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Category: History


e. N. Evseeva, T.Yu. Krasovitskaya

The USSR In 1945 - 1953:


The victory of the people in the Great Patriotic War revived in society not only lost in repressions of dignity, self-confidence, not only reduced fear of the administration, the official. From the front the people who passed hell of bloody battles, experienced bitterness of loss of friends, daily pictures of death came back. Not smaller tests were endured by people and in the back. The pre-war asceticism which already became habitual was aggravated with burdens of evacuation, restoration of the plants, difficulties of rear life. But joy of the Victory over the most dangerous and strong enemy, and it is frequent also over by itself, gave force to adjust peaceful life.

Transition to peaceful life demanded both from the state, and from people of considerable efforts for restoration of the welfare sphere of the USSR.

Fascist aggressors destroyed 8 4 thousand schools, hundreds of higher education institutions and research establishments, burned and plundered 430 museums, 44 thousand recreation centers, libraries, clubs.

The considerable number of historical and cultural values was taken out by invaders to Germany.

Special attention was paid to restoration and further development of national education. Since 1949 in the country the transition to compulsory 7 years' education everywhere began to be carried out and that is especially important - country people. By 1952 in the Soviet Union the universal 7-year free education was generally entered.

What interests, attachments could be at school students of the first post-war years? The curious information was supplied by questioning of 163 graduates of schools of Chelyabinsk in 1946. A half of young men and girls spent the leisure-time behind reading, a third did sports, and only a small part indicated interest in music and painting. Favourite writers - A.M. Gorky and L.N. Tolstoy (they were called by 1/3 respondents), followed them A.S. Pushkin, M.Yu. Lermontov, M.A. Sholokhov, V.V. Mayakovsky, A.A. Fadeyev, N.A. Ostrovsky. Nobody mentioned disgraced Soviet authors and works by foreign writers. In answers to a question of the favourite literary hero of only 15% questioned called Pavel Korchagin, Andrey Bolkonsky, Tatyana Larina, Natasha Rostova. It is interesting that a part of graduates gave preference to heroes who, in terms of the Soviet pedagogics, could not be an example for imitation in any way - to Platon Karatayev, Ostap Bender, Nekhlyudov, Pechorin. Pulled young people as we see, to difficult

to philosophizing about meaning of life, to attempts to understand extraordinary and "excess" Pechorin...

Recovery of the economy destroyed by war demanded shots of experts with the higher and secondary vocational education. Everywhere in the country new higher educational institutions opened: in Vladivostok, Irkutsk, Novosibirsk and other cities. From 1950 to 1955 50 new higher education institutions appeared. Continuously also the number of students grew. 205.1 thousand people at the plan of 195 thousand came to 194 6 g on the 1st course of higher educational institutions of the country. The competition at receipt was practically not: enlisted all, received satisfactory estimates at entrance examinations. The demobilized veterans also came to student's audiences: in 1946 them was 41 thousand, that is every fifth student was a veteran. It was qualitatively other contingent of students, from them, often not to familiar teachers, experience of war and front life. They were not afraid to ask difficult questions, demanded on them clear answers, but not statement only of Marxist schemes and formulas. What is important, many of them sought to get arts education. In the fall of 1951 in audiences of higher education institutions started classes of 350 thousand first-year students. At the beginning of the 50th in the country worked 8 00 higher education institutions and more than 3 thousand technical schools where over 3 million students studied.

The victory gave also to the intellectuals hope for weakening of ideological dictatorship of the party and state device.

"... Both at the end of war, and right after it, and in the forty sixth year, - the writer K. Simonov remembered, - to quite wide circles of the intellectuals & lt;...> it seemed that there has to be something, moving us towards liberalization..."

However expectations of the intellectuals concerning liberalization of a political regime and expansion of freedom of creativity were insolvent.

In 1946 three resolutions of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee on literary and art magazines, cinematography and theatrical creativity were published. First of all the Stalin mode cleared up how the spheres of culture used in spiritual life have to function most massively. Party documents were prepared by the secretary of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee on ideology A.A. Zhdanov.

From the resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee "About the Zvezda and Leningrad magazines of August 14, 1946:

"Force of the Soviet literature, the most advanced literature in the world, is that it is literature which has no other interests, except the interests of the people, the interests of the state. The problem of the Soviet literature consists in helping the state to bring up correctly youth, to respond to its requests, to bring up new generation vigorous,

believing in the business, not afraid of obstacles, ready to overcome any obstacles. Therefore any sermon of lack of principles, political apathy, "arts for art" is alien to the Soviet literature, is harmful to the interests of the Soviet people. & lt;...>

Lacking ideas, ideologically harmful works were published in the magazine Zvezdy lately, along with considerable and successful works by the Soviet writers a lot of. A gross blunder of Zvezdy is granting a literary tribune to the writer Zoshchenko which performing chuzhdy1 to the Soviet literature. The editorial office Zvezdy knows that Zoshchenko specialized in the writing of empty, empty and trite things long ago, on a sermon of rotten lack of principles, platitude and political apathy, expected on disorienting our youth and to poison her consciousness & lt;. & gt; The hooligan image of Zoshchenko of our reality Is malicious is followed by anti-Soviet attacks & lt;. & gt; The Zvezdy Magazine in every possible way popularizes also works by the writer Akhmatova & lt;...> its poems impregnated with spirit of pessimism and decadence, expressing tastes of the old saloon poetry which stiffened on positions of bourgeois and aristocratic estheticism and decadence, - "arts for art", not wishing to go in step with the people, do harm to business of education of our youth and cannot be tolerant in the Soviet literature & lt;. & gt;"

From the resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee "About the repertoire of drama theaters and measures for its improvement)" of August 26, 1946:

"& lt;...> In theatrical criticism there was an anti-party group of recklings of bourgeois estheticism. & lt;.> These critics lost the responsibility to the people, are carriers deeply disgusting for the Soviet person, bourgeois cosmopolitism hostile to it; they interfere with development of the Soviet literature & lt;. & gt; The feeling of national Soviet pride. & lt is alien to Them;.> It is necessary resolutely, once and for all to finish the liberal connivance to all this arty pettiness deprived of healthy feeling of love for the country and to the people, which do not have nothing behind soul, except malignity and the inflated self-conceit. It is necessary to clear the atmosphere of art of anti-patriotic inhabitants & lt;. & gt;

Playwrights and theaters dolzhny1 to display in plays and performances life of the Soviet society in its incessant advance, in every possible way to contribute to the further development of the best sides of character of the Soviet person, with a special force which came to light during the Great Patriotic War".

The resolution theaters undertook "to put annually not less than two-three high-quality performances in the ideological and art relation on modern Soviet subjects".

From the resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee on the movie "Big Life" of September 4 of 194 6 g:

"& lt;...> The Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) notes that the movie "Big Life" & lt prepared by the ministry of cinematography;...> it is vicious in ideological

political it is also extremely weak in the art relation & lt;. & gt; in the movie party workers are false represented. The secretary of Communist Party organization in the restored mine is shown in deliberately ridiculous provision as its support of an initiative of workers of restoration of the mine can put allegedly it out of ranks of the party. Directors of the movie represent business thus, as if the party can exclude from the ranks the people taking care of restoration of economy & lt;. & gt;"

Criticism objects in the first resolution were "the saloon noble poetess Akhmatova" ("Not the nun, not the loose woman, or rather the loose woman and the nun at whom fornication is mixed with a prayer") and "the petty-bourgeois vulgar person and the hooligan Zoshchenko". Occasions were specified the most ridiculous: M. Zoshchenko was accused of name calling of the Soviet reality on pages of the children's story "Monkey Adventures", A. Akhmatova was reproached with estheticism and decadence. The criticism was followed by organizational conclusions. Writers were expelled from the USSR Union of Writers, ceased to be printed, having deprived, thus, of an opportunity to earn a living. The Leningrad magazine was closed, and in Zvezdy changed an editorial board.

The resolution on music condemning the "antinational" formalistic direction in musical culture appeared later - in February, 1948. Composers whose "music ceased to answer the purpose - to bring pleasure" were specified in the resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee "About the opera "Great Friendship" by V. Muradeli". The "black" list included outstanding figures of domestic musical culture: S.S. Prokofiev, D.D. Shostakovich, A.I. Khachaturian, N.Ya. Myaskovsky.

It is remarkable that all these party decisions made on special questions were submitted for extensive national discussion. Organizing similar campaigns, the power pursued several aims.

First, reminded the intellectuals that the slogan "art belongs to the people", the principles of party membership and a klassovost (method of socialist realism) existing in pre-war years nobody cancelled. The intellectuals - a group of educated people which main point of activity consists in "service to the people". And if "people" do not understand if "it is not necessary for it" any given work, so it is necessary to obey to the main requirement to cultural figures - to create the works clear to the Soviet people. "National discussion" exercised the power as the instrument of impact on mentalities of the most thinking and doubting part (layer) of the Soviet society.

Secondly, giving an opportunity to the population to express aloud, despite of authorities, party bodies thereby promoted an exit of negative emotions at people, bringing themselves out of criticism for post-war unfulfilled hopes and unrealized dreams.

Thirdly, the ordinary Soviet person had a false feeling of "participation" in big-time politics, to decision-making process by supreme authority.

Behind all these studies Stalin's figure was obviously looked through. The leader watched closely novelties of the Soviet literature and cinema. In the Kremlin for it equipped the special hall for watching movies. Stalin managed to keep a distance when holding rabble-rousing campaigns. Initiating them, the leader looked the defender of justice.

Being in apogee of a cult of own personality, the leader was able to afford also some "eccentricities", especially in the first post-war years.

In 194 6 g the Znamya magazine published the story by Victor Nekrasov "In trenches of Stalingrad". The veteran demobilized from army on wound told to readers of "the war". The author became the ancestor of a new genre of the Soviet literature - "trench" prose. The style of statement, the invoice of material differed from the accepted schemes of the image of fighting markedly. The book struck readers with the truthfulness. The same year the story by Vera Panova "Satellites" was issued, too about war "as it is" - without the thought-up heroics, without false pathos. War was shown by the author as "hard work". These stories became symbols of new post-war literature.

And though Panova and Nekrasov's works got Stalin's approval and to them awarded a Stalin award, not they defined the face of post-war art prose. Novels by S. Babayevsky "the Gentleman of Gold Zvezdy" (1947) and "Light above the ground" (in 2 princes, 1949 - 1950), the drawing basten pictures of the past war and heroic everyday life of the post-war collective-farm village became a literary sample of time. Novels by M. Bubennov "Silver birch" (1947) and F. Panferov "Fight for peace" (in 2 princes, 1945 - 1947) and "In the country prostrate" (1948) represented the typical custom works representing events of the recent past in the spirit of solutions of party and government.

In 1947 the party press criticized the novel by A.A. Fadeyev Young Guard published in 1945. Serious shortcomings of the book written by the head of the Union of the Soviet writers were emphasized: "... From the novel the most important dropped out that characterizes life, growth, work of Komsomol, is a leading, educational role of party, party organization". In the new edition of the novel (1951) the writer took into account comments: it showed activity of heads of a party underground of Krasnodon, presented an image of the thoughtful party head.

From straightforwardness, sketchiness of characters of heroes, simplified nature literary works on a so-called "production subject" suffered. The fabrication of similar novels was sharply derided by the poet A.T. Tvardovsky in the late fifties in the poem "Behind a Distance Distance":

The novel will be written in advance,

Will arrive, dust of that will breathe,

Will poke a stick in concrete,

Verifying the first volume with life.

You look, the novel, and everything be all right:

The method of a new laying is shown,

The backward deputy growing before And in communism the going grandfather,

She and he front lines,

The motor started for the first time

Party organizer, snow-storm, break, work involving all hands,

The minister in shops and the general ball.

Close attention of the power was paid to cinema, the most available and the art form which is actually loved by a general population. For the person of post-war society psychologically there was very characteristic desire to alienate itself from the negative memoirs connected with war. Visit of movie theater was the most available form of derivation from reality. Each new movie became an event, people watched them in large quantities time. Display of a number of trophy movies became one of "eccentricities" of party, however, to selfish.

Charges for viewing these movies were enormous. But the Soviet people, especially youth, for the first time had an opportunity to see foreign movies. This event for youth which did not see the abroad, that life which many veterans managed to see became especially significant. Still contemporaries remember movies, popular in post-war years: "Girl of my dream", Tarzan, "Serenade of the solar valley". The romanticism of these movies became an important impulse for many men of the sixties, children of the XX congress as they are called.

From domestic movies I.A. Pyryev and G.V. Alexandrov's comedies were the most popular: "Legend on the earth Siberian" (1947), "Kuban Cossacks" (1950), "Spring" (1947). Movies told about post-war life - joyful, happy, full of abundance. In fact nothing similar was, but plots of movies coincided with moods of the audience: so has to be and so will be. And heroes of these movies already differed from heroes pre-war. The melodrama, original already, but not stilted human feelings became the central core of a plot, despite an obligatory "production background", after all. The post-war viewer fell in love with "The Kuban Cossacks" not for mountains of products which so lacked at him on a table, and for love of the main characters, for the fine songs sung and now. But courageous, dexterous and fair Tarzan also became the cult hero for youth, especially for post-war teenagers. Beauty and elegance M. Rokk admired the Soviet girls.

In these conditions the power began to start a campaign of fight against servility and servility before a foreign influence. The power insisted that preference was given to movies

a historical and biographic genre, devoted to national history, to films about war and a role in it the Supreme Commander Stalin. Movies by directors of G.M. Kozintsev of "Pies" (1947), G.L. Roshal "Academician Ivan Pavlov" (1949) and Mussorgsky (1950), M.E. Chiaureli "Oath" (1946) and "Falling of Berlin" (1949) did not descend from screens of the Soviet movie theaters.

Party censorship strictly watched ideological consistency of the shot movies. The secretariat of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee forbade to release the countries the second series of the movie of S.M. Eisenstein "Ivan the Terrible" in view of it "anti-historicity and anti-artistry". From the film director V.I. Pudovkin shooting the film "Admiral Nakhimov", the Secretariat demanded significant alteration of the scenario and change separate, already finished shooting, scenes. But the real person, his nature, its contribution to history and the culture of the country nevertheless came under the spotlight of directors. The cheerful heroes of Volga-Volga who are skillfully played by great actors, the viewer has nobody was to compare, it was necessary to trust only the director. About Nobel Prize laureate I.P. Pavlov, about the admiral Nakhimov, about the brilliant surgeon and the teacher N.I. Pirogov it was possible to read in books, to compare to what was shown in the movie, to think.

Fought against "formalism" also in the fine arts. The Academy of Arts of the USSR founded in 1947 led by A.M. Gerasimov turned into a stronghold of a method of socialist realism in painting. Demanded the image of the hero clear to the Soviet people from artists. The cloths and sculptures devoted to the leader, the historical past, the past war, peaceful life of the Soviet country were most "through passage".

Were created these years and fine works: A.P. Bubnov's pictures "Morning on Kulikovo Field", Yu.M. Neprintseva "Rest after fight" (according to the poem by A.T. Tvardovsky "Vasily Tyorkin"), A.I. Laktionova "The letter from the front", A.A. Plastova "Haymaking" and "Harvest", a monument to the Soviet soldiers in Berlin the sculptor E.V. Vuchetich.

But in the same years N.V. Tomsky created also a monument to N.V. Gogol in Moscow, so not similar to the former, loved by Muscovites monument pushed far away from eyes in yard depth. The Soviet government needed other Gogol - the author who is not exhausted with own satire burned the "Dead souls". Gogol N. V. Tomskogo, this "general from literature", and until now offers prospect of the Moscow boulevard. Such Gogol was a match very and for a symbol of art of that time - to Stalin's monument Vuchetich's works put on the Volgodonsk canal (on casting of the huge figure of the leader vulgarly 33 t. copper).

In post-war years the science continued to sustain huge losses. Categorical and heartless intervention of party bodies was suffered by many branches of science and

research directions. Practice of planting of negligence to achievements of the western scientific and technical thought continued, the tsitatnichestvo amplified. The whole scientific directions appeared harmful, anti-Marxist.

The discussion of biologists became the most indicative in this regard.

From the letter of the academician T.D. Lysenko to I.V. Stalin of October 27, 1947: "& lt;...> If and on the basis of kolkhoznosovkhozny practice we develop Michurinsk theoretical installations to which we adhere, in the basis are correct, then need to our governing bodies of education and agriculture ripened already to tell the loaded word, to bring a sharp change to education of our shots of biologists, agronomists and cattle breeders & lt;. & gt; I Ask you, companion Stalin to help this to business, good, necessary for our agriculture".

From I.V. Stalin's letter of T.D. Lysenko of October 31, 1947: "As for theoretical installations in biology, I consider that Michurinsk installation is only scientific installation. Veysmanista and their followers denying heredity of the acquired properties do not deserve long to expatiate on them. The future belongs to Michurin".

Support of the leader gave T.D. Lysenko's chance to quietly prepare the draft of the report "About situation in biological science" in which it smashed the scientific opponents. On the eve of the notorious session of All-Union agricultural academy of V.I. Lenin (VASHNIL), in August, 1948, Stalin read this report and made many changes and corrections. 2 on July 7 within an hour he as subsequently Lysenko recognized, "in detail explained. the corrections, instructed how to state certain places of the report". At a session Lysenko's opponents much more capable and the knowing scientists, underwent defeat. A number of the major directions of biology (physiology of plants, the theory of evolution, ecology) both selections, and especially chromosomal theory of heredity of G. Mendel and T. Morgan, were included in the category "antiscientific" and "bourgeois". And it is clear: the theory of heredity was dangerous to class ideology of the Bolshevism.

About 3 thousand biologists lost work. As we see, Stalin's intervention in a biological discussion not only predetermined a personal victory of the president of VASHNIL Lysenko and his adherents over geneticists, but also provided for many years domination of class approach in the research directions, and not only humanitarian.

In a similar key there took place in 1950 the discussion concerning linguistics.

At the request of the leader the Georgian philologist A.S. Chikobava wrote and published in the Pravda newspaper article with criticism of the theory of the linguist N.Ya. Marr (18 64 - 1934).

The academician Marr till 1917 was the famous expert in the field of archeology and learning the Caucasian languages (mainly, drevnearmyansky and drevnegruzinsky). But after arrival of Bolsheviks to the power he was fond of the ideas of internationalism and world revolution and made the so-called "new theory" of language which he called yafetichesky (by name one of bible heroes - Yafeta, the son Noya). One of the main ideas of this theory approved a language klassovost.

Marr's views nearly played before war a tragic role in comparative linguistics which positions were very strong in world science. Many linguists, his opponents, were repressed (for example, E.D. Polivanov is a brilliant researcher of dozens of languages). From final defeat the linguistics was saved only that poorly educated people were Marr's followers (for example, B. Aptekar). Such "scientists" were much more terrible than Marr. Stalin treated Marr's works quite calmly, promoting that Marr became the vice president of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. But on the eve of war its attitude towards Marr was changed.

Business was that industrial development of the country demanded uniform education for all population. The network of schools with education in non-russian languages already from the second half of the 30th was steadily reduced, and the network of schools with education in Russian - increased. The "internationalist" background of "the yafetichesky theory" did not help any more, and interfered with development of this difficult and ambiguously estimated and today process. Introduction of a general compulsory education including in rural areas (and the non-russian people in the majority were also villagers), aggravated the questions which are brought up in Chikobava's article.

In the environment of the scientific philological community Chikobava's article caused confusion and a controversy who is right and who is mistaken. But summer of 1950 three articles of Stalin devoted to a discussion were published in the Pravda.

We will give the floor to the leader:

"Since Pushkin's death there passed over hundred years. The feudal system, a capitalist system were during this time liquidated in Russia and there was the third, socialist system. So, two bases with their superstructures were liquidated, and there was a new, socialist basis with its new superstructure. However, if to take, for example, Russian, then it for this wide interval of time did not undergo any withdrawal pains, and modern Russian on the structure a little in what differs from Pushkin's language".

"They say that the numerous facts of crossing of languages taking place in the history give the grounds to assume that when crossing there is a formation of a modern language by explosion, by sudden transition from old quality to new quality. It is absolutely incorrect. Crossing of languages is impossible

to consider as the single act of decisive blow yielding the results within several years. Crossing of languages is the long process continuing hundreds of years. Therefore about any explosions there cannot be a speech here".

"It [Marr] was only the simplifier and the vulgarizer of Marxism & lt;...> the discussion helped business as well in the respect that it opened ideological tears in the Soviet linguistics".

To experts, as well as many thinking people far from linguistics, it became clear that Marr's followers and his school of sciences are beaten that it is about new policy. The scientific community had to patch tears in knowledge of Marxism once again with great dispatch.

That it is about new policy also many ordinary people, still nothing knowing about "the yafetichesky theory" perfectly understood. The wonderful Soviet writer F. Abramov in his novel trilogy Pryaslina about the fate of the Russian village has an episode when the chairman of collective farm Lukashin gets on a regional meeting on linguistics: "There was a wish quicker in partkabint, there was a wish most to esteem with own eyes. Read. Looked in a window - there was a rain, looked at Stalin in a uniform of the generalissimo and began to read again: time is a program of party and the people for the next years, has to it though something to understand in this program. A little Lukashin calmed down after talked to Podrezov. Undercuts did not play upon words. And on his question, what conclusions from works of companion Stalin on language practicians need to draw, we will tell them, to chairmen of collective farms, answered directly:

& #34; Вкалывать"".

Certainly, affected outlook of the leader nauchnotekhnichesky break of the USA and Great Britain in development of physics and creation of atomic weapons. After war Stalin realized that progress in science and technology depends not only on the "advanced" ideology, but also on financing of scientific developments. During the election campaign of 194 6 g at elections of deputies to the Supreme Council of the USSR Stalin emphasized: "... I am sure that if we render the due help to our scientists, then they will manage in the near future not only to catch up but also to surpass achievements of science outside our country". Tough political calculation of Stalin, his preparation for "Cold War" was behind these words.

The fact is that and over scientists-physicists the danger not less terrible, than over biologists geneticists hung. However the storm cloud passed them. In August, 1945 the Special committee as a part of L.P. Beria, G.M. Malenkov, N.A. Voznesensky, B.L. Vannikov, A.P. Zavenyagin, I.V. was created

Kurchatov, P.L. Kapitsa, V. Makhneev, M.G. Pervukhin. The leadership in all works on was assigned to committee "

to use of intratomic energy of uranium". The Nauchnoissledovatelsky industries subordinated to Beria were brought out of a zone of criticism and persecutions on scientists. And it is clear: many of them worked on creation of atomic weapons.

In 1947 in the USSR the world's largest synchrophasotron for a research of atomic particles took effect. In the spring of 1953 questions of the leadership in all special works "on the nuclear industry, the Golden Eagle and Comet systems, long-range missiles" were in addition assigned to committee. New, knowledge-intensive, technologies were applied mainly in defense industry during creation of new samples of arms. Pragmatical motives of the power are very logical and clear. However these technical innovations and technologies were fenced off from the civil sector of the industry by a privacy wall and therefore could not affect a little seriously the technical potential of production in general. Science funding in the budget of the country of 194 6 g increased three times, scientists of all spheres got considerable rise to salary.

However bodies of state security watched all outstanding Soviet scientists, making on them the detailed files including features of psychology of sponsored. On all scientific institutions, so-called "courts of honour" on which scientists had to sort and analyze the scientific behavior swept. Often business was not limited to it: also their behavior understood private life, in life. And though these "courts of honour" did not exist in Beria's department, materials after all gathered for scientists.

KGB characteristics of the academicians making color of domestic science of post-war years are curious. The vice-president of Academy of Sciences of the USSR I.P. Bardin "in life does not communicate with scientists, owing to excessive greed of his wife". The mathematician I.M. Vinogradov "is unsociable, is not erudite in other fields of sciences, & lt;. & gt; the bachelor, takes alcohol in considerable doses". The geologist A.N. Zavaritsky "on character is quarrelsome, leads a secluded life". The physicist I.V. Kurchatov "on character of people the reserved, careful, cunning and big diplomat". The president of Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1945 - 1951 physicist S.I. Vavilov, the brother of N.I. Vavilov, the largest geneticist repressed in the 30th "is politically ready loyally, in the address is ordinary, in life is modest".

A notable loss of spiritual life, development of cultural and science of the country at the end of 4 0 was put by fight of the authorities against cosmopolitism. It for a long time dropped prestige of the winner country of fascism in world public opinion.

The Soviet encyclopedic dictionary of the 50th explains that "cosmopolitism" - "a reactionary sermon of refusal of patriotic traditions, independence and national culture & lt;...> is the back and masking aggressive

bourgeois nationalism". The campaign begun by Zhdanov "against servility before a foreign influence" was transformed to fight against cosmopolitism. The Soviet Jews became subject to persecution.

Many Jews belonged to elite of the Soviet science and culture, held important state posts. In the campaign which is developed from approval of the leader the factor household antisemitizma1, present at various layers of the Soviet society was considered. At the meeting of the Secretariat of the Central Committee of party on February 3, 1948 which was taking place under the chairmanship of G.M. Malenkov the resolution "About Dissolution of Associations of the Jewish Writers and about Closing of Almanacs in the Jewish Language" was accepted. The main blow fell upon the Jewish Anti-fascist Committee (JAFC) which made during the war the significant contribution to fight against fascism which had the international contacts.

The Chairman of the Committee, the head of the State Jewish theater in Moscow, the people's artist of the USSR S.M. Mikhoels was killed, and members of the committee are arrested. In total on "business of EAK" in 1948 - 1952 110 people were repressed (are sentenced to execution and various terms of imprisonment).

In January of 194 9 g. The organizational bureau of the Central Committee of party made the decision to begin cosmopolitism exposure. The Pravda newspaper published article "About One Anti-party Group of Theatrical Critics" which served as the beginning of a campaign.

During the whole year there took place personnel cleaning in all ministries and departments, the scientific organizations, the editorial offices of newspapers and magazines: from everywhere expelled Jews. Even the Ministry of State Security of the USSR underwent cleaning on national sign. The shadow of suspicion fell also to the closest associates of Stalin. On "business of EAK" arrested and condemned Molotov's wife - to P.S. Zhemchuzhin. Molotov was exempted in March, 1949 from duties of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the USSR. Jew Kaganovich together with Andreyev and Voroshilov, married to Jews, were discharged by the leader of the solution of particular cases.

In a narrow circle in December, 1952 Stalin introduced the idea that "any Jewish nationalist is an agent of U.S. intelligence. Jewish nationalists считаю> t that their nation was saved by the USA (there it is possible to be the rich man, the bourgeois, etc.). They consider themselves obliged to Americans".

Stalin's death in the spring of 1953 stopped a flywheel of the state anti-Semitism.


1 Anti-Semitism - one of forms of national and religious intolerance which is expressed in hostility towards Jews.

The maintenance of spiritual life and orientation of cultural processes in the USSR in the first post-war years show that after the victory in war the supreme authority did not make the program of its liberalization. It was also not going to change it. Hopes of the intellectuals were vain. The speech also could not go about any liberalization because the former ideological doctrine - Marxism-Leninism in a Stalin way - as the only base of the individual power of party remained.

The party still sought to keep not only the power over the huge country, but also to dominate over each personality, her will, its interests, its aspirations to find out clear answers to "time calls", its attempts to change the life, to construct own future.

The new wave of ideological campaigns for fight against "servility and servility before a foreign influence", cosmopolitism, lack of principles, a new wave of repressive measures against doubting and dissatisfied became the reply of party to growth of critical moods of the population, especially creative intellectuals, and creative search in science, literature and art.

Thus, and "calls of time" for most of people remained unknown. Only pictures unknown to them "the foreign world", one - from stories by veterans, to others - from trophy movies which were quickly rejected by party propagandists as hostile, ideologically alien, etc. flew before many. "Cold War" gained steam, and the party demanded from society of new efforts for a victory and in this world outlook fight.

In a number of the directions the Soviet science and culture were rejected for decades ago because of the deaf curtain which fenced off the domestic intellectuals from scientific and technical and cultural achievements of the West. "Russia is the homeland of elephants", - contemporaries bitterly sneered. The Soviet textbooks claimed that not Stefenson, but the father and Cherepanova's son constructed the first engine, not brothers Wright, and our compatriot Mozhaisk lifted the first plane into the sky, opposed Michurin's works to "the reactionary doctrine" of biologists Veysman and Morgan, etc. Scientific theories of the western scientists appeared harmful, the address to them was possible only from critical positions.

However there were also those who, having passed the front, having visited abroad, came to student's audiences. Freedoms brought by them air and a critical spirit connected in minds and hearts of people to own knowledge of life, own expectations and feelings of the opportunities. All this, connecting, turned into the most difficult spiritual atmosphere which the ideological oppression of the Stalin mode was not able to suppress completely.

Stalin's death revived hopes. The XX congress approached.

Sources and literature


Power and art intellectuals: Documents of RCP(b) of the Central Committee - the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), Cheka - OGPU - People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs about cultural policy of 1917 - 1953 of M., 1999.

N.S. Khrushchev. Memoirs. M, 1997.


V.M. Alpatov. History of one myth: Marr and marrizm. M,


Volkogonov D. Stalin: Political portrait. Prince 2. M,


Thunders E.S. Stalin: power and art. M, 1998.

E.Yu. Zubkova. Post-war Soviet society: policy and daily occurrence. 1945 - 1953. M, 2000.

Soviet society: emergence, development, historical final. T.2. Apogee and crash of Stalinism. M, 1997.

Dahlberg Jonas
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