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Actions of bodies of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR for neutralization of mass nepovinoveniye of prisoners (on the example of events in the Usinsk office of Vorkutlaga in January, 1942)



kamyshansky Alexander Aleksandrovich

graduate student of department of the theory and history of the right and state of the Krasnodar university Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation ph. (861) 210 14 51

Actions of bodies of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR for neutralization of mass nepovinoveniye of prisoners (on the example of events in the Usinsk office of Vorkutlaga in January, 1942)

At the beginning of 1942, in the deep back, on the far northern river of the Moustache the armed revolt of prisoners about which hearing swept on all camps of the Komi ASSR broke out. It became history as the first large-scale mass disobedience of prisoners in GULAG which got a revolt form as was followed by the armed and impudent performance. A revolt still A.I. Solzhenitsyn GULAG in "the Archipelago mentioned". Mentions of the Usinsk events and their participants meet in many memoirs, works of historians. But only in the first half of the 1990th there were publications based on archival documents, access to which was closed earlier and also on unknown memoirs [1] earlier.

We will consider in more detail the course of events and action of bodies of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs for neutralization of a revolt of prisoners. At the same time we use the terminology applied in investigative and judicial documents. On January 24, 1942 at 16 o'clock shooters and commanders of the Militarized protection of a camp business trip "The Usinsk raid" that is in 5 kilometers from Ust-Usy, left to wash in a bath, having left only in barracks of one shooter as the man on duty. Organizers of gang led by Retyunin decided to use this circumstance, were to barracks, disarmed the man on duty, having taken 12 rifles which were available there, 4 revolvers, 1682 pieces of rifle and 105 naganovsky boyepatron, and then drove all shooters and commanders of the Militarized protection from a bath into a vegetable storehouse and there locked. Oshkurya managed to only one shooter to escape and run away into the backwater of the Pechora Shipping company to inform the regional organizations of the incident. Escape of the shooter forced Retyunin to change the initial decision on performance time to warn a possibility of preparation of the regional organizations for repulse to gang as it is possible to accelerate arrival of gang in Ust-Usu and to find parties - the but-Soviet asset in the area unawares. Having finished with protection, Retyunin with the adherents in number of about 30-35 people opened a zone of the camp and suggested other prisoners to follow it. All prisoners, in number of 141 persons were brought to a warehouse and dressed in warm trousers, pea jackets, white to a floor -

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fur coats are also put in valenoks. In the same place the food wagon train was created. At this time the part of prisoners which was obviously not wishing to take part in gang ran up. There were 79 people who under Retyunin's team immediately went about 17 hours to the regional center Ust-Usa. On the outskirts of page of Ust-Usa the gang broke into several groups, at the head of each group organizers of gang who, working on a previously developed plan, tore external telephone communication of the regional center at once were put, placed posts on all roads and at 18 o'clock attacked at the same time the building of District post office, State Bank, RO People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, VOKHRA the Pechora Shipping company and PTDC. Having got into premises of the telephone and cable station, broke all available equipment there; killed the duty militiaman in PTDC and released 38 people of prisoners who were available there from whom at first joined insurgents of 29 people, and then left with them out of limits of Ust-Usy of 12 people of accused of counterrevolutionary activity [2, L. 56].

At this raid the gang received small armed resistance only from RO People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs and VOKHRA the Pechora Shipping company. The population could not show long time resistance as insurgents were dressed in clothes VOKHRA and spread rumor that military study is allegedly carried out. To bandits it was fought back only with the advent of 15 shooters of the Militarized protection with a manual machine gun from a business trip of Pecherlaga "Pulya-Kurya" whom managed to inform the shooter who escaped from bandits from "Raid". This circumstance is obvious and prevented a speech of prisoners from "Pulya-Kurya" that, in turn, compelled the head of gang Retyunin and others to refuse the initial plan of occupation of regional institutions and to make the decision on the immediate movement up Pechora to camp divisions of Pecherlaga with calculation to get there support. By this time the quantitative structure of gang changed. From 109 originally acted insurgents of 9 people it was killed at a raid on Ust-Usu, a part departed from gang and dissipated, and a part returned voluntarily to RO People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs. There were in gang 41 persons. Along the line across Pechora in the direction of the railway station Kozhva the gang overtook in 20 kilometers from Ust-Usy in the village Akis a wagon train with weapon in number of 18 rifles, 9711 pieces of cartridges to them, 3 revolvers about 604 boyepatronam to them, 155 pieces the boss to the TT gun and the 862nd alarm the boss of different color, 5 hand-grenades, 6 gas masks and 8 compasses and captured him [2, L. 57].

It is necessary to notice that capture of this weapon was included into calculation of gang and it is made by it according to the general plan as Retyunin about sending this weapon as the head of a business trip knew earlier. This circumstance demonstrates the increased public danger of the committed crime.

Having reached the village Ust-Lyzha that in 40 kilometers from Ust-Usy on the Pechora River, the gang robbed a warehouse of general store, took at the same time 10 bags of flour, 5 bags of grain, 3 bags to sugar, a box of rustic tobacco, a saw and in the evening on January 25 on 13 supplies turned into the forest on the cervine track going up the river to the Ski with intention to reach cervine herds, to capture them and, having changed on cervine teams, to accelerate in the forest on snow the advance.

Considering extreme danger and impudence of an armed revolt of prisoners, operation on neutralization of a revolt was headed by the deputy people's commissar of internal affairs of the USSR Simakov and the secretary of Komi of regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) Vazhnov. Having obtained data on the armed gangster attack of group of prisoners on the regional center Ust-Usu, and then their movement on the Pechora River on Kozhva, on January 25 bodies of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs together with Regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) gave the cable order to the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the Komi ASSR which was in a business trip in Kozhve Nachalniku ECO to Falshin, the Chief of RO People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs Kalinin and the Secretary of RK All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) Bezgodov, together with the management of VOHR of lagpod-divisions of Pecherlaga and Sevzheldorlaga in Kozhva to organize group from shooters VOKHRA and, having mobilized cervine teams of collective farms of Kozhvinsky district, to perform immediately on a meeting to gang with calculation to meet her by the morning on January 26, to surround and destroy. Along with it, in the morning on January 26 the 2nd Secretary of Komi of Regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) Vazhnov took off by plane for the leadership in operations on elimination of gang on the place. Having arrived to Ukhta and having obtained data on the new direction of gang to the forest down the river the Ski, on the night of January 27 on the basis of poll of local community about dislocation of cervine herds near the river the Ski and its inflows and existence of cervine tracks and passes between the Ukhta, Kozhvinsky, Izhma, Ust-Tsilemsky and Ust-Usinsky districts, heads of operation developed a detailed plan of closing of all passes to settlements, lagpod-divisions and cervine herds from the region of arrangement of gang and a full environment with extermination of the last near the river the Ski. According to this plan then the armed groups from the party and Soviet asset in the Izhma district from 65 people, plus 40 people of shooters of VOHR of Ukhtoizhemlaga and in the Ukhta district from 30 people, plus 20 people of shooters of VOHR of Ukhtoizhemlaga were organized. All these groups were given the directions and boundaries for barriers and it is ordered by the morning on January 29 on deer to reach these boundaries and to arrange barriers [2, L. 58].

By the evening on January 29th the platoon arrived to the place where there was a fight with gang on January 28, but the gang already managed to proceed since morning further up the river the Ski from there. By the morning on January 30 there arrived the reinforcement from 23 people of shooters of VOHR of Pecherlaga. The first fight of new group as a part of two platoons (58 people) with the bandit group allocated from the main kernel of gang took place in 115 kilometers from Ust-

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Skis on the night of January 31. As a result the bandit group as a part of 5 people was liquidated. 4 bandits are killed and one is taken live. From group the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of losses was not. The second allocated bandit group as a part of 5 people was liquidated on the 145th kilometer down the river the Ski on February 1. It is killed 4 and 1 it is taken prisoner. Losses of the military personnel were also not. The third, main group of leadership team of gang led by Retyunin in number of 11 people was overtaken in the evening on February 1 on traces in riverheads M-Terekhovey (inflow of the river the Ski) in 175 kilometers from the village Ust-Lyzha, is surrounded and after 23-hour fight at 18 o'clock on February 2 is also destroyed. 3 bandits, 6 bandits are killed during our attack, seeing a desperate situation, shot themselves and 2 are taken live. Here two servicemen are killed and one is wounded.

Apparently from archival documents, bodies of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs in general were not ready to mass nepovinoveniye of prisoners. That the fact demonstrates that in advance quick workers of Vorkutlaga did not know of the prepared armed speech of prisoners to it, in particular. Further, during operation on a pursuit of gang and its elimination died from hands of bandits of 22 servicemen and 15 civilians. At last, the fact of refusal of a number of vokhrov-ets to pursue the armed gang, that is controllability the divisions took place it appeared at a low level.

From our point of view, such situation was caused by the following factors. First, the main part of the best workers of Vorkutlaga was mobilized for the front. The V-second, in forest ITL of the Komi ASSR were not observed so impudent mass nepovinoveniye before, and this circumstance adjusted employees of the Usinsk office of Vorkutlaga on the quiet current of events. Proceeding from these results, the order of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs took serious measures for improvement of work of bodies of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs in this direction and, needless to say, many officials were subjected to collectings.

As for participating prisoners of a revolt, according to the court verdict of 49 people were shot, 14 prisoners were punished by additional imprisonment for the term of 10 years, 4 prisoners - for the term of 8 years, 1 prisoner - for the term of 5 years.

In end it is necessary to stop on the causes of the armed speech of prisoners. The analysis of documents shows that living conditions, clothes or food of prisoners were not those, as in other ITL. There was no ideological basis here and. The main reason was that in process of advance of fascists deep into of the USSR (we will remind, there was a January, 1942) among prisoners rumors that the prisoners condemned for high treasons and also recidivists will be shot to avoid their possible treachery persistently went. According to testimonies of participants

revolts, given on interrogations, the head of a revolt Retyunin who is earlier condemned for gangsterism and remained after release of civilians in ITL said more than once that & #34; all the same we will die, it is so best of all to try to leave and live for свободе". It managed to line enough many prisoners (he during elimination of gang shot himself) on a revolt, and the main catalyst of such actions was as it was noted, a military factor.

Bibliography

1. A.I. Terentyev. Revolt fateful//Youth of the North. 1991. May 6, 9; I. Osipova. Special group No. 1/Resistance in GULAG. M, 1992. Page 132-141; "It would be desirable to call all by name...". On materials of investigative affairs and camp reports of GULAG / Sost. I. Osipova. M, 1993. Page 167-179; V.M. Paul-shchikov. A revolt//Behind seven seals. From KGB archive. Syktyvkar, 1995. Page 37-65; M.B. Rogachyov. Usinsk tragedy: January, 1942//Springs of Parma. Syktyvkar, 1996. Issue 4. Page 210-222, etc.
2. The report to the deputy national commissioner of internal affairs of the Komi ASSR V.A. Simakov national commissioner of internal affairs of the USSR L.P. Beria "About results of elimination of the armed gang on Pechora" of 12:02. 1942//State archive of the Komi Republic (HECTARE of RK). Archive depository No. 2. T. 392. Op. 2. 78.
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Mikhail Vladimirovich Karakulin

leading expert of department of collecting Russian Standard Bank Sochi, Alpiyskaya St., 14, apartment 2 ph. (918) 403 56 57

Voluntary National Teams (national teams) as form of participation of citizens in activities for fight against crime and protection of law and order

Now in the country work on reconstruction of a system of prevention of offenses is conducted. It must be kept in mind that the system of prevention of offenses in the country was created for a long time, worked effectively, however at a transitional stage of the Russian state its activity was suspended as a result of influence of a number of various factors. In modern conditions it is necessary its resuscitation taking into account the come true transformations in the country. In literature it is noted that "reconstruction of a system of social criminological prevention - the come true fact, as well as convincing signs of influence of scheduled maintenance on some positive results of counteraction of crime in difficult conditions of a transition period. The speech in this context has to go about reconstruction as the system of criminological prevention conforming to modern requirements and living conditions of society is created not anew, not from scratch, and with selective loan from the past of some models of the organization, forms and methods considerably filled with the new contents" [1, page 142].

One of the directions of reconstruction of a system of prevention of offenses in Russia is active attraction to protection of law and order of citizens and public organizations. One of the most effective legal forms of participation of citizens in prevention of offenses are voluntary national teams.

The Voluntary National Teams (VNT) were formed for the first time in 1958 at the initiative of workers of Kirov Plant and other enterprises of Leningrad. This initiative was supported by party bodies. Being guided by the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of March 2, 1959. "About participation of workers in protection of public order in the country", in federal republics, regulations on voluntary national teams were drafted. In particular, approve the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of RSFSR of March 30, 1959 -

James Morgan
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