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Pedologist researches of typology of the childhood in the first third of the XX century

n. P. Senchenkov


The author considers the problem of various psychology and pedagogical and pedologist approaches to creation of universal classification of types of children in the first third of the XX century. Materials about researches of various types of children in the USA, Germany and Russia are presented in article. Special attention is paid to characteristic of difficult children. Analyzing the classification of types of children developed by the scientist-paedologist A.N. Graborov, the author notes presence at it klassovo184

go the approach which allocated good children and their contrast — children of class enemies. In article the thought of paedologists is emphasized that to each group of children the individualized approach which is expressed in creation of special schools, the equipment, in training of high quality experts and in patience that continues to be relevant and presently is required.

The beginning of the XX century appeared to the world in the new quality which received the boost for development in events of social and economic, political and scientific nature of the 19th century: the revolutions, wars which led to the full partition of the world, opening in the field of medicine, biology, chemistry, physics. These phenomena which more had technogenic character nevertheless put a human factor in the forefront: in one case — as "gun meat", in another — as the major circumstance for more fair peace arrangement in the social plan. In the same time there are various philosophical, psychological and pedagogical concepts revealing features of behavior of the person in various situations and circumstances. But, speaking about the Person, scientists meant that that he will become if it is possible to define to what type (character, intelligence, physical development, etc.) it belongs and if it is possible to create conditions for education of a certain citizen necessary to this state. In clarification of circumstances of formation of such person, in identification of certain standard qualities of any given group of people at the beginning of the XX century paedologists began to play an important role. They understood that than earlier there will be a stage of development of the child when it is possible to define his type, especially the correct compounding can be offered for alignment of this type in any given party, for its approach to "norm".

The history of studying types of children traces the roots back to the 19th century. As then there were no quantitative methods of determination of mental capacities yet, tried to judge them on studying great achievements of any given personality in a vital field. For this cause of a research were limited only to adults, nothing was known of children. It was established that outstanding people represented a certain insignificant percent in the general population that they were born most often in the cities or estates of noblemen and had more wonderful people, than ordinary people among relatives. It was established also that there are they most often from wealthy families.

However not enough attention was paid to the childhood of outstanding people until the scientist Ioder took this subject for development. In 1894 he published the research about the childhood of great people. It described fifty people. It turned out that in the childhood they were the healthy, quick children who were born after a number of years of joint life of parents that many of them were the only sons and that a certain majority them came from prosperous families.

The methods of measurement of mental capacities developed by the beginning of the XX century made possible to establish existence of the increased intelligence already in the childhood.

What there were differences in character of very capable children from averages?

According to scientists-paedologists, the American paedologist Terman on this matter gave the most exact data. He collected the estimates of character of capable children made by parents and teachers, independently of each other, in California. It applied the five-point system of assessment where "3" was considered as average, and "1" — the highest assessment. The average made of coordination of opinions of parents gave around 2nd whereas teachers gave several best assessment of capable children. Thus, exceptional children both parents, and teachers were estimated on the character above the average. The children who received such assessment were chosen as doctor Terman for production of this experience after by means of measurements, but not according to parents and teachers, they were allocated in group of more exceptional children. Subsequently assessment of children made by parents and teachers showed that they and in the intellectual relation considered children also above norm.

Besides, by paedologists it was established with a big accuracy that the children who are given on mind usually well for the age were put and strong. D. Baldwin performed measurements of children at private schools and found that results exceeded the usual norm established for children. After that it was found out that children of those schools at which D. Baldwin conducted a research differed in outstanding abilities. And in public schools it was also found that exceptional children are better put, and more great than the peers of the same years.

Within the first twenty years of the last century at schools of the USA, England and other countries for education conscious attempts of selection of the most capable children were made. So, in 1919 the American scientist-paedologist

Freeman distributed to the cities with the population in 25000 people more questionnaire about what is undertaken on the most exceptional children. He found out that a significant amount of school workers found in themselves exceptional children and tried to meet requirements of them establishment of usually special classes for quickly in time. In certain cases business was put quite well, selection of children happened by means of methods of a research of their mental capacities modern for those times.

About the first classes created by the principle of pedologist selection it was reported in 1918 by Flight from Luiz-villya to Kentucky. Several children with = 13.7 were on average separated from other in an independent class. They very well were in time and passed the installed program of elementary school without any tension of time in two quicker, than the others. They appeared, on Flight researches, the healthy balanced children capable there are more average children to steady work.

During the subsequent period several detailed messages about such done work (Uippl, Spekht and Koya) appeared. All of them showed that the children selected by means of modern methods of a research as very capable were engaged much more successfully and could gain more knowledge in the classes which are specially created for them, than in usual conditions. Influence of these experiments was shown already to some extent and on school actions. So, at the conference on research of new methods in education which was taking place in 1922 in San Jos (California), Dickson stated that within last year about 11 percent of children at elementary schools in Berkeley and Auckland were delivered in special conditions for classes according to shown by them big sposobnostyam1.

Hard work in this direction was conducted within the first decades of the XX century in Germany. Experiments with the device of special classes for exceptional children were described in this country, beginning since 1916, in particular in such cities as Berlin, Hamburg, Breslau, Mannheim, Leipzig, Frankfurt, Sharlottenburg and Goettingen.

In Germany, as well as in America, this work was carried out in the cities as with the big population it was possible to find enough exceptional children only in the centers that then to organize them in special classes. In Germany where the need in replenishment of intellectual force of the nation was very high in connection with defeat in World War I and the idea of the European hegemony, the issue of desirability of definition of gifted children in country families was vigorously discussed. However to any decision on this question the German scientists did not come.

After world war republican Germany left policy of education of children according to economic and social situation of their parents. Agreed that stay and education of exceptional children where those were has to be the first condition of national revival. As in Germany there were many educational psychologists, work on selection of Hofnungskinder — the children promising was carried out quickly and systematically.

The organization of special classes on the basis of intellectual endowments received in Germany of the 20th years of the XX century much bigger and official and administrative recognition, than in any other country.

Appears from the majority of researches that selection of pupils was made by methods of determination of mental capacities which were complemented still with reviews of teachers of strength of mind and physical health of the child. Germany after catastrophic defeat in World War I and revolutionary upsurge was not able to afford luxury to raise in special classes children strong only in the intellectual relation. The child had to be strong in every respect that he could justify the expenses made on it. This situation became a basis for formation of educational policy of the arising national socialism aspiring to a revenge in all areas.

The children selected thus annually or in each half a year from national schools (Volksschulen) took in the last classes of elementary school a special course in order that in such way to communicate from the raised type schools. In these special groups were engaged both boys, and girls though in some cities it was decided that girls in these groups have to make only a half of total number of all boys. Paedologists Peter and Stern specified that they at researches of the girl showed the same results, as well as boys and that such attitude towards girls asked about policy of women's education in general that was especially regrettable if to remember the German pedagogical traditions.

Not less intensive studying children of different types was carried out in Russia. Having absorbed as a sponge, the most progressive ideas of the western scientists, the Russian paedologists set for themselves the task to reveal features of any given type of children taking into account features of the Russian mentality. Talented researchers A.N. Grabo-rov and P.P. Blonsky achieved the greatest achievements in this area. Within the 20th years of the last century they scrupulously collected data on various categories of children, analyzed materials of both domestic, and western paedologists. As a result of their researches the fundamental works revealing features of any given type of children were born. At the same time these scientists paid special attention in the works first of all to difficult children as, as envisioned by ideologists of the proletarian state, the school had to bring up the new citizens who were full of with pathos of a new era, builders of socialist society. That is why paedologists also gave such attention to studying the difficult childhood. As envisioned by paedologists, having only studied it, having understood problems of children of this category, it was possible to solve a problem of formation of the new person.

In work "Types of difficult children" A.N. Graborov noted that "one of not properly executed pedagogical concepts is the concept & #34; difficult дети"".

For some it is children poor, poorly gifted; for others — children with the main installations of the behavior alien to the general orientation of school, for the third — children with a certain warehouse of identity, the children standing on a side between health and a disease" 2. That is the difficult child is such child who did not manage to impart the necessary installations by usual school means, and under this concept very various children's types determined by quite various objective signs (morbidity, intellectual backwardness, homelessness, a nevropatichnost) following from even more various bases (social factors, the burdened heredity, infectious diseases, mechanical damages) were brought.

On the basis of studying difficult children by paedologists the classification of typology of the childhood which included several categories of children was developed. Huge minus of this classification was presence of the class approach allocating "good" children and their contrast — children of class enemies.

1. Normally ideal children in "bio" whom there are no aggravating moments — the children developing in positively directed environment.

According to interpretation of paedologists, various constitutions gave various power types, but all these types could resist enough with firmness to vrednost of the environment and have high performance.

2. Healthy children from the environment with other installations, than those which are cultivated by school.

Paedologists claimed that their life is calculated on some other Wednesday, Wednesday own: either the environment of other class, or the Wednesday which does not have accurate installations, Wednesday declassed. Depending on it this category of children was distributed on two subgroups:

a) children from the environment of other class are little class enemies.

They as paedologists noticed, could carry out formally all duties of school life, could take in them active part, but this participation was not their, so to speak, organic requirement and did not follow from all structure of the personality. Sometimes they as children, broke, showing the real public face (the edition

an underground leaf, an anti-Semitic inscription in the bathroom, etc.). To re-educate such child, paedologists offered the radical recipe consisting in "the announcement to a hostile class of fight by all available means for such child; the school has to accurately, systematically, gradually, consistently to destroy installations alien to it at the child, to lay the foundation of other outlook and to form public skills of behavior necessary to it;

b) children from the declassed environment, from the environment, which class installations if were, then only theoretical.

Watching such children, paedologists noted that the behavior in this environment developed only under the influence of the small, rather vicious circle of persons creating own peculiar morals which precepts of law extended only to this group: family morals, "criminal" ethics.

A.N. Graborov noticed about it: "In terms of class behavior such person as the anti-social activist, is mean, and from the point of view of state he or the actual offender, or has great potential opportunity for commission of offense" 3.

3. Children who have an orientation of behavior thanks to the positive environment good, but are available problems with somatiky.

Proceeding from this combination, paedologists allocated the following subgroups:

a) children neuroartritiki, from ex-court - tivno-catarrhal diathesis, some astenik, children of a displastika.

At normal intelligence they cannot systematically work: often are ill and therefore are a little efficient. These are children of abnormal constitutions.

Paedologists recommended during the work with children of this kind exclusively attentive relation and very careful loading as work, the long sanatorium mode;

b) normally gifted, but mentally unstable children's types — children of a nevropata: hysterical, neurotic, epileptoidny characters, etc.

Though generally Wednesday here also was positively directed, but the usual environment for these children was an irritant too strong. All of them were characterized by the fact that their reactions did not correspond to the irritants sent by the environment. Most often here the long sanatorium mode which basis the systematic rationalized work had to be was necessary. They needed country boarding schools, schools sanatoria;

c) children with slower rate of assimilation, than the average child of normal type. These are so-called subnormal children: limfatiko-gipopla-stiki, some displastik.

For the solution of their problems the paedologists offered creation of special classes for subnorm where there have to be more active and concrete methods of work, smaller number of pupils in a class, pedo-logizirovanny teachers. They could work usually according to curricula of normal school and in essence did not leave its course yet, and only have to be allocated in special classes;

d) mentally retarded children whose insufficiency was characterized by their general qualitative identity.

According to paedologists, the rate of assimilation of a training material at these children was slower, than at the normal child, and, above all — partially training material of normal school qualitatively was not suitable for these children. They could not do that wide

generalizations and conclusions which were drawn by their normal peers;

e) children with shortcomings of the main receptors: blind children, deaf-and-dumb, deaf, blind and mute.

At full intellectual endowments such children could not acquire the training material presented by usual school means. To them it was necessary to use special methods of training: Braille's font for blind people, reading from a face for deaf-mutes, etc.;

e) children with a lack of effectors are children cripples.

During the work with such children quite often it was necessary to replace the lost working bodies with the special devices giving the chance to such children to acquire the crafts suitable for them.

All children of this category demanded to themselves special, special, to their nature of the adapted school.

Paedologists referred children at whom everything was bad to the fourth category: both somatika, and Wednesday. The bad somatika at the same time gave all types of the previous category: "small and efficient", unstable, subnorm, mentally retarded, blind, deaf-and-dumb, deaf, blind and mute persons and cripples. And the bad environment told all these children and bad orientation. For the solution of these problems pedology offered three areas of work: 1) change of orientation of behavior with application of all means which are available for this purpose, 2) improvement of the weakened organism, 3) special methods of work which would be applied to separate types of insufficiency — mentally retarded, blind, to deaf-mutes, cripples, etc.

The bad somatika which is often complicating here in general receiving strong installations in this case considerably complicated work. And socially negative environment very often, in turn, even more undermined already weak somatika. As a result also that complex which it was exclusively difficult to bring the child from turned out. It were really difficult children. The difficulty was not only in the environment, as at children of the second category here, and even not in children, as in the third category, and in those interrelations which were created between the somatiky and social environment as the former of reactions of the individual.

Considering these categories, we note that they were not sharply differentiated, between them a numbers of transitional forms were assumed. Both Wednesday, and a somatika suffered not only quantitative, but also high-quality degradations, and thanks to it very big variety of both identity, and persons turned out.

Proceeding from a subject of the research, paedologists paid bigger attention to categories of difficult children and school students though during the period considered by us also group researches "normal children" were conducted. According to the conclusions of scientists drawn during work, normal children — "it is the healthy children developing in the Wednesday directed in consonance school. They represent themselves a big variety of identity; make the bulk of the school students, at some average speed who are moving ahead" 4.

of Classification of normal children, developed by paedologists of the first third of the XX century, were under construction on developments of physiologists, doctors, psychologists of the end of XIX — the beginnings of the XX centuries.

So, in particular, professor P.F. Les-gaft established six types of the children coming to school: 1) hypocritical; 2) ambitious; 3) good-natured;

4) hammered, soft; 5) hammered, malicious; 6) oppressed.

Each of these types of P.F. Lesgaft considered as a certain product of influences of the environment, and in it the value of its classification. By 20-30th years of the XX century the paedologists already had more objective and profound criteria for evaluation, however, for the present only of identity, but not persons.

A number of scientists-paedologists (Ribot, Vire-nius and others) put psychological sign in the basis of the division — conditions of feeling and will, sign purely formal. From here the extreme subjectivity followed. Their classification was classification of characters. In the classification they considered a constitution, character, mental capacities and temperament, that is four composed, each of which was not certain, in any case, three unknown (last).

One more approach to this problem — classification of professor A.F. Lazur-sky — was purely psychological, it had no objective criteria. Types were considered by it as some self-sufficing entities.

The psychoanalytic school created the classification of types, and it is clear that all objections which showed to psychoanalysts were entirely applicable also to their typology.

Summing up the results, we can draw a conclusion that by the end of the 20th years of the last century the scientists-paedologists as abroad, and in Russia saved up the richest material on studying children which allowed them to reveal their various types. All this was directed to achievement of a main goal — on the analysis, classification, the description, an explanation and assessment of pedagogical processes to find the principles of development of the child and to bring it to such state which would stimulate it and contributed to the good intellectual and physical development. At the same time intellectual and physical development are interconnected, so, and it is necessary to solve children's problems in a complex.

In researches paedologists of types of children the issue of transfer of endowments in families by inheritance is controversial. It is unconditional that scientists revealed strong likeness in results of an intellectual research of brothers and sisters and even more remarkable — in a research of twins, but this "inheritance" could be also result of purposeful education and training both from parents, and from elder brothers and sisters in relation to younger. Probably, and the living example helped younger with family intellectually to develop.

Solving the tasks of studying children set by the state and identification of certain types, paedologists paid much attention to consideration of problems of "difficult children". In this area they achieved notable results, having established features of the identity of the "difficult" child and the nature of these features (interaction of the social environment and the personality).

Scientists-paedologists presented rather harmonious classification of types of the child which reflected both achievements of sciences about the person and all complexity of "a rough, revolutionary era":

1) normally ideal children; 2) healthy children from the environment with other installations, than those which are cultivated by school (socially started); 3) children with positively directed behavior, but bad somatiky (defective); 4) children with bad somatiky of socially launched environment (difficult).

Having allocated these types, paedologists, however, noted that they (types) are not sharply differentiated, between them there is a number of transitional forms which need to be able to be distinguished. For implementation of such "recognition" qualitative, fundamental knowledge of the child, his inner and outside world, of diseases and temperament was required. Of course, because of complexity of a question not all experts paedologists, teachers and tutors could solve children's problems, besides, and pedologist tools were insufficiently developed, as led to a number of superficial, early conclusions about type of any given child. It will be charged to paedologists in the resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee.

Having noted features of each type, domestic paedologists focused on study first of all difficult school students. This task carried the state, often ideologized character as in the most fair and happy society of builders of communism by definition there could not be "difficult" children.

Having considered the main features of each group of difficult school students (poor pupils, pupils with high and psychologically underdeveloped children), paedologists came to a conclusion that to each group of these children the special, individualized approach which is expressed in creation of special schools, the equipment, in training and, the most important in patience is required as a revolutionary swoop not to solve this problem.

For the solution of pressing problems of education and training of children of different types the experience of the school pedologist service which was organic communication of diagnostic work with practical participation of the paedologist in the organization of teaching and educational process that led to the solution of pedagogical problems was approved:

1) completing of school classes was carried out on the basis of studying educational readiness and level of intellectual development of school students;
2) practical actions for rationalization of classes, a general regime of school and regulations were developed;
3) the reasons of poor progress of certain pupils are established and actions for fight against not success in study are developed;
4) study, its separate pieces (lesson, a subject) in terms of their compliance to age opportunities of children and to their types is analyzed.

This work on the purposes and plans was difficult and intense as it concerned studying the child as dynamically developing individual by sometimes unpredictable rules of the game.

This "unpredictability" was also the most weak spot in pedologist work of the 20-30th years of the XX century (including, first of all, children), as led at first to a formalism in work with children of different types, and then and to a total ban of so perspective direction of a scientific thought.

1 Child, his nature and requirements: Collection of articles. M, 1926. Page 3.
2 A.N. Grabarov. Types of difficult children. M.; L., 1930. Page 3.
3 In the same place. Page 8-9.
4 In the same place. Page 18.

N. Senchenkov


of The problem of various psycho-pedagogical and pedagogical approaches to the construction of a Universal classification of child types in the first third of the 20th century. The research materials of different child types in the USA, Germany and Russia are presented. Special attention is paid to the characterization of children with problems. Analyzing the child-type classification elaborated by A. N. Graborov, pedologist researcher, author points out his class-oriented approach, according to this approach, normal children are juxtaposed to their class enemies. A pedologist idea that each group of children should be treated individually, in specialized schools, with special equipment, and by highly qualified specialists, possessing tolerance that remains important nowadays as well.

Oliver Joseph Donald
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