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Category: History

Legal status of Buddhist faith is drilled in the system of the Russian statehood

darima of ZhAMSUEVA


Within the last decades 20th century in the Buryat community the comprehensive process of its transformation is carried out. At the same time the religion undergoes significant changes under the influence of the transformations happening in other spheres of the Buryat society. Besides, process of growth of religiousness happens also against the background of change of the status, a role, functions of religion and religious behavior of Buddhist believers.

Darima Sanzhiyevna ZHAMSUYEVA — to. and. N, associate professor, senior research associate of IMBT Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

By the time of accession of Buryatia to the Russian state in its modern territory tribes of ekhi-rit, bulagat were settled, and in Transbaikalia tribes polecats wandered, childbirth of Selenga, various on ethnic origin, drill. Historical forms of beliefs of these tribes — tribal and shamanistsky.

The Buddhism in the territory of Buryatia appeared at the beginning of the 17th century. The Buddhist faith of Buryatia consisted of ethnic groups of tribal associations horinsky and Selenga the Buryat of Transbaikalia and tribal groups Buryat Predbaykalya. To the middle of the 19th century the Buddhist Buryat at different times the Ambassadorial order, Ambassadorial office, Board, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs were engaged in spiritual affairs. Thanks to it "in each again attached area the question of its berezheniye from the neighboring powers and in general a problem of diplomatic character was covered with themselves by questions purely administrative" 1.

Since 1841 the cases of Buddhists were submitted to the Main board of Eastern Siberia. At the beginning of the 18th century the Russian State seriously undertook management of spiritual affairs of Buddhists. So, the count Savva Vladislavovich Raguzinsky, the ambassador in China, in "" ordered 1728 instructions to boundary dozorshchik: "... lamas of foreign, foreign citizens to uluses to itself to yasachny foreigners not to pass and be content with those lamas who after differentiation with China remained at the Russian side in order that the Russian citizens belongings not foreign, but to the got as between lamas not without deceivers happens, but that shamanism and an other disorder of ordinary people did not plunder". He laid the foundation of formation of the church organization of Lamaism, appointed Supreme a lama from number 150 of the Tibetan and Mongolian lamas who arrived in Transbaikalia from Mongolia in 1712 and attributed to department of the Selenga and horinsky childbirth. Savva Raguzinsky founded autocephaly — the autonomous self-government of faith of the Buryat Buddhists independent of the foreign centers of the Buddhism in Tibet, Mongolia, China, subordinated all administrative cases of the Buryat clergy of the Supreme sanction of the Russian government. For weakening of communication with the foreign centers of the Buddhism it provided training of clergy in Buryatia by efforts local Tibetan and mon-

1 RGIA. T. 821, op.133, 441, l. 3 — 4 "The review of actions of the government on streamlining of spiritual affairs of Buddhists in Russia (including actions of Provisional government of 1917)".

golsky lamas. For this purpose he disposed to choose from each sort on two "reasonable the boy" and to give them to a taysha of Lubsanu1 that "the lamas who are found at it trained them in everything that it is necessary".

In 1741. The decree of the empress Elizabeth Petrovna for a regulation of religious affairs of the Buryat Buddhists established regular quantity kumiren and 150 complete lamas at them. "Complete lamas" are sworn in on allegiance of Russia, got permission to a sermon of Buddhist dogma, are exempted from payment of a yasak and other duties. In increase in number of lamas the government saw serious danger to distribution of Orthodoxy among foreigners therefore the staff of lamas was constantly limited. In the subsequent laws of the empire concerning Buddhist religion had exclusively restrictive character. The relations of the government and Buddhist confession were under construction proceeding from national and religious conditions.

Laws on Buddhist situation were issued repeatedly therefore the developed and effective control system of spiritual affairs of Buddhists in the Russian Empire did not exist. In various areas of a statute were not identical. So, if in Eastern Siberia there were many restrictive norms, then in Kalmykia them were much less. Besides, the order of replacement and competence of Buddhist ecclesiastics was unequal.

To the middle of the 19th century religious affairs the Buryat were in department of the institutions on foreign affairs transferred in 1841. To the Ministry of Internal Affairs. From 1826 to 1852 the statute on lamaistsky faith where projects of various departments, among which projects of the governor general of Eastern Siberia Lavinsky, the official of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Shillinga von Kanshtadt, the official of Department of spiritual affairs of the Ministry of Internal Affairs Levashev, the governor general of Eastern Siberia N.N. Muravyev, the column Amur were considered was developed.

1 Lubsan of a taysh is an eldest son of Okin-Zaysan, the first Taishi Congguolsky of an administrative sort.

In 1852 N.N. Muravyev-Amursky presented the project of a statute. The statute about Buddhist faith the Buryat was connected with a complex of administrative, political and military actions in Transbaikalia for strengthening of the mode in the Russian Far East. Situation it involved a number of serious restrictions for Buddhist clergy. Offices of Transbaikalia (Pandido-Hambo-lamy) which is taking priority lamas and priors of monasteries (shiretuyev) became elective, Hambo-lama was approved by supreme authority, and shiretu — the governor general.

The number of monasteries (datsans) and ecclesiastics was strictly regulated (32 datsans, 32 shiretuya, 197 lamas, etc.). The clergy began to differ only on spiritual degrees: gelun, getsul, Bundy and huvarak. At the same time it lost the right of free movement and was attached to concrete datsans, becoming, thus, some kind of "serf clergy". Contacts with foreign clergy were punished by exile to otdalenneyshy places of Eastern Siberia. In general the Provision of 1853 approved control over all administrative, financial, economic and personnel matters of internal activity of datsans. Besides, it defined the number of datsans and regular clergy, forbade to build new datsans, to trade in Kyakhta and other border check-points, to acquire books and ritual accessories without special permission to implementation of usurious operations, to carry out sales of cult objects, editions of datsans-ky printing houses, to receive natural and monetary donations of the believing laymen. The monastic property was to the unseparable, nominally belonging all collegium. Dzhase2 lamas and huvarak a part of obshchedatsansky income which was distributed among clergy on a certain norm of shares depending on a position and spiritual degrees of lamas belonged. In a dzhasa of lamas and huvarak a certain part of collecting was deducted during hurals, address donations of laymen and a part of inheritance of the died lamas. The individual income of lamas for ispol-

2 Jes (drill.) — cash desk.

a neniye of ceremonies in uluses and personal donations were considered as the individual property of lamas.

Unlike the Mongolian datsans, arrival — the territory of ethnic groups — founders of the patrimonial datsan was a basis of economic life of the Buryat datsans.

In 1889 for prevention of concentration of the power in hands of Pandido-lamy the Buryats of the Irkutsk province were withdrawn from maintaining the Pandido-Hambo-lamy and submitted to the Irkutsk governor and shiretuyam two datsans.

Two moments were characteristic of the policy of the Russian state on legal status of Buddhist faith the Buryat: 1) it was supposed that religious confession of foreigners (in this case

— the Buddhism), had to serve the state needs: to subordinate the people of Russia of the central power by means of "spiritual and administrative" structures

— churches and maximum "iyerarkhizi-rovannost" of the clergy managed by the state departments; 2) gradual replacement of national religions with Orthodoxy — the main ideological support of autocracy.

In general, it is possible to note that under the influence of the Buddhism in Buryatia there was a professional art of Buddhist painting, a sculpture, cult architecture, decorative registration of an interior of the temple. Development of publishing, book culture, school education and individual training in ten Buddhist sciences caused emergence of the national intellectuals of medieval type — more than 15 thousand lamas of various categories. The Buddhism the Buryat from a narrow framework of etnodifferentsiiruyushchy patrimonial isolation on the level of broad civilization communications with the people of Asia advanced culture.

The events which followed after the October revolution of 1917 caused the processes which led to formation of the small theocratic state in the territory of the Western Transbaikalia in the Buryat environment. A part of the Buryat highest lamas tried to create the independent Buddhist state founded on the principles of Buddhist ethics in the conditions of easing of the Russian statehood. But this attempt was cruelly stopped by troops ata-

Mang Semyonov controlling the territory of Transbaikalia during Civil war.

After establishment of the Soviet power in Buryatia the Buddhist datsans began to lose the value in life of the Buryat population. In many respects this process was provoked by the power which sought to spread among drill atheistic views. The economic situation of datsans worsened owing to nationalization of the lands belonging to them, reduction of public donations and other primordial sources of income. From datsans there was a considerable outflow of priests caused by all adverse situation around Buddhist monasteries. At last, the campaign for eradication of the Buddhism in Buryat Mongolia in the 30th led to closing of all datsans, arrest and imprisonment and the camp of GULAG of the majority of lamas under the different far-fetched articles (a pan-mongolism, etc.), many of these prisoners died there.

From 1938 to 1946 any datsan did not work, only in 1946 two datsans (Ivolginsky and Agin) which activity was under control of the Soviet, party and other bodies were open. The solution of all questions connected with existence of the Buddhism in the USSR was assigned to the Central spiritual office of Buddhists which was placed in Ivolginsky datsan. Again the position of Hambo-lamy was revived

— heads now all Buddhists of the USSR. To this position chose from among lamas of Ivolginsky or Agin datsans with the consent of public authorities. The number of Buddhist priests was strictly limited by 40 regular lamas.

the Indicator of basic change of the relation of the Russian state to religion and religious associations. In our republic the law "About Religious Activity in the territory of the Republic of Buryatia" was also adopted on December 23, 1997.

Morgan Maude
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