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Terrorism in Russia the XIX beginnings of the 20th century.



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UDC 343.3/.7 A-67

Kirill Fedorovich Anishchenko

graduate student of the Krasnodar university Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation Sochi, Makarenko St., 34, apartment 6 ph. (918) 407 14 16

Terrorism in Russia XIX - the beginnings of the 20th century

In article the political terrorism of times of the first Russian revolution and the next years and also terrorism of the second half of the 19th century in Russia and, in particular, in the Kuban region is analyzed. Their distinctive features are detected.

The analysis of historical literature shows that throughout several millennia the terrorist methods were used by various states, religious groups, the political organizations and criminal communities.

Emergence of terrorism in Russia as mass phenomenon should be connected with activization of revolutionary movement in the second half of the 19th century. The famous researcher of terrorism A. Geyfman noted that "since the April, 1866 memorable suddenly thundered shot of Dmitry Karakozov who was unsuccessfully attempting upon Alexander II's life and till July of the 1918th when Lenin and Sverdlov authorized execution of family of Nicholas II, and then proclaimed the general policy of class "red terror", - half a century of the Russian history was painted in bloody color of revolutionary terrorism" [1, page 5].

Violence, according to S.U. Dikayev, becomes an axiom of political struggle when it has no alternatives. The choice of terrorist methods for implementation of political struggle became result of prosecutions of the government which made promotion in the people of the ideas of socialism extremely difficult and even impossible [2, page 125].

N.A. Morozov wrote programs of "National will" under the name "Terrorist Fight" (1880) in the option: "Terrorist fight will immediately stop as soon as socialists win to themselves the actual freedom of thought, words and the valid safety of the personality from violence, - these necessary conditions for a wide sermon of the socialist ideas" [Tsit. on: 3, page 105].

In the 19th century the acts of terrorism in Russia (if to compare to the present) were, according to A. Geyfman, are not really frequent: from the 1860th prior to the beginning of the 1900th g no more than 100 people [1, page 13] became the victims of terrorists.

Other situation was at the beginning of the 20th century when political murders and revolutionary robberies became the mass phenomena. Since October, 1905 in one year in the country 3611 government officials were killed and wounded. By the end of 1907 the number of the government officials killed or crippled by terrorists reached nearly 4500 people. If to consider also 2180 killed and 2530 wounded individuals, then the total number of the victims during the first Russian revolution was 9000 people [1, page 31].

In the Russian Empire terror was inherent further for Social Revolutionaries. As researchers emphasize, the peak of eserovsky terror falls on years of revolution of 1905-1907. By some calculations, from January, 1905 till end of 1907 the Social Revolutionaries carried out 233 acts of terrorism [4, page 177]. From February, 1905 to May, 1906 in the country were killed 1273 persons among whom: governor generals, governors and city's mayors - 8 people, chiefs of police, district chiefs and district police officers - 21, gendarme officers - 8, police officers and their assistants - 79, district supervisors - 125, policemen - 346, village constables - 57, policemen - 257, etc. [5, page 249, 250].

E.P. Mednikov heading supervisory office of special department of Department of police in 1905-1907 in the letter to the chief of special department S.V. Zubatov written at the beginning of the revolutionary events of 1905 described them as follows: "... Every single day on several murders, a bomb, from revolvers, and then and any tools; beat and beat with what got also anyone... Since February zaarestovana workshops, dynamite for bombs... What abyss is taken revolvers of any systems in thousands of pieces. It overstepped any limits. It is necessary to be surprised how not all were shot down..." [Tsit. on: 6, page 192].

The son of the killed member of the State Council of the count A. Ignatyev so described mood of ruling circles of the Russian Empire during revolutionary terror: & #34; That day, put on a uniform with a mourning bandage and go to a memorial service, on one, on other general or the dignitary... Now sad orthodox chants only strengthened the gloomy not structure of the ruling circles which did not recover for the fear caused by revolution yet" [Tsit. on: 7, page 235].

In the book A. Geyfman absolutely reasonably claims that "boyevizm epidemic", i.e. terrorism, covered also the outskirts of Russia, "can be, it is even more, than central области" [1, page 34]. It was most noticeable in the Caucasus. Even the incomplete statistical data distorted to please to the authorities allowed it

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to draw this conclusion. Analyzing statistical data, A. Geyfman, notes that the authorities in St. Petersburg often entered cases of revolutionary violence in the general lists of criminal offenses. The emperor's deputy in the Caucasus the count I.I. Vorontsov-Dashkov, seeking to justify the policy and to play down an impression of the central power, provided the underestimated statistics: 689 terrorist attacks in 1907 as a result of which 183 official and 212 individuals died of 90 official and 213 individuals - are wounded. Assuring that in the created situation it was impossible to distinguish political robberies from usual, I.I. Vorontsov-Dashkov provided the general data on gangsterism in the Caucasus: 3219 crimes in 1905, 4138 - in 1906, 3305 - in 1907. Says about scope of violence also the fact that in Armavir the terrorists declaring the belonging to various revolutionary parties killed 50 local businessmen for one April, 1907 in broad daylight. By this time the income of extremists from expropriations only in this city reached nearly 500 thousand rubles [1, page 34-35].

In the Kuban region murders of authorities also took place. Only in 1907 the anarchists and Social Revolutionaries extremists made in the Kuban region and the Black Sea province not less than ten authorities [8, page 124]. In particular, on July 21, 1907 in the evening when landing in the tram at the corner of streets Red and Dmitriyevsky Mr. Ekaterinodara was shot the assistant to the chief of police Mr. Ekate-rinodar G. S. Zhuravel, at the same time terrorists managed to disappear [9]. In the evening on August 29, 1907 near the tram pavilion at the end of Rostovskaya Street a shot from a revolver the unknown the assistant to the police officer of city police I.G. Bonyak was mortally wounded [10].

On September 21, 1907 at the corner of streets Red and Count Mr. Ekaterinodara in an emphasis was killed the governor of office of the chief of the Kuban region S.V. Rudenko. During the dead's burial service on September 23 in the Apeksandro-Nevsky cathedral in the square the pack of printing leaflets was thrown into the gathered people. In them on behalf of the North Caucasian party committee of revolutionary socialists it was said that S.V. Rudenko is killed under sentence of committee by the member of fighting flying group [11, page 297].

The Ekaterinodarsky newspaper "Rech" in number of January 25, 1908, speaking about terrorism, noted that all "began with murder of the assistant chief of police Zhuravl. Then in broad daylight murder of the governor of office Rudenko was also with impunity committed. Then murders and attempts at gendarmes and policemen went, and the police officer Velichko is recently killed. Terror amplified awfully, and no executions reduce it" [Tsit. on: 8, page 127-128].

In the Kuban region rather active measures to combat terrorism and expropriations were taken.

On September 6, 1907 at the chief of the Kuban region and the nakazny ataman of the Kuban Cossack army N.I. Mikhaylov took place

meeting & #34; on development of measures of fight against acts of terrorism and the increased crime in general" in which officials, representatives of merchant and petty-bourgeois estates took part. At a meeting the decision to found a detective part in Ekateri-nodare, to increase the number of policemen and also to supply ranks of police with good weapon was made [12, page 67].

The ataman of the Yeysk department ordered to stanitsa, farm atamans and rural foremen "to have the most thorough observation of all persons who attract on themselves suspicion of belonging to party of terrorists", to take measures to timely detection of criminal plans; to strengthen protection of sums of money at stanitsa, farm and rural boards; "to have unrelenting observation of all arriving though to temporary жительство" at the same time & #34; about all arriving persons, the police have to have data on the same day strictly, and now confidentially establish behind arrived observation, it will not be found out with an accuracy yet that the arrived face is reliable and nichago the halls with criminal gang of terrorists have no" [13].

General lieutenant M.P. Babych appointed on February 3, 1908 the nakazny ataman of the Kuban Cossack army and the chief of the Kuban region issued on March 10, 1908 "The obligatory resolution for the city of Ekaterinodara and its vicinities" in which "in a type of continuous terrorist actions of malicious faces" was established: "1. Certainly the exit to streets from eight in the evening till four in the morning...2 is forbidden. Circulation on streets is forbidden by groups; it is allowed to go together no more as to two adult...3. As on streets a search of suspects will be executed - to implicitly execute orders of police and troops. 4. Gate, gates, drives to the forbidden time have to be locked and open only upon the demand of police and the gendarme power. 5. To immediately report to police about all suspects... 7. Guilty of violation... without indulgence will be punished by a penalty up to 3 Ltd companies of rubles or arrest up to three months..." [8, page 129-130].

Activity of Ekaterinodarsky security point which began to function on November 3, 1907 was of great importance for fight against political terrorism and liquidated practically all groups of terrorist orientation. As the independent body of political investigation, Ekaterinodarsky security point existed till November, 1908 when joined the structure of the Kuban regional gendarme department. By the end of 1907 74 members of the North Caucasian Union of communist anarchists, 43 members of the organization of Social Revolutionaries extremists, 5 social democrats were arrested. To the middle of 1908 terrorism in the Kuban region it was actually finished [14, page 12].

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Besides the North Caucasus the terrorism was widespread also in other areas of the Caucasian namestnichestvo.

In the Caucasus, according to researchers, responsibility for the most part of terrorist attacks the Armenian revolutionary party Dashnaktsutyun (Unity) founded in 1890 and operating under the slogan & #34; Liberty or Death". The party gained strength and got support of the population thanks to the nationalist orientation. Considering that its efforts were also directed to release of the Armenians who were under the Turkish dominion it first enjoyed support of the Russian government. However after transfer in 1903 of property of the Armenian Church under control of the imperial power, Dashnaktsutyun openly took the anti-Russian position. Revolutionary events of 1905 caused split of the movement. Right sought still for fight against Turks and association of Armenians under protection of the Russian government, left joined other radical forces in fight against autocracy, at the same time they achieved supremacy in party. Dashnaki physically destroyed the political opponents, forced rich people to pay a certain tax in favor of party, thus, by rigid violence they subordinated to themselves the whole areas in the Caucasus.

The revolutionary situation of 1905 in the Caucasus generated various smaller and less organized extremist groups and separate fighting groups some of which frankly defined the essence (for example, the Horror or Death to the Capital groups), At the same time in the Caucasus there was a significant amount of terrorists of new type who were not included into one party and did not profess any certain revolutionary ideology. Their representatives became leaders of the semi-criminal gangs calling themselves fighters for freedom or anarchists. These gangs terrorized the whole areas [1, page 35-37].

The situation and in other regions of the Russian Empire was not less difficult. In particular, in the Kingdom Polish in 1905-1906 by terrorists it was killed 790 and 864 military, gendarme and police officers are wounded. During combat operations by extremists 120 bombs and other explosive devices were detonated, at the same time 142 persons were killed or wounded. Only in the Warsaw district from October, 1905 till end of February, 1908 the terrorists killed or wounded 327 official and 631 civilian. Revolutionary terror in Poland was painted in nationalist colors more, than in the Caucasus. All history of Poland was noted by permanent refusal to recognize the Russian dominion [1, page 37-38].

In the Baltics in 1905-1907, according to official figures offices of the governor general, 1700 acts of terrorism and 3076 armed attacks were recorded. In September, 1905 only in Riga 69 acts of political terror, in October - were made

64, in November - 143. By January, 1906 the city police in Riga as a result of attack of extremists lost 110 people (more than a quarter of the structure). In 1907 the director of the department of police in the State Duma reported that in two Baltic provinces - Liflyandsky and Kurland - 1148 terrorist attacks as a result of which 324 persons, mainly police officers and soldiers died were conducted [1, page 42-43].

Distinctive feature of political terrorism of times of the first Russian revolution and the next years from terrorism of the second half of the 19th century was the fact that it ceased to have the chosen personified character. If in XIX and first the 20th century were assassinated concerning the high-ranking government officials, then, since 1905, terror was carried out concerning a wide range of public servants, without the special choice.

A. Geyfman provides data in the research: from 671 employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the killed or the wounded during the period between October, 1905 and the end of April, 1906, only 13 held high posts, the others 658 were policemen, other police employees, drivers and watchmen. There was an existence of the established dress code enough to fall a victim of terrorists. The competition who will make robberies and murders more was characteristic of terrorists of a new formation [1, page 58-59].

Bibliography

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2. Dikayev S.U. Terror, terrorism and crimes of terrorist character (criminological and criminal research). SPb., 2006.
3. O.V. Budnitsky. The history of terrorism in Russia in documents, bibliographies, researches. Rostov N / D, 1996.
4. O.V. Budnitsky. Terrorism in the Russian liberation movement. M, 2000. Page 177.
5. Political police and political terrorism in Russia (the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century). M, 2001.
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11. Ekaterinodar - Krasnodar: Two centuries of the city in dates, events, memoirs... Materials to the Chronicle. Krasnodar, 1993.
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