab Budayev, head 1st sort selenium-ginsko-haranutskogo known as author of the chronicle "History of Emergence of Six Selenga Childbirth". Ended a course in the Russian-Mongolian diploma in the Selenga foreign parish school. During study for good behavior and diligence to sciences received 3 certificates of appreciation from the inspector of Troitskosavsky district school, 1 certificate of appreciation from the inspector of Verkhneudinsky district school. In 1879-1889 took up positions of the assessor, a prikhodo-raskhodchik of a steppe thought.

Elections of officials happened on suglana which represented public meetings for discussion

questions of the money dues and natural duties, land affairs and elections of officials. The honourable inhabitants, male householders having suffrage, or entrusted from number of the men having the right of a selective voice could take part in suglana. The voter had to "select at a position according to clear conscience and honor, without addiction and the property of self-interest, eliminating hostility, communications of relationship and friendship, to choose from sobratiya such which on quality of mind and conscience" were "the most capable and most worthy" 1.

Process of the choice was recorded in the form of public censures - solutions of suglan. So, in 1888 there took place elections to the Hogotovsky foreign justice. From 1,482 male revizsky souls 752 people had the right to vote, and they chose 94 entrusted for participation in Suglan. The procedure of elections took place thus: entrusted selective spheres which they put in black (contra) or white (pro) boxes, depending on the decision were given. The results of vote were summed up by calculation of spheres in boxes, and that who had a bigger quantity of spheres admitted to the elite. Several candidates were nominated for vote for structure of a justice; by a majority vote the head elected Osip Stepanov, elective - to Bitkh Bidayev, Alexander Shardonov. At the same time it was emphasized that all of them are beliefs shaman, competent, the Russian spoken language is known, behavior good, family, have a sufficient domoobzavedeniye and economy, are engaged in arable farming and skotovodstvom2.

In the Alarsky foreign justice on December 22

1892 on public Suglan the head elected Arseny Samsonov. The territorial assessor of the 1st site in the report to the Balagansky district district police officer in detail described the procedure of elections: ". as that room which could accomodate in itself such mass of people, about one thousand people who arrived to elections - in buildings of the Justice not okaza-

an elk therefore it was necessary to all these people with the horses at 35 a-degree frost to suffer under the open sky, but without regard to all this. patiently, without passing decency borders, spent the whole day" 3. The Irkutsk provincial board did not approve the decision of Suglan because of the allowed violations - lack of selective quorum, adoption of the oath after elections, etc. In February

1893 inhabitants of a justice submitted the application to the Balagansky district district police officer in whom they explained failure of elections of the head.

Inhabitants offered observance of the following conditions at new elections:

>- to hold elections without participation of ancestors;

>- to remove the candidates planned for a public position a day before elections to the next justice that they could not do different instigations, accustom to drinking voters;

>- to hold elections through the closed vote (ballot), at the same time to remove from Suglan of the persons who are engaged in propaganda and the persons who do not have the right to vote;

>- to hold elections in the presence of the district district police officer.

All these conditions were met on Suglan of October 12, 1893, and the head elected Mikhail Badmayev.

Thus, thanks to legislative recognition drill the Charter about management of foreigners of 1822 of the hereditary and elective principle of election of officials of local governments, in XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries in practice the experience of creation of an electoral system in the Buryat societies was carried out. This system allowed to put forward to public positions of capable and clever people, and not just belonging to noble families. It should be noted, as representatives of nobility since childhood were trained for execution of public service: educated, it is desirable Russian, and they began office activity with the bottoms.

1 NARB, t. 16, op. 1, 81, l. 17.
2 NARB, t. 18, op. 1, 2, l. 10 (about).
3 NARB, t. 17, op.1, 107, l. 295-296.
Stefan Dominik
Other scientific works: