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The Old Belief world of the Central Black Earth at the XIX beginning of the 20th V.: number, resettlement, social composition



UDK 271.2 (091)

The OLD BELIEF WORLD of the CENTRAL BLACK EARTH In XIX - the 20th V.'s BEGINNING: NUMBER, RESETTLEMENT, SOCIAL СОСТАВ"

Kursky

technical

university

A.V. APANASENOK

e-mail:

apanasenok@yandex.ru

In article questions of number, resettlement and social composition of the Old Believers living in the territory of the Kursk, Voronezh and Tambov provinces in XIX — the beginning of the 20th century are considered. The author pays attention to discrepancy of pre-revolutionary statistics with true scales of the Old Belief world of the Central Black Earth, analyzes the reasons of understating of statistical data. Also in work factors of proliferation of Old Belief community are characterized, the significant role of conservatives in formation of local merchants and a group of prosperous peasants is shown.

Distinctive feature of Post-Soviet historical science is steadily increasing research interest in problems of sociocultural history of Russia. Active studying last Russian Old Belief became one of concrete manifestations of this interest. The called faith draws attention of scientists as a cultural phenomenon, the subject of managing, an object of religious policy in the Russian Empire, but also as the phenomenon defining "face" of any given region in the past. In particular, for the last decade there was a significant amount of the researches reflecting history a staroveriya in Siberia, South Ural, Transbaikalia, the Far East in the Russian North and also in Moscow and Podmoskovye1.

However, for writing of the generalizing works about the past of Old Belief, as well as for judgment of a role of this faith in national history of it it is not enough. Researching "old belief" in the regions which are traditionally considered as its main centers the scientists still gave not enough attention to other regions of the country. As a result of slaboizuchenny there was history of provincial Old Belief of densely populated central territories of Russia. The research of the past of "old belief" in the Central Black Earth is intended to meet this lack in a certain measure. The provinces which were located here (Voronezh, Kursk and Tambov) on the economical and geographical properties, the ethnoconfessional structure and cultural features of the population were typical regions of the central Russia that allows to extend the drawn conclusions to a considerable part of the Russian province. This article is devoted to problems of number, resettlement and social composition of conservatives in three called provinces.

Preceding characteristic of the Old Belief world of the Central Black Earth in XIX — the beginning of the 20th century, it is necessary to tell that split in this territory designated itself from first years of nikonovsky reforms, that is from 50th of the 17th century, and since then "the old belief" was the noticeable phenomenon in region life. In the second half of the 17th century the shelter was looked for here by the Old Believers escaping from religious prosecutions from the central regions of the Moscow state (Moscow, Kaluga, Ryazan, Tula lands), emergence of dozens of villages and villages, or entirely Old Belief, or with an Old Belief element became result of what. End of the 17th century and

* Work is performed with financial support of RGNF. Grant No. of 05-01-72102a/C.

1 Results of modern researches of history and the traditional culture of Old Belief are reflected in works of I.V. Pozdeeva, N.N. Pokrovsky, N.D. Zolnikova, V.V. Kerov, D.I. Raskov, O.P. Yershova, E.M. Yukhimenko, E.A. Ageeva, I.N. Yurkin, N.Yu. Bubnov, E.S. Danilko, K.Yu. Ivanov and other scientists.

the first half of the 18th century were marked by large-scale prosecutions of conservatives because of which a part of local "adherents of old times" was forced or to hide the confessional accessory, or to go further away — to the Polish limits, to lower reaches of Don, to the Volga region forests. Nevertheless, the authorities did not manage to liquidate split in the region, and in the conditions of liberalization of religious policy at Ekaterina the 11th local Old Belief significantly got stronger. Since the end

XVIII about it can be spoken century as about developed confessional soobshchestve2.

At the beginning of the 19th century the Russian government made an attempt to make idea of scales of distribution of "old belief" in empires. In 1812 the special commissions managed to collect the corresponding data on some Russian regions among which there was the Kursk province. In "sheet raskolnich" it was brought 8776 chelovek3 here. However, the obtained data concerned only those who openly recognized the falling away from official religion. Besides, to receive more authentic data then it was not represented possible both because of an inefficient accounting system, and because of lack of accurate criteria who should be considered Old Believers (the analysis of the results of a census of 1812 given by A.A. Tankov demonstrates that copyists often mixed with conservatives of representatives of the Russian sects; at the same time the "adherents of old times" at least once appearing in official ispovedny sheets were not considered) 4.

Systematic collection of data on the number of Old Believers was organized at Nicholas I. In 1827 the government obtained data on the number of "dissenters" in all Russian provinces. According to them, 13197 Old Believers, in Voronezh - 11049, in Tambov - 90245 lived in the Kursk province. However, both these data, and data, are received by the government in the subsequent quarter of the century, it was also impossible to call reliable. On the contrary, the tendency to understating of figures obviously amplified as the emperor one of results of the board wanted to see a victory over split and a celebration of official Orthodoxy. Both police, and clergy were interested in concealment of true number of "dissenters", "the ridiculous contradiction of official figures with reality" 6 became result of what, according to P.N. Milyukov. Very brightly this situation is characterized by the fact that the author of "The history of the Ministry of Internal Affairs" N.V. Varadinov, providing in the book data on the number of Old Believers in the Russian provinces for 1839 and 1841, does not even try to sum up the general result, reasoning it with full unauthenticity statistiki7. As far as this unauthenticity of statistics was characteristic of the Central Black Earth region, it is visible at least from an example with the Tambov province. In 1851 only 1223 Old Believers (eight times less were considered here, than in 1827!), and in 1852, after the persistent offer of the Ministry of Internal Affairs "to specify data" — already 30218 (it is probable if the Ministry of Internal Affairs continued to insist on "specification" of data, figures would grow again).

Apparently from the last example, at the end of the Nikolaev era the government strengthened control over collecting statistical data on Old Believers. Obviously, it was connected with awareness of impossibility to fight against "split" without the right information about him. In 1853 there was a decree "About Reduction in Popularity of Modern Provision of Split" in which the provincial authorities were recommended to reorganize a system of accounting of Old Believers on purpose "to bring into exact popularity the modern provision of split" 9. The intensification of collecting

became result of a massive campaign
2 For more details see: A.V. A.V. "Old belief" in the Central Black Earth: XVII \beginning of the 20th century. Kursk, 2008. Page 29-79.
3 See: A.A. Tankov. The information about so-called Old Believers in the Kursk province in 1812//Addition to Kursky to Diocesan sheets. 1888. No. 37. Page 593.
4 In the same place. Page 596-598.
5 See: N.V. Varadinov. History of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Prince 8. SPb., 1862. Page 159-179.
6 P.N. Milyukov. Essays on the history of the Russian culture. In 3 t. T. 2. Part 1. M, 1994. Page 146.
7 N.V. Varadinov. History of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Prince 8. SPb., 1862. Page 157 — 158.
8 State Archive of the Tambov Region (SATR). T. 4. Op. 1. 1280. L. 66 about.
9 A collection of resolutions in split. SPb., 1875. Page 469.

data on Old Belief in Russian regions and also some increase in the statistical figures reflecting the number of "adherents of old times". In the Kursk province the data demanded by the government were collected by 1856. In the Voronezh province of time it was required even more — required statistics appeared only in 1857. In the Tambov province the necessary data were received in 1852. According to the submitted reports, in the Tambov province in 1852 lived 3021 staroobryadets10, 1856 in the Kursk province was 16530 staroverov11, in the Voronezh province of those in 1857 there were 935012. It is possible to see more detailed data (with distribution of conservatives on the cities and their counties in the middle of the 19th century) in tab. 1.

Table 1

the Number of Old Believers in the cities and counties of Central Black Earth provinces of the Russian Empire in the middle of the 19th century 13

Kursk province Voronezh province Tambov province

Cities Chisl. Cities Chisl. Cities Chisl.

and their counties in 1856 and their counties in 1857 and their counties in 1852

Kursk 182 Voronezh 36 Tambov -

county 1000 county 2132 county 37

Belgorod - Biryuch - Borisoglebsk -

county 280 county 231 county 44

Grayvoron - Bobrov - Elatma 1

county - county 662 county 148

Dmitriyev 54 Boguchar - Goats -

county 250 county 309 county -

Korocha - Valuyki - Kirsanov 6

county 1100 county 4291 county 441

Lgov - Zadonsk - Lebedyan -

county 1900 county - county -

Nov. Oskol - Zemlyansk - Lipetsk -

county 803 county - county -

Oboyan 309 Korotoyak - Morshansk 168

county 500 county 1687 county 539

Putivl - Nizhnedevitsk - Spassk 953

county - county - county 492

Rylsk 510 Novokhopersk - Temnikov -

county 1100 county - county 54

It is old. Oskol - Ostrogozhsk - Usman -

county - county - county -

Sudzha - Pavlovsk - Shatsk -

county 419 county - county 94

county -

of Fatezh 96

county 5590

Shchigry

county 2267

All in 1097 36 1172

All to the county. 15433 9314 1849

Total 16530 9350 3021

10 Counted on: GATO. T. 4. Op.1. 1280. L. 66 about.
11 This figure is received on the basis of the data provided by AATankov. See: AA tanks. From the history of split in the Kursk diocese / / Addition to Kursky to diocesan sheets. 1898. No. 15. Page 146-153.
12 See: Materials for geography and statistics of Russia. Voronezh province. SPb., 1862. Page 276.
13 The table is made by the author on the basis of the following matial: GATO. T. 4. Op.1. 1280. L. 66 about.; A.A. Tankov. From the history of split in the Kursk diocese / / Addition to Kursky to diocesan sheets. 1898. No. 15. Page 146-153; Materials for geography and statistics of Russia. Voronezh province. SPb., 1862. Page 276.

It should be noted that data on the number of conservatives periodically gathered the Ministry of Internal Affairs and in the next years, up to the beginning of the 20th century. In this regard it is interesting to pay attention to the figures appearing in reporting data at the end of the 19th century. In 1897 in the Kursk and Voronezh provinces was respectively 21237 and 12640 staroobryadtsev14, in Tambov - 713415. These data are presented in tab. 2.

Table 2

The number of Old Believers in the cities and counties of Central Black Earth provinces of the Russian Empire at the end of the 19th century 16

Kursk province Voronezh province Tambov province

The cities St - tsevets and • The cities St-tsev The cities Chisl.

and their counties in 1897 and their counties in 1897 and their counties St-tsev in 1900

Kursk 242 Voronezh 143 Tambov -

county 1657 county 3397 county 1392

Belgorod 23 Biryuch - Borisoglebsk -

county 458 county 365 county 32

Grayvoron - Bobrov - Elatma -

county 37 county 1049 county 628

Dmitriyev 157 Boguchar - Goats 52

county 337 county 756 county -

Korocha 2 Valuyki - Kirsanov -

county 1349 county 3945 county 250

Lgov 2 Zadonsk - Lebedyan -

county 2434 county - county -

Nov. Oskol - Zemlyansk - Lipetsk -

county 1428 county - county -

Oboyan 345 Korotoyak - Morshansk 243

county 602 county 2856 county 998

Putivl 2 Nizhnedevitsk - Spassk 893

county 7 county - county 1603

Rylsk 92 Novokhopersk - Temnikov -

county 958 county 129 county 268

It is old. Oskol - Ostrogozhsk - Usman -

county 43 county - county -

Sudzha - Pavlovsk - Shatsk -

county 2026 county - county 778

county 5

Fatezh 64

county 6077

Shchigry -

county 2885

All in 934 143 1188

All to the county. 20303 12497 5946

Total 21237 12640 7134

In 1915 in the Kursk province was registered 27503 staroobryadtsa17, in Voronezh-1589818, and in Tambov - 948119 (information on distribution of conservatives on counties in the relevant sources is not provided that is explained, probably, by decrease in interest in an Old Belief question against the background of the cataclysms endured by the empire).

14 See: The first general population census of the Russian Empire. 1897. Kursk province. SPb., 1904. Page 110-130; The Review of the Voronezh province for 1897 Voronezh, 1898. Page 36.
15 The review of the Tambov province for 1900 Tambov, 1902. Page 39
16 The table is made by the author on the basis of the sources specified in two previous references.
17 Russian State Historical Archive (RSHA). T. 796. Op. 442. 2754. L. 31.
18 The review of the Voronezh province for 1915 Voronezh, 1916. Page 53.
19 The review of the Tambov province for 1915 Tambov, 1916. Page 58.

Thus, in the mid-fifties of the 19th century in Central Black Earth provinces of all about 29 thousand officially registered conservatives, at a boundary of the 19th and 20th centuries — about 41 thousand, and in 1915 — nearly 54 thousand was available. There is a question — these data are how objective? Certainly, they are true more, than appearing in reports of 1830 — the 40th. However entirely you should not trust them as the reasons forcing local police of priests and Old Believers to hide the true situation to the middle of the 19th century existed later.

Staroveriye, being the faith oppressed according to the logic of the higher authorities it had to be reduced steadily. However in practice of it did not occur therefore those data which moved from places upon the demand of various highest authorities and on which statistics was based and in the second half of the 19th century were often strongly distorted towards reduction. First of all it concerns the parsons responsible for collecting initial information. Growth of number of Old Believers in their arrivals could become the basis for charge in "connivance to split" and a strict reprimand from the administration. Therefore they, and after them and decent church districts, most often wrote that "split in the subordinated territory does not grow in number", giving last year's or close to them svedeniya20. Besides, Old Believers only those officially admitted "adherents of old times" over whom it was not made any sacraments by the dominating church. The conservatives baptized in the parish temple or married there for marriage legalization, according to church books were registered as "Orthodox Christians".

Such situation taking into account conservatives, peculiar to many provinces of the empire, led to maintaining in Russia a large number of "not inveterate" Old Believers. The interesting mention of those in the Central Black Earth belongs to 1812 when a part of "adherents of old times" from the Shchigrovsky County of the Kursk province decided to address with already mentioned application members of the government commission where, by the way, there were also such lines: "... we in number of the Russian churches in arrivals are considered, but we from them did not accept occasional offices and we do not accept though we were written to metrics allegedly by us at a confession and a holy communion we are" 21. Naturally, such picture was peculiar also to other territories, and throughout everything

XIX and the beginnings of the 20th century. In one of documents of the Tambov missionaries of 1903, for example, it is said that "except officially registered dissenters. within the diocese there is a lot of secret which though are registered as Orthodox Christians, but think and live on-raskolnichyi. On an equal basis with dissenters they stand up for dvupersty and other "doctrines" of split and, including Orthodox Church heretical, do not visit the God's temple." 22.

It is fully impossible to trust and to results of a census of 1897. As the famous researcher of "split" A.S. Prugavin, "spoke instead of opening a real number of Old Believers, it (i.e. a census — a bus) only covered them" 23. Except already noted factors, its course was affected by two more circumstances. First, two columns — "Orthodox Christians" and "Old Believers" appeared in forms of this census, and the last were equated to "disappeared from Orthodoxy". As conservatives always considered themselves true keepers of Orthodoxy, many registered in the first column. Secondly, a part of Old Believers (first of all bespopovets) was seen in a general census by "anti-christian networks", as op-

20 See, e.g.: Reporting data on blagochinnichesky districts of the Kursk diocese. State Archive of Kursk Region (SAKR). T. 483. Op.1. 3, 10, 11, 17, 20.
21 A.A. Tankov. The information about so-called Old Believers in the Kursk province in 1812//Addition to Kursky to diocesan sheets. 1888. No. 37. Page 599.
22 The report on activity of the Tambov Kazan and Deiparous missionary brotherhood for 1903 Tambov, 1904. Page 10.
23 A.S. Prugavin. Old Belief in the second half of the 19th century of M., 1904. Page 7.

redelit their insincerity or evasion from otvetov24. For example, it is possible to explain with the last circumstance obviously underestimated number of adherents of old times in the Rylsky County of the Kursk province where similar moods were very widespread. In the city which was always considered as the center Kursk a staroveriya, copyists counted 92 Old Believers; meanwhile, according to A.A. Tankov (famous Kursk pre-revolutionary local historian), every eighth resident of Rylsk was a conservative that had to give up to one and a half thousand chelovek25. Also ridiculously also figure 958 concerning all county looks — in only one page. Fertile, inhabited mainly by Old Believers, more than one thousand chelovek26 lived then. The number of conservatives and on the Oboyansky County of the Kursk province is obviously underestimated. Even according to the local district police officer, given to the Kursk governor in 1894, not 974, but 1700 adherents stariny27 lived there. At last, very eloquent was a situation with the Morshansky County of the Tambov province. According to "The review of the Tambov province for 1900" which authors made a start from results of a census, 998 conservatives lived here; three years later orthodox missionaries in only one village of Pokrovsk from adjoining Vasilyev-shchinoy (not only Old Belief settlements of this county) counted 1787 staroverov28.

Actually, the fact of understating of number of Old Believers statistics was well-known to contemporaries and often admitted representatives of the secular and spiritual authorities. For example, in 1872 in "The Kursk diocesan sheets" A. Chistyakov's article in which the author, providing official data, added was published: ".vprochy, knowing that in the Kursk diocese there are cities which population consists more than half of dissenters, and the whole settlements, it is necessary to agree that there is a lot of them more" 29. In 1875 the authors of "The report of the Tambov BogorodichnoKazanskiy brotherhood" noted the same, noticing that "some of fathers priors in whose arrivals there are dissenters, for some reasons hid a real number them" 30. The instruction on a divergence of statistical data with an actual number of conservatives can be found also in "The review of the Voronezh province" for 1906 31

The given examples give the chance to claim that the true number of the actual Old Believers of edge exceeded statistical, at least, by one and a half-two times. Apparently from tables 1 and 2, the number of conservatives in all Central Black Earth provinces gradually increased. The main reasons for its gradual growth employees of statistical committees called "natural reproduction" and also mixed marriages from which children in most cases "were lost for Orthodoxy" 32. It is necessary to add to it, as the women entering with Old Believers into marriage alliance filled up with themselves the Old Belief world. Conservatives, choosing wives from an official Orthodox environment, considered a duty to acquaint them with "old belief" — numerous lamentation of Orthodox Christians missionerov33 testify to it.

24 F.E. Melnikov. Short history of Drevlepravoslavny church. Barnaul, 1999. Page 377.
25 A.A. Tankov. From the history of split in the Kursk diocese / / Addition to Kursky to diocesan sheets. 1898. No. 15. Page 149.
26 Kursk province. The list of the inhabited places according to 1862 SPb., 1868. Page 45.
27 GAKO. T. 1. Op. 1. 5426. L. 211.
28 The report of the Tambov Kazan and Deiparous missionary brotherhood for 1903 Tambov, 1904.

Page 16, 18.

29 A. Chistyakov. New conditions of church life and split / / Kursk diocesan sheets. Informal department. 1872. No. 18. Page 1108.
30 The report of the Tambov Deiparous and Kazan brotherhood for 1875-1876 Tambov, 1877. Page 18.
31 The review of the Voronezh province for 1906 Voronezh, 1907. Page 54.
32 The review of the Kursk province for 1902 Kursk, 1903. Page 55.
33 See, e.g.: The report on activity of the Tambov Kazan and Deiparous missionary brotherhood for 1896. Tambov, 1897. Page 25.

It was difficult to join the ranks due to propaganda among sympathizing "ancient piety" the population till 1905 (i.e. to a release of the law on freedom of religion) — it was watched closely by the spiritual authorities. However, after the announcement of religious freedoms the situation changed a little. Conservatives had an opportunity of open promotion of the views then their number began to grow also at the expense of the former parishioners of the dominating church located to an old veriyu, who however were registered as "Orthodox Christians". The most mass accessions such happened in the village of Samodurovka of the Fatezhsky County and the village of Biryukovka of the Sudzhansky County during this period - more than one thousand people in everyone sele34. Also there are data on official transition in starovery in 1907 — 1909 several hundred residents of Valuysky and Bobrovsky Counties Voronezh gubernii35 and also the Spassky County Tambov gubernii36.

In the majority the Old Believers were villagers — the share of citizens among them made at the turn of the century about 5%. Rylsk and Spassk were recognized to Raskolnichyimi as the cities the middle of the 19th century, the noticeable number of Old Believers lived in Oboyani, Kursk and Morshansk. Rural settlements where conservatives were estimated in, at least, several hundred, were: village of Derlovo, village of Lotorovka, of Ostankov, of Tomlin Kolodez Fatezhskogo of the county; village of Chaplygino, village of Kurasovo, village of Glebovo Kursky of the county; village of Vorobyevka, village of Boyevo. Don Shchigrovsko-go of the county; village of Cheremoshki, page. Ivanovskoye, page. Lower Villages of the Lgovsky County; page. Fertile, village of Pushkarnoye, page. Top Zhadino of the Rylsky County; settlement Mikhaylovka, village of Prikhodkovo of the Dmitriyevsky County; village Russkoye-Porechnoye, village of Krupets of the Sudzhansky County; village of Gochevo, page. Troitsk Oboyansky County; of Kashlakov of the Korochansky County (Kursk province); page. Red Log, village of Masalskoye, village of Vereyskoye, village. New Pokrovsk Voronezh County, village of Novoselovka, village of Yuryevka, village of Novopavlovka of the Valuysky County, village of Tryasoru-kovo, village of Nizhnemaryino of the Korotoyaksky County, of Bogomolovk of the Bogucharsky County (Voronezh province); page. Pokrovsk, Vasilyevshchina of the Morshansky County, village of Tekino, village of Pertovo of the Tambov County, village of Kirillovo, village Shamorga of the Spassky County, village of Lokhmytovka of the Kirsanovsky County (Tambov province). In total the Old Belief world of the Central Black Earth covered more than two hundred inhabited punktov37.

Speaking about social accessory of local Old Believers, it is worth emphasizing important feature: they belonged to those categories of the population in which traditionally Russian way of life remained longer and which least underwent europeanization. The main part of conservatives was made, naturally, by peasants, and, under numerous certificates of contemporaries, many of them belonged to the category zazhitochnykh38. Often records about conservatives handicraftsmen (carpenters, bricklayers, smiths) occur in "raskolnichy" sheets. Many Old Believers were also among merchants. For example, according to the sheet of 1849, in Spassk the conservatives were distributed on social categories as follows: representatives of merchant surnames — 260, petty bourgeoises — 182, "soldatok" — 7, state peasants — 41439.

Contemporaries often noted economic solvency of most of local "adherents of old times". "Dissenters are always richer than Orthodox Christians" - we find this phrase in one of articles of "The Kursk diocesan sheets", posvya-

34 The annual report of Kursky diocesan missionary P. Osokin for 1913//the Missionary review. 1915. No. 8. Page 569.
35 See: T.M. Oleynikov. Essays on the history of raskolo-sectarianism in the Voronezh province / / the Voronezh diocesan sheets. Informal part. 1913. No. 48. Since 1307-1308.
36 The Report on activity of the Tambov Diocesan Deiparous and Educational Brotherhood for 1913 Tambov, 1914. Page 24.
37 In more detail about resettlement of Old Believers see: A.V. A.V. "Old belief" in the Central Black Earth: XVII \beginning of the 20th century Kursk, 2008. Page 95-111.
38 GAKO. T. 483. Op. 1. 20. L. 5; A.A. Tankov. From the history of split in the Kursk diocese//Addition to Kursky to diocesan sheets. 1898. No. 17. Page 174.
39 GATO. T. 181. Op. 1. 1150. L. 24-25.

shchenny staroobryadchestvu40. Also contemporaries paid attention to a large number among conservatives of merchants, "given on the capital" 41. Under an assumption of the official of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, conservatives made about a quarter of the total number of persons of a merchant rank in the Kursk province, that is 25%42. As "adherents of old times" made 1.5 — 2% of all population of the region, it turns out that merchants in their environment occurred by ten-fifteen times more often than among officially orthodox.

On the other hand, was Old Believers very little as a part of those social groups which are considered to be the most "Europeanized". So, in the remained "raskolnichy" sheets there is only one surname of the nobleman — A.E. Nozdrachyova from the village of Nozdrachevo Kursky uyezda3. The Kursk Old Believers A.A. Tankov mentions three more representatives of "noble estate" (without calling surnames) in the essay — two noblemen from Rylsk and the landowner-noblewoman from page. Troitsk Oboyansky uyezda43.

Thus, the Old Belief community during the considered period played more significant role at the regional level, than it was represented by official statistics. To approach understanding of this role, it must be kept in mind two main circumstances. First, except officially registered Old Believers who were considered by the mute in Central Black Earth provinces the numerous group of "not inveterate" conservatives comparable on number with the first category remained. Secondly, among "adherents of old times" in a large number the prosperous peasants and merchants noticeably influencing economic life of the Central Black Earth were presented. The Old Belief world covered hundreds of settlements of the Kursk, Tambov and Voronezh provinces, including representatives of different social groups.

OLD-BELIEF SOCIETY OF CENTRAL BLACK SOIL REGION I XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES: NUMBER, SETTLING AND SOCIAL COMPOSITION

A. V. APANASENOK

Kursk State Technical University

e-mail:

apanasenok@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the problems of number, settling and social composition of Old Believers living in Kursk, Voronezh and Tambov provinces in XIX - early XX centuries. The author pays attention to discrepancy of the prerevolutionary statistics to the real dimension of the Old-Belief society in Central Black Soil Region and analyses the reasons of the understatement statistical data. He characterizes factors of the quantitative growth of Old Belief communities, as well as demonstrates significant Old Believer&s role in shaping local classes of merchants and rich peasants.

40 A. Chistyakov. New conditions of church life and split / / Kursk diocesan sheets. Informal department. 1872. No. 11. Page 676.
41 See, e.g.: GAKO. T. 217. Op. 1-2. HH. 709-711; GATO. T. 181. Op. 1. 706, 1150, 2062.
42 RGIA. T. 1284. Op. 241. 23. L. 177.
43 See: A.A. Tankov. From the history of split in the Kursk diocese / / Addition to Kursky to diocesan sheets. 1898. No. 15. Page 149; No. 16. Page 176.
Webb John
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