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The territory and the population of Thessaly in the 20-8th centuries BC.



o. V. Minayev

The TERRITORY AND the POPULATION of THESSALY In the 20-8th Centuries BC

Work is presented by department of ancient history and the Middle Ages of the Tula state pedagogical university of L.N. Tolstoy. The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor V.G. Zubarev

In article the author considers the problem of influence of geographical isolation of Thessaly on the social and economic and political processes proceeding in its territory in the 28th centuries BC

The author of the article views the problem of influence of Thessaly’s geographical isolation on the social, economic and political processes that were taking place in this territory in 20th-8th centuries B. C.

The territory of Ancient Thessaly (08saaad, a) consisted of a number of the deep valleys separated from each other by ridges. The river of the Penalty fee beginning in the highest part of Pindus divided area into two parts from which northern included the Perrebsky height, with the country of Perrebov and Gestiyeotida, and southern which included the Areas of Pelazgiotida, Fessaliotida and Ftiotida, separated from Central Greece the Ofriysky ridge.

Territorial features in an extreme antiquity gave an impetus to division of the country into four areas. In each of the tetrads which are geographically separated from each other for tens of thousands of years, since era of the Middle Paleolithic, there was a process of formation of societies. This circumstance played a crucial role in formation of the federal principles of the Thessaly union subsequently. However usual for the Greek world prakti-

formations of the federal unions took absolutely special form which was expressed in emergence of institute of a tagiya in Thessaly.

According to data of archeology the first traces of homo sapiens in the territory of Northern Greece belong to era of the top paleolith. It will be logical to consider on - chat process of a sotsiogenez of radical inhabitants of Thessaly since the 15th millennium BC. At this time there is an active development of instruments of labor. During the neolytic period agriculture and cattle breeding became widespread that became a result of the settled lifestyle dictated in many respects by the same geographical factor which defined the general vector of development of Thessaly.

At early stages the process of a sotsiogenez proceeded in the isolated Thessaly on an equal basis with other Hellas. However at the end of III - the beginning of the II millennia the breeding world of Northern Greece endured the period of profound internal changes. It was time of death of institutes of a tribal system which was expressed first of all in isolation of the breeding nobility.

Dorian resettlement became the factor which accelerated this process. Having subdued local community, alien tribes provoked a new round of a sotsiogenez, having accelerated decomposition of a primitive-communal system both at conquerors, and at the conquered tribes. Division of society into the full citizens and citizens with limited freedoms but also who reserved the rights for a private property demonstrated decomposition of the tribal relations.

Thanks to plentiful irrigation the country differed in fertility and could prokarmlivat the dense population. On excellent mountain meadows the horse herds glorified in the ancient time from which the known Thessaly cavalry - the main military force of the country was formed were grazed.

Olive that attested in the 17th century BC was one of the most widespread garden cultures. Citizens of Thessalia used olive oil which in Х^-ХШ served centuries as a subject of well adjusted trade. Besides, olives were eaten in the form of fruits.

Wine growing, the culture of fruit-trees, olives, figs, apple-trees was widely developed in Thessaly. In view of fertility of the earth she did not demand big work when plowing. But the fertility of the soil, even at rather low level of the agricultural equipment, yielded so good harvest that allowed even to take out bread from Thessaly to later time.

Data of the epos on agriculture are in consonance to archaeological data. A variety of the cultivated plants and trees, the developed agricultural machinery and a huge role of a cult of the goddess-mother, goddess of the nature at citizens of Thessalia very related topics to agrarian plots which occur in "Illiad", - scenes of rural life on Achilles's board and very frequent parallels between events on the battlefield, or in "Odyssey" where many lines are given to the description of rich fields and gardens basileev.

Distribution of gardening favored to development of individual economy of the farmer, allocation of the grounds which got to it in continuous use. At least, garden sites very much early had to drop out of a circle of the communal lands which were exposed to periodic repartitions in connection with change of list of community members.

The cattle breeding was the second key occupation of ancient citizens of Thessalia. Large and small cattle, horses, donkeys, pigs, various bird - all these types meet in many sources. To development of cattle breeding, and in particular horse breeding, promoted also favorable fiziko-

geographical conditions of the country: thanks to frequent floods of the Peney River, magnificent meadows where herds could be grazed were created.

There are bases to believe that the cattle breeding was conducted not only on privately owned lands as it is possible to observe in economy the Odyssey, but also on communal pastures. It is quite probable that the second way found broad application in cattle breeding of small land owners for whom its pasture on communal grounds was the only opportunity to support cattle. From all sum of lands which were owned by rural community the pastures most longer remained in general use.

According to antique authors, problems of livestock production in different types of economy were not identical. The peasant held the cattle of two types: the worker - for a plowed land used oxen, and the grocery, delivering meat, milk, leather, wool and a horn.

Animals were very appreciated in the Thessaly society, possession of scotomas gave honor, strength, wealth. Indeed, the number of herd and rate of its reproduction not only affected directly fertility of the earth, but also expressed wealth or poverty of any given person in the standard units of exchange.

Among pets especially appreciated cattle. In the 17th century figures of bulls and cows are quite widespread. Also images of large, corpulent bulls and cows are met on many monuments of art of the central and southern Greece. So, the bull which connected is taken away by shepherds is mentioned in "Illiad", the herd of the krutorogy bulls who were attacked by lions is described further. Even epithets which awarded oxen in both poems are suitable as well as possible for the description of figures of bulls on household items of the Achaean nobility. However, in the mentioned scenes on vessels and rings are absent izobra-

zheniye of working bulls: possibly, the powerful lord of Pylos or basily Dend-ra so rose over the people that the image of a plowed land in which the community member plowman or the worker-farmer were engaged seemed to them an unworthy plot for decoration of the jewelry. The last are ornamented with mostly hunting or animal motives.

Thus, in the 20-8th centuries BC the geographical isolation of Thessaly created special conditions for development of the Thessaly society on several directions. First, natural landscape isolation of Thessaly strongly affected formation of psychology of various groups of the population. The tribes living in the valleys surrounded with mountains between which message sometimes was interrupted for several months led the isolated and inactive life that led to education of special Thessaly community.

Secondly, the geographical isolation of Thessaly defined an intensive way of social and economic development of the country. The local community was forced at earlier stage, than in other Hellas, to pass to the making economy by domestication of flora and fauna and also in view of need of more productive hunting to development of weapon. Progress in area of arms reflected also the movement of all social production and complication of the relations in the breeding world of Thessaly. Rather big extent of the coastline allowed to use sea trade actively.

The geographical features which influenced formation of the Thessaly ethnic group to VIII in BC created objective prerequisites to formation of the new military-political union founded on the principles of territoriality.

Gustavsen Ingvild
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