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Realities of military life in the Ossetian nartovsky legends and a problem of dating of a kernel of a nartiada



ISTORIYA of the PEOPLE of DON AND NORTH CAUCASUS

© 2003 of A.E. Ivanesko

REALITIES of MILITARY LIFE IN the OSSETIAN NARTOVSKY LEGENDS AND the PROBLEM of DATING of the KERNEL of NARTIADA

In literature the characteristic feature of a historiography of a nartiada was repeatedly noted: even those researchers who skeptically estimate possibilities of the nartovsky epos as a source, recognize as reliable in the basis that public way which is reflected in legends on sledge. As E.M. Mele-tinsky writes, "concrete historical thinking is shown in the epos rather late... However general historical originality of Alania military democracy (our italics. - A.I.) - military collisions with neighbors as a result of the isolated campaigns-baltsev - is very brightly reflected in the nartovsky epos" [1, page 39-40]. The point of view about historicity of nartovsky tenor of life can be considered conventional [2-6].

From Marxist positions this public way was defined as the system of "military democracy" corresponding to a stage of "decomposition of the patrimonial relations" and formation of the early state institutes [2,

3, 7, 8]. In the last decade historians and ethnologists prefer to this concept terms "military in-zhdestvo" or "military and hierarchical society" [9]. Key signs of such sociopolitical system: existence of two and more social ranks; war is a source of income; participation in military expeditions defines social standing [9].

In spite of the fact that the concept of "decomposition of a patrimonial system" upon transition to statehood was subjected to convincing criticism [10], the marked-out "military and democratic" lines of nartovsky society keep the scientific value. Действи-& telno at a view of society of nart of the Ossetian legends obvious two lines of way of his life are represented. First, infinite campaigns behind production (balets) are the industry of nartovsky economy. Secondly, hunting and balets are a prestigious business, occupation of heroes, and hunting expeditions should be considered as one of uniforms of military of the enterprises, the economic value of nartovsky hunting is doubtful [7]. Belonging to the nartovsky tribe is defined by participation of the hero in joint feasts-kuvdakh which arranged in the house Is scarlet - Ghat, and in the extortionate military enterprises.

These two loci - the battlefield and the convivial hall - are main and will organize all epic space of nartovsky legends. Only the things filling these loci - weapon, details of a horse harness and a wonderful bowl of Uatsamonga — are described in detail as these categories of objects emphasize heroic essence of nart.

Incapable to participate in kuvda and balets are subject to derision and mockeries, worthy smer-

tyyu. only death admits battle. Inability of the nart "pull out a sword from pozhen" and to drink a full "bowl of heroes" equally is sign of its physical infirmity and leads decrease in the social status. That circumstance that - the word of "sledge" is in most cases synonymous to the word "hero" [11] gave even the grounds for ethnoclass or class interpretation of the concept "sledge". M.V. Rklitsky saw in sledge of representatives of the military nobility, "in the ethnic relation close, but not identical to the population subdued by them" [12, page 15-16], and Ya.S. Smirnova - considers nart "military druzhinnym population group" [7, page 68]. The way which is chosen by young sledge is indicative to finish over the growing decrepit Urtsmag: they try to destroy him, having given to drink to death (legend on the last balets of Uryzmaga). The contempt of nart for old men which is contrary to the Ossetian, ethnographic tradition is compared reasonably with Ammian Martsellin's data on alana (Acts, XXXI, 2.22) [2.12, 13].

Heroic in the nartovsky epos knows only one aspect — military. Sometimes and the nature of social communications is defined as druzhinny: "The people in general form fighting team in which if there is any hierarchy, then it is hierarchy of seniority and military experience" [2, page 224]. Only "the hierarchy of seniority and military experience", but in general nartovsky society - the society stratified is really characteristic of the cohort of heroes (the most outstanding nart from the sort Akhsartaggata). It is possible to mark out at least three social categories: except 1shenitykh heroes - military leaders of nartovsky campaigns it is ordinary sledge (as a rule, anonymous) and not full persons (tsagara, uatsayrag, kusag, saulag).

Thus, allocation in the history of the Ossetian people of the period which characteristic feature is the tenor of life reflected in nartovsky legends military demokratichssky is represented reasonable [3, page 21-22]. It is also lawful to consider that this "the nartovsky century" coincides or at least is crossed with an eposotvorchestvo era [3, page 32-33]. Therefore, definition of a chronological framework of this "century" brings closer to a solution of the problem of an era of creation of the epos about sledge - one of the most debatable in a modern nartovedeniye. In a historiography four main points of view were developed:

1. An era of formation of the nartovsky epos - III -

II millennium BC; as the proof archaic "matriarchal" lines in the structure of nartovsky society are considered [14-17].

2. According to V.I. Abayev, the era of creation of plank beds-tiady covers the period from VII-VI centuries BC to the XIII-XIV centuries [18].
3. Process of formation of the epos about sledge took place in I - the beginning II thousand within the Alania union [1.5,
6, 8]. The researchers arguing this point of view recognize that separate motives and images of the nartov-sky epos go back to a Scythian era [19-21], & but believe that they became a part of the epic narration already during existence of the Alania union [8].
4. The Nartovsky epos is formed in the I millennium BC. Creators of nartovsky legends are the carriers of the Coban, prikubansky and Colchis archaeological cultures, Caucasian on language, [19]. At the same time nartov-sko-skifo-Alania parallels and also the concept of special "matriarkhalnost" of nartovsky society were subjected to convincing criticism [4].

As the criteria defining chronological borders of an era of formation of a nartiada consider folklore and ethnographic parallels; the ethnolexemes comparable testified by nartovsky texts with most and inonazvaniye of the historical people; data of a nartovsky antroponimika and toponymics; at last, mentions of concrete historical realities (as a rule, it is metals, a riding horse, crops, etc.). Communication is represented convincing Page - "man", "soldier", "hero" termi-is nude "sledge" with drevneiransky [12, 20-22]. As V.A. Kuznetsov notes, this etymology "completely corresponds to subject and ideological orientation of the epos singing of feats of ideal soldiers and heroes" [6, page 20].

As the description of the military enterprises, molodechestvo and darings of heroes, powerful feats is the main contents of the nartovsky epic, we have the rich information relating to arms of heroes, structure of nartovsky army and lines of its tactics. All these elements which are written out it is quite realistic, also mark an eposotvorche-stvo era just as it is noted by ethnographic parallels, the borrowed names, etc. Therefore, the military science of nart comprises a basic possibility of dating of "a nartovsky century".

Certainly, this opportunity is far from that which is provided by imposing of typology of arms on the chronological horizons in archaeological researches: the epos fixes the realities relating to various historical periods. But the Ossetian nartovsky texts allow to conclude that the organization of military science of nart corresponds in general to one of these periods and one military system - with mechanical inclusion of obviously late realities. As the nartovsky epos (and not only the Ossetian nartiada) carries on skifo-Sarmatian and Alania epic tradition [2, 13, 19, 20], it is reasonable to compare the organization of military science of nart with lines of military life of the iranoyazychny people of antiquity and the Middle Ages - Scythians, savromat, Sarmatians, Alan.

As well as in other epic societies, weapon in plank beds-tovsky society carries out important sign funk-

a tion is also a subject of an epic poeticizing: "... a sword which blade shines on the one hand beams of the sun, and on the other hand - full moon light; yours which arrows get neatly; a gun which neatly gets from one end of the sky to another’, the end... And then your board from which light the brightest incessantly is reflected" [23, page 416]. We find the description of a sword of Saynag-aldar in other legend: "... work by the most skillful god of weapon Saf; on one * to the party of a blade of this sword the sun, and on другой& sparkles

>- moon; if you look at a blade of a sword of Saynag-aldar, then in it everything that happens in the world is reflected" [23, page 308]. In the Ossetian legends the weapon for prominent heroes is also made by god of fire and forge craft Kurdalagon (sometimes it is Safa).

& the Epic description establishes peculiar "genealogy" of weapon [24]: its origin, accessory to prominent heroes in the past, etc. The uniqueness and special value of weapon are means of heroic characteristic of the character, emphasize his chosenness and outstanding qualities. Not casually a beginning of a number of legends is the narration about finding to young sledge of a wonderful armor of the father.

Weapon, a harness and a fighting horse — not only expensive and prestigious things which make a subject of pride of a sort, they are often thought as animated. An armor of the nart It is banished, impenetrable "We send to Bee-dasov" and "Tserekov an armor", from thirst сражения& radiate a blue flame, and an armor at shout "Action!" itself jumps out to the hero. Batraz's sword, Dzus-hjara, independently attacks on nart and kills them. The "animated" weapon with certain "genealogy" stops being just a subject in the epic world. Repeatedly it defines development of epic action, is a spring of the epic conflict (Hamyts's sword in the legend on Batraz's revenge; Bidasov we send also Tserekov an armor in the legend on a siege Soslan to Chelakhsarton's fortress and • other). The horse of Uryzmaga, Arfan, besides wonderful fighting qualities is allocated with the human speech and more than once the council helps out the owner. The horse is the indispensable satellite of nart - from the most known to minor heroes; sledge which goes in balts on foot, becomes a stock of sneers and mockeries (legend on Syrdona who saved eminent nart from giants). This line of nartovsky military life, compare with military customs Alan [13].

Weapon accompanies nartovsky heroes not only during lifetime, but follows them after death: over the dead it is necessary to erect a barrow, and to put weapon in a grave (as a rule, it is onions and arrows). In other cases the weapon was represented. on a gravestone. The dead could use it. So, sledge It is banished from a grave strikes with artful Syrdon's arrow [23]. Weapon of the prostrate opponent is also the most prestigious military trophy. The specified lines find matches in ■ skifosarmatsky and Alania tradition: weapon as constant attribute of burials and stone sculptures, belief in its magic function [25].

The complex of arms of nart is made: onions (agrdyn), arrows (fattga), a sword (cards, tsirkh), a dagger ’(hjam), a spear (arts), an armor (a zgyeer, zggerkheedon), a board (uart), we send (zgayerkhud). In addition the gun (top), the gun (sarmadzan) and a saber/checker appear in the Ossetian legends (eekhsargard). The name of a checker (saber) agkhsargard in Ossetian possesses etymology, secondary in relation to the word "sword": it is derivative of addition gvkhsar — "fighting valor" and cards - "knife, sword" [26]. The version explaining origin of this name is also in texts of the epos: "Sword durability Akhsara so forever contacted his name. And today still the strong sword is called agkhsargard, that is Akhsar's sword" [23, page 458]. But comparison of various versions of one legend does not leave doubts that they replace archaic onions and a sword: "Mention... guns and guns лежит& entirely on conscience of the latest skazi-teley-modernizers" [2, page 225]. Also some storytellers give similar characteristic: "Nart had no firearms yet - weapon them was made by a sword and arrows" [23, page 306] and the first commentators of the epos: "... it is the late Gun Mention prefix. - A I.] because nart had no firearms" [27, page 107].

The sword and arrows are most popular with nartovsky heroes. To speak reasonably about a weapon stump at nart, first of all about honoring of a sword. Lines of this cult are most obviously presented in the cycle Batraza-^ in motives of training of the hero, a funeral fire and sword thrown in the sea (Batraz cannot die until his sword is shipped in the sea) [13, 28]. According to Zh. Dyumezil, these lines go back to a Scythian era and are connected with a figure of the Scythian and Alania god of war who was worshipped in an image of a sword [28]. Another skifo-alano-nartovskoy a parallel is custom of nart to pray to god a blade edge with a part of a sacrificial animal [23]. In it also reflection of practice of honoring of a sword at Scythians and Alan [29].

In general rate of a mention of elements of arms in the academic publication "Sledge. The Ossetian heroic epos" [23, 27] (by our calculations) is as follows:

arms Element Quantity of mentions

Onions 28

Quiver, ardyston 12

Arrow (arrows) 210

Gun 40

Gun 25

Sword 217

Dagger 50

Saber (checker) 3

Spear 32

Armor 26

Board 8

Helmet 2

Sobir. "weapon", "armor" 69

Apparently from the provided data, a main type of an offensive weapon are onions with arrows [23]. Texts do not allow to judge surely

about its sizes: whether there is a speech about "Scythian" onions (60 - 80 cm) or about more powerful (120 - 160 cm) "gunnsky" [30]. In a number of legends it is reported that staffs of nartovsky arrows are executed from a cane or reed - the material common throughout all skifo-Sarmatian period [30].

Important! information contains rather nartovsky arrows what V.I. Abayev paid attention to: their tips iron trihedral [32] (it is impossible to tell: vtulchaty or petiolar). This instruction, as far as we know, is unique; the mention iron (or damask) tips in the Ossetian texts repeatedly repeats [23]. In the Checheno-Ingush legends sledge (in which reasonably see alan-Ossetian [33] are also armed with arrows with iron tips [34]. As V.I. Abayev believes, the mention of iron trihedral tips of arrows reflects realities of a late Scythian era [2].

Other point of view is reflected in E.I. Krupnov's work: this form of tips indicates "Scythian time (VII-IV centuries BC), time of the greatest, besides quite real contact of local tribes of the Coban, prikubansky and Colchis cultures with Scythian tribes of Southeast Europe" [19, page 25]. This opinion does not find due confirmation in archaeological materials and is dictated, most likely, by desire to coordinate formation of nartovsky legends to the Caucasian ethnolinguistic environment.

In kolchanny sets of Scythians the iron tips of arrows are rare; their number increases only in the IV-III centuries BC - generally on Central and Lower Don [31]. Early Sarmatians of Cisural area, Entre Rios of Don and Volga, meot have Prikubanya iron tips of arrows, trihedral and three-blade, widely extend, forcing out bronze, from III-II centuries BC [35]. "In the 2nd century BC the three-blade petiolar tips finally force out bronze, iron vtulchaty and iron trihedral petiolar [our italics. - A.I.]. Since 1st century BC only they meet throughout several centuries in quivers of Sarmatian soldiers" [30, page 36]. Thus, this nartovsky .skazaniye in relation to tips of arrows can reflect a situation not earlier than the IV-III centuries BC

Sledge are armed with iron or steel (damask) swords and daggers. Texts report about a sword which is extended on 7 grasps (more than 14 m) [23]; Batraz's sword enters a stone on 7 spans (about 126 - 140 cm) [23]; horse Arakhtsau's sword trudges on the ground, leaving ‘a wide furrow [23]. Most likely, before us the epic exaggerated description of a long vsadnichesky sword. The sword is the most popular close combat weapon and the most prestigious part of arms. At the known ge-

& the Grasp - length equal to distance between horizontally extended ru by Kami, t e about 2.10 - 2.15 m the Span Corresponds to distance between big and index fingers, t e. about 18-20 cm

swarms swords are shaped from "heavenly ore" and отличают-& sya by indestructible durability. Sledge use a sword in horse, is more rare - in a pedestrian system as the cutting weapon, a short dagger - as pricking.

Long vsadnichesky swords (70 - 110 cm) appear at Scythians and savromat in the 6th century BC [35], but become widespread since the end of the 4th century BC at early Sarmatians and a little later - at Scythians of the Crimea, having become the main close combat weapon in

III -The 2nd centuries BC [30, 35]. Long iron swords without metal a navershiya are an integral part of arms and in late Sarmatian time [35].

Swords "bilateral" and "unilateral sharpening" are mentioned in one nartovsky legend [23]. In a sword of unilateral sharpening it is admissible to see the odnolyoz-viyny sword which appeared at Scythians in the IV-III century BC, but not widespread [35].

Other close combat weapon - a spear. Instructions are avaricious on its size and the device: "athletes with big copies" in [23] are twice mentioned. But, leaning on a context, some information can be taken after all. So, during one of competitions or duels of sledge Totradz lifted Is banished for an armor-clad collar by the spear and till the evening did not lower on the earth [23] (in one legend Totradz's spear is called bgekhartsag (dig.) - literally "a spear riding", peep [32]). It is sometimes said that Totradz carried on the spear It is banished together with his horse [23]. From the Ossetian epos this story was included in the Adyghe and Abazin nartovsky legends. At the opponent Sosruko

>- Adyghe. Totresh, abaze. Sotrash - there was "not breaking long spear" (the spear staff "iron was, an edge - two-sharp"), which he lifts Sosruko "into the sky" [36, 37]. Even adjusted for an epic exaggeration it is possible to assume that in the specified cases it is about rather powerful and long spear. Such "assault" a spear - peaks (from 2.5 m) appear in the IV-III centuries BC at Scythians [38] and early Sarmatians [35], but the main offensive weapon, become during the srednesarmatsky period (2nd century to N e - the middle of the 2nd century AD) [30]. Subsequently long peak (more than 3.5 - 4 m) is the main distinctive feature of arms katafraktariyev [39].

Sledge rather widely use protective arms. It is first of all a chain armor or at least combined armor: rings appear as its components, the armor in 100 and 200 rings is mentioned [23]. Presence at an armor of "an armor-clad collar" says that it was difficult

and, possibly, massive. Sarmatian soldiers had such combined armor consisting of a combination of iron scales to pieces of kolchuzhny weaving in the course from 1st century BC [30]. In Scythian military life of a chain armor and the combined armor did not become widespread, type-setting lamellar armors [40] remained the main form.

Also the message about a kolchuzhny armor which covers not only the rider, but also a horse is of special interest: "Heavenly Kurdalagon to you forges an armor, in the necessary day it and your horse at -

covers

>; against a gun bullet in it hundred rings will gather, against blow of a sword - two hundred... in usual day there will be it no more shirt" (our italics. -

A.I.) [23, page 89]. Minus "fantastic" quality - to decrease and increase at the request of the owner - it is admissible to see in this kolchuzhny armor means of the shelter of a fighting horse. In this connection it should be noted that finds Sarmatian kolchuzhny horse katafrakt (Yaroslavl, Tbilisi are known to. 15).

It is important to emphasize that and kolchuzhny (or combined) an armor see the influence proceeding from the territory of the North Caucasus in emergence in Sarmatian soldiers of long copies: in Prikubanye the Sarmatians got acquainted with long meotsky copies; in the same place the early finds of pieces of kolchuzhny weaving dated 1st century BC - are known [30].

Besides, the board is rather seldom mentioned in nartovsky legends, is even more rare — a helmet [23]. Scythians and Sarmatians quite widely applied wooden and wattled boards and also boards with a metal covering (armor-clad, scaly, striate); this type of protective arms often meets on objects of a torevtika [30, 40]. But it is known also that use of armors, especially with long sleeves, and use of a heavy offensive weapon did a board by an optional part of a panop-liya of the tyazhelovooruzhenny rider [30, 40]. In nartovsky army probably the tyazhelovooruzhenny cavalry was the main shock center.

Regarding a rare mention of helmets the Ossetian nartovsky epos precisely reflects a situation in Scythian and Sarmatian military practice till 1st century AD: in Scythian military life metal helmets "did not become mass means of personal protection" [40, page 98]. Only in the I-II centuries AD, judging by images of Sarmatian soldiers on Traian's column and on frescos of bosporsky crypts, metal helmets receive considerable distribution [30].

The legend on the last balets of Uryzmaga contains the important information allowing to make idea of structure of Nartovsky army. - Old Uryzmag to whom reproaches in an infirmity and mockeries bothered from youth, ordered to put him in a pig-iron coffin and to throw into the sea. Water delivers Uryzmaga in the possession Kaftysar Huandon-aldara, and the nartovsky patriarch becomes the slave to it to "the Black Sea possessor". Uryzmag decides to resort to cunning and to offer rich repayment for the head: "hundred on hundred odnorogy bulls, hundred on hundred two-horned, hundred on hundred trekhrogy, hundred on hundred chetyrekhrogy, hundred on hundred pyatirogy". Kaftysar agrees and sends to sledge of messengers with the requirement of repayment. Wise Satana managed to decipher the message of Uryzmaga: "odnorogy bulls the pedestrian army calls, two-horned

>- horse army, trekhrogy bulls - kopyenosny army, chetyrekhrogy bulls - armor-clad army, pyatirogy - those who are from head to foot armed" (our italics. — A.I.). Sledge are equipped in a campaign and subject Kaftysar's earth to ruin [23, page 80-83].

According to V.I. Abayev, legends on the last balets of Uryzmaga and on Akhsartaggat and Borat's war (in this legend Kaftysar appears the ally of odes - a leg of a nartovsky sort in its war with another) reflect specifics of the sarmato-bosporsky relations: "The military collisions alternating with the allied relations; service of Sarmatians of the bosporsky tsar... participation of bosporsky tsars in mezhdousobiya of Scythians and Sarmatians - all this in figurative, hudozhestg to a wine form was kept to us by nartovsky legends" [41, page 379]. In image and a name Kaftysar Huandon-aldara (literally the Head of fishes - the Possessor of the passage)

V.I. Abayev sees the bosporsky tsar [41]. Some researchers considered comparisons of a plot of the last campaign of Uryzmaga to events of bosporsky history "any" [8]. But the point of view of V.I. Abayev found confirmation: V. Minorsky showed that the name of the official of Hazaria Kagan, the governor of Panticapaeum - Balgitsi goes back to Turkic balykch - "fisherman" and precisely corresponds Ossetian Kgeftysayer "the head of fishes" [42]. Thus, there are bases to consider the legend on the last campaign of Uryzmaga as historically informative source. It in turn allows to assume that data of this legend on structure of nartov-sky forces are not a fruit of imagination of storytellers, but reflect some historical realities.

The logic of transfer of nartovsky forces in the provided legend is obvious: the military contingents follow one after another in process of weighting of arms (pedestrian army - horse - kopyenosny - armor-clad - "those who are from head to foot armed"). The logic of transfer of nartovsky forces and in the Adyghe legend on the last campaign of Uazyrmes which is under the influence of the Ossetian options is same. Here the repayment is made by five hundred oxen: "hundred oxen hornless" (hundred pedestrian soldiers), "hundred oxen horned" (hundred riders), "three hundred red oxen with white horns" (three hundred riders in chain armors from red copper) [37, page 370 — 372]. The motive of "the encrypted message" is presented also in Vainakh folklore, but not in geroiko-epic legends, and in historical legends and legends [33]. From this it is possible to conclude that in the Ossetian nartovsky text simply "the horse army" can differ from three subsequent categories (it is, certainly, also riders, proceeding from contents of the legend) only relative ease of the arms. Therefore, in "kopyenosny army", "armor-clad army", and those, "what it is possible to see from head to foot armed tyazhelovooruzhenny riders", being the shock center of nartovsky forces (it is indicative that from "five hundred oxen" of nartovsky army "three hundred oxen" can be referred to category of tyazhelovooruzhenny; the situation and in the provided Kabardian legend is similar). The "kopyenosny army" which is especially allocated in the encrypted message of Uryzmaga allows to assume that this offensive weapon had big значение&в to fight. To category "horse army" it is admissible to refer lightarmed riders (perhaps, it is riders -

archers whose arms are supplemented by a sword and a dagger). At last, in "pedestrian army" it is necessary to see lightarmed auxiliary groups.

Such military system in general is similar Scythian and Sarmatian the end of the 4th one or IV century BC of century AD: two ^ a type of military forces, a cavalry and infantry, at auxiliary

last role; crucial importance of the tyazhelovooruzhenny cavalry, in a close system making break; the easy cavalry armed with onions and *

swords or daggers, starts fight, pursues the broken opponent and protects flanks [30, 39, 43].

It is interesting to note that when in infighting the nartovsky heroes use swords, battle or a duel precedes firing of the opponent from onions: "At first fight arrows, then swords against each other snatch out" [23, page 22, 101]. In other cases the fight or a competition opens kopeyny blow, and then the put to flight opponent is surprised arrows [23].

The first tactical scheme in the main corresponds to the early Sarmatian period (IV-III centuries BC): unlike classical "Scythian" tactics with a rate on mass archery from a horse on the mass of the pedestrian and horse opponent, the bigger emphasis is placed on infighting in which main weapon is the long sword [30, 31]. However the similar scheme was realized in fight at the Veil (310 - the h is 309 BC old) also by a Scythian cavalry [43]. In the reasoned E.V. Chernenko's opinion, in this battle the main role was played by a tyazhelovooruzhenny cavalry, ^

having a close system and deep construction and turned an issue of the combat in infighting - with use of long swords and copies [43]. From 1st century to N e - 1st century AD the blow in a close system powerful copies - peaks becomes a basis of the tactical scheme in horse fight, and the value of mass archery and vsadnichesky sword decreases (swords during the srednesarmatsky period are shortened) [30]. Regardless of a solution of the problem of historicity of "Sarmatian landing" admits that mass - the whole divisions - the kopeyny attack of a heavy cavalry appears during the Sarmatian period [44].

One more devil of tactics of nartovsky army forces to return to fight at the Veil again (Diodor Sitsiliysky, XX, 22). For defense against sudden attack the sledge place a circle of a bullock cart [23]. In battle at the Fop Satir whose most part of army was made by Scythians also uses the camp surrounded with carts as a strong point, and E.V. Chernenko refers this reception to lines Scythian ^

tactics [43].

One more quite real detail - fighting ^ appears in the legend on Akhsartaggat and Borat's war

standards. In a magic way Uryzmag caught numerous teams, but they could help, only if to count them. To satisfy this condition, Satana resorted to cunning: she sewed three-legged trousers, and Syrdon who knew everything noticed: "Their hundred times on hundred and three hundred in surplus, and I among them did not see before the three-legged person" [23, page 353].

At obvious folklore origin of a way of calculation of number of soldiers this motive will nearby be spaced from military realities of the first centuries AD. So, in "Martyrdom of Saints Sukiasyantsev" is reported: "In several years Gigianos became the tsar Alania. Also he undertook recalculation of army" [45, page 317-318]. The number of nartovsky army determined in such a way also looks is quite realistic. According to different versions of the legend, it is 2,100 people ("In Akhsar-taggat's army one thousand and one thousand people and moreover hundred more soldiers [23, page 359]); 10 Ltd companies and 20 Ltd companies of people ("hundred on hundred soldiers at Borat and Burt, are twice more than soldiers at Uryzmaga [23, page 357]); 10300 people ("their hundred times on hundred and three hundred in surplus" [23, page 253]).

Before the attack on nart from Borat Uryzmag's family promises the one who the first will set up the battle flag (tyrysa) [32] on Borat's house, to give the wife Satana. On Satana's entreaty the going first two standard-bearers were killed, and the banner on Borat's house was set up by Uryzmag [23].

It is reasonable to consider that the subject of definition of number of soldiers and use at the attack of battle flags equally correspond to the idea of management of troops. It is obvious that Borat's house was attacked by different groups which went for storm under the banners and followed standard-bearers.

Information on so-called "Scythian drakonoobrazny badges" can be in this connection considered. According to the message Ariana (2nd century AD), "Scythian military badges represent dragons... These badges not only the look cause pleasure or horror, but are useful also to distinction of the attack and in order that different groups did not attack one another" (Tactics, 35, 2-7). Military badges of "Scythians" are mentioned by V. Flakk (the second a floor. 1st century AD) (Argonavtika, VI, 57); images of drakonoobrazny badges appear among banners of opponents of Romans on Traian's column [46]. Controversial is an issue of whether there is a speech in the treatise Ariana about badges of an Alania cavalry [30] or about badges which were applied in war games by the Roman cavalrymen [46]. Anyway admits that the origin of badges is connected with military science of Sarmatians.

The appearance and the device of nartovsky banners in the considered legend are not described, but functionally they precisely correspond to drakonoobrazny badges: in both cases it is signs of military divisions which role is connected with a task of management of troops.

Thus, on a number of positions the nartov-sky tyazhelovooruzhenny riders are comparable to katafraktariya - the main striking power of Sarmatian army since the end of the 1st century BC. katafraktariyev refer existence of a massive complex armor, use as the main offensive weapon to number of characteristic features of arms and tactics long powerful peaks, existence of means of the shelter of a fighting horse, action in a close system for the purpose of break or coverage of the opponent, close interaction with a lightarmed cavalry [39].

All listed lines to some reliability are reflected in the Ossetian nartovsky legends, except for one: in texts, as far as we know, there is no instruction on a close system of horse nart. The description of the approaching nartovsky army in the legend on the last balets of Uryzmaga does not allow to judge creation of a cavalry (free lava or a close system): the dust cloud (Uryzmag says to Kaftysar that it is steam from breath of the cattle) rises, noisy footfall (Uryzmag notices that the heavy cattle goes), etc. sounds [23]. In other cases the nartovsky heroes act or alone, or as a part of military party (it is frequent - the famous hero and 2 - 3 or 12 people "from younger"). Explaining this discrepancy, it is necessary to consider canons of epic creativity, first: in the nartovsky epos the emphasis is placed on an individual bogatyrstvo and personal glory of the hero; secondly, to consider that circumstance that actions of a tyazhelovooruzhenny cavalry at construction by a lava would be ineffective. In other words, fixing of this party of military science (in which the spirit of collectivism and military discipline is inherent) the epos is improbable - already owing to genre specifics of heroic legends.

We will sum up the results of the above. The organization of military science of nart of the Ossetian legends is written out much in more detail and more in details, than any other sphere of life of nartovsky society. It is reasonable to consider that this information comprises a possibility of definition of chronological borders of "a nartovsky era".

The Nartovsky military system finds a number of the lines presented not only is realistic, but also is quite historical. The structure of offensive and protective weapon of nart, structure of nartovsky army and line of its tactics find quite exact matches in Scythian and especially Sarmatian military life. As the lower bound of the military system reflected in nartovsky legends it is necessary to consider the IV-III centuries BC. Definition of the upper bound is complicated by that circumstance that many of the lines and realities interesting us (use peaks, fighting standards, a camp protection by carts, etc.) are characteristic not only of skifo-Sarmatian, but also of the subsequent historical eras. Nevertheless the upper bound can be outlined presumably. Already since the end of VII - the beginnings of the 8th century saltovsky and Caucasian Alana were armed with a curved saber [47] (the exception is made by direct swords or broadswords of the Hungarian yas [48], but in formation of nartovsky legends it is hardly possible to speak about a role of the last) whereas mentions of a saber or a checker in nartovsky texts are rather rare, and an epic close combat weapon is the sword.

the temporary borders Specified for a nartovsky military system, probably, should be considered at a solution of the problem of definition of an era of formation of plank beds-tiady. The conclusions formulated above in general will be coordinated with opinion in which the era of eposo-creativity falls on lifetime of the Alania breeding union.

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