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From team of the chronicle - to the military story: reflection of the initial stages of development of military science in Old Russian literature of the 11-16th centuries

BIBLIOSFERA, 2010, No. 2, page 33-37

Bibliology -

UDC 821.161.1&04 - 31 BBK 83.3 (2 Dews = Rus) 1 - 44


© S.N. Lyutov, 2010

State Public Scientific Technical Library of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences 630200, Novosibirsk, Voskhod St., 15

Historical and cultural factors of origin in Ancient Russia of military annals and formation in Old Russian literature of a genre version - the military story are analyzed.

The article analyzes historical and cultural factors of the origin of military chronicles in ancient Russia and the formation a genre variety in ancient Russian literature - war stories.

Search of data on the initial stages of history of the book, naturally turns researchers to ancient literature and sources of origin of a knizhnost, revealing at the same time some contradictions. The maintenance of contradictions is caused by versatility of the book as difficult welfare phenomenon, and a set of conceptual approaches in its judgment. If to proceed from formal idea of the book as the stitched block of a certain volume, then for establishment of an initial boundary of its history it is enough to find out time and conditions of emergence. If to study the book from positions of intrinsic approach, considering as means of reflection of objective reality and a way of development of public consciousness, then it is necessary to track development of public views in any given field of activity and extent of their reflection by means of writing or book business that will allow to judge the book not only on its material and constructive signs, but also to differentiate on functional purpose, tipo-specific accessory and other intrinsic and specific signs.

Having aimed to generalize data on written ways of reflection of early stages of development of military science and to analyze historical prerequisites of emergence of the military book, we will adhere to intrinsic approach as deepening in the history of the Russian military book leads to understanding that printing this is

pu time of long evolution of a military subject in folklore and in Old Russian writing preceded, and to study these phenomena, relying only on formal ideas of the book it is impossible.

In the majority of the published works on history of literature of H1-HU11 of centuries the military subject is reflected, as a rule, in a context of genesis of the Russian historical fiction. It quite objectively as use of military force at that time was constant and universal. Noting the place of this subject in Old Russian literature, D.S. Likhachev emphasized that "it very much is characteristic and important for it, and for the Russian history is considerable" [5, page 9].

At the time it is very interested the famous researchers of history of Old Russian literature A.S. Orlov treated studying ancient works of military subject (About features of a form of the Russian military stories (finishing 17th century). M, 1902, Heroic subjects of ancient Russian literature. M, L., 1945), S.K. Shambinago (Stories about Mamayevy slaughter. SPb., 1906), V.P. Adrianova-Peretts, D.S. Likhachev, A.N. Robinson (Military stories of Ancient Russia. M, L., 1949), N.V. Vodovozov (Russian military story of the 13th century of M., 1958). Modern scientists find new aspects in the history of literary monuments, such as, in dissertation researches of G.P. Enin Povest about victories of the Moscow state (again found monument Old Russian literatu-

ry 17th century). L., 1980, M.V. Melikhova (Old Russian military stories: problems a syuzhetoslozhe-niya and ideological and art transformation of a genre in literary and hand-written tradition Х^Х^П of centuries SPb., 2003), etc.

Military historians also could not ignore the work of antiquity, revealing the real historical data allowing to recreate the military history of Ancient Russia on particles. The most interesting and substantial work in this plan - "The review of the hand-written and printing monuments relating to the history of military art in Russia for 1725" (SPb., 1853) of N.N. Obruchev. Comparison of estimates of the early works of military subject stated by results of literary and military and historical researches will allow to get, in our opinion, more objective idea of extent of reflection by means of writing and a knizhnost of development of military science in Russia.

In historico-literary researches, apparently even from names of the listed works, all compositions of geroiko-patriotic subject up to the 18th century were generalized, as a rule, by the term "military stories", and only in A.S. Orlov's works the concepts "druzhinny princely chronicles", "druzhinny literature" are used [8, page 3-4]. In our opinion, such allocation of the earliest military chronicles in separate group is represented quite appropriate as in terms of chronological measurement as allows to isolate in a seven-century era of military stories the first military chronicles, and for the analysis of works of writing as a way of reflection of high-quality changes in development of military science at the initial stages. At the same time A.S. Orlov does not isolate druzhinny chronicles from military stories, but allocates them as the initial stage of military annals in the course of formation of an Old Russian historical fiction.

Chronologically he connects the period by "team" of literature which existed on an equal basis with usual "book" with "a beginning of the Russian feudalism" and "military elements" sees the first in the most ancient of the reached historical chronicles, including in "The story of temporary years". End of the period by team of the chronicle is correlated to "Tale of Igor's Campaign" which A.S. Orlov calls "a remarkable sample" team of literature [8, page 4]. Thus, there are bases with a certain share of temporary convention to designate a chronological framework of development by team of the princely chronicle since the end by the XI in XII century Besides, important argument of designation of an initial boundary emergence in Russia in the 11th century of the translated "History of Judaic war" of Iosif Flavia who okaza-is

la considerable influence on the subsequent literature, first of all - on chronicles and military stories [6, page 9]. Definition of the 12th century as the finishing boundary in the history by "team" of literature is confirmed by a position of N.V. Vodo-vozov who begins statement of the next period of history of the Russian military story of the 13th century with "The story about fight on Kalka", noting that this story "appeared from team of the environment... also it is very close in the ideological relation to & #34; To the Word about regiment Igoreve"" [1, page 25].

In the most ancient literary monuments the military chronicles were an integral part of the historical narration in which the main character - the prince, was involved with the team in internal civil strifes or in military collisions with the aggressors encroaching on Russian lands. The value of druzhinny chronicles for further evolution of a military subject in Old Russian literature is, according to A.S. Orlov, that in them the peculiar template of the description of fighting collision which connected the most resistant fragments was created: "in force tyazhets", "radiating with anger", shine of an armor "a yak the sun", "and byst the secha is evil", "arrows to an idyakh, like a rain", "blood to a techasha, a yak the river", the dead "to a pada-h, a yak sheaves", etc. [8, page 4]. Similar stylistic execution of the first works in which the living language and oral poetry intertwined with knizhnost elements first of all church, became typical for military chronicles and stories.

Military and historical analysis of the first druzhinny chronicles is more reserved. N.N. Obruchev, referring to "Researches, remarks and lectures about the Russian history" M.P. Pogodina in which third volume all places from the "Stories of temporary years" relating to military science of Slavs are chosen represents "in brief result which could be brought out of them" [7, page 9]. Follows from its review that the general name for army was howl that the main major part howl the team which was council of the prince that all howl, and in particular team made, had the right for participation in production. The team used total freedom, arrived as wanted in all cases, except service. Each prince had the team; voivodes besides had also adolescents. The voivode was the chief voyev after the prince. Concerning an image of warfare, it is known that war was declared ("I want on formal terms an ita"); weapon consisted of swords, copies, arrows, knives, sabers, armor and boards. The camp where soldiers stopped, was sometimes dug round. To fight the army was divided into three parts: middle, right and left wing. Battle there began the prince; in fights the opponents split swords. As a result the weakness ran or was locked

in the city which was besieged or taken by storm ("vzya a hail a spear").

The revealed estimates of the druzhinny chronicles which entered the most ancient of the reached literary monuments - "Povest temporary years", we will consider by the initial level of evolution of a military subject in the context of history of Old Russian literature and the first experience of influence of a knizhnost on reflection of military reality. Literary monuments of the next centuries will give us additional material.

The most characteristic monument team of literature A.S. Orlov the "Word about the regiment Yoke roar" devoted to an unsuccessful campaign of Igor Svyatoslavovich Novgorod-Seversk to the Polovtsian earth in 1185 called. Origin "Words..." from team of the environment he proves "excellent knowledge the author of the mezhduknyazhesky relations, proximity to life of princely brotherhood, the general tone of the chivalrous eagerness to fight expressed by terms and metaphors of military use, the slogan of military valor and glory" [8, page 33]. Studying stylistic features of this literary monument shows that the author "Words.", preferring live, oral speech, used also the refined expressions characteristic of translated works, showing, thereby, acquaintance to "book" style and building, as a result, oral poetry "to extent of education written, to extent of art" [8, page 35]

Paying tribute to literary advantages and the high ideological orientation of "Tale of Igor's Campaign" which was expressed in an appeal to a unification of the Russian princes before the accruing military threat, we will note that in terms of reflection of actually military science this work shows more aggressive pathos, than reliability. Characteristic of the Russian army comes down to the figurative description of external manifestations of eagerness to fight: ".moi Kuryane dashing equestrians, under pelenata pipes, under shelomam are cherished, are raised by the end of a spear; roads are known to them, ravines are familiar to them, onions at them flexible, quivers open, sabers are ground, only and know that to ransack as gray wolves in the field, looking for honor, and the prince of glory" [4, page 107]. In the same style also battle with Cumans is described: "About Russia, already you went down downhill! Chu winds, Stribogova grandchildren, blow from the sea arrows on brave shelves Igorev! The earth shivers, the rivers mutno flow, dust on fields creeps, banners skrypit, Cumans go from Don and from the sea, and Russians surrounded regiments from all directions. Children devilish protected with shout of the field, and brave sons of Russia blocked crimson boards. Ardent tour Vsevolod! You stand in front lines, pryshcht on soldiers arrows, knock on helmets their swords damask; where

a tour galloped the golden helmet sparkling, the nasty heads Polovtsian lie there; helmets Avarian are shattered by your tempered sabers." [4, page 107]. Referring to these extracts, N. Obruchev fairly considers that this monument of Old Russian literature "explains our military science in the ancient time a little"; in it, "except calculation of weapon which was owned by our ancestors, it is possible to notice only that the physical force and single fights were the main deystvovatel in fights" [7, page 10-11].

Similar assessment is deserved also by other literary monuments of military subject of the end of HP-HSh of centuries, the best of which, undoubtedly, are "Povest about fight on Kalka", "Povest about ruin of Ryazan Batyem", and "Povest about courage and life of the prince Alexander Yaroslavovich Nevsky". Without going into details of discussions of historians of Old Russian literature on these works, we will note some summarizing moments. These narrations appeared from team of the environment, having kept lines team of the princely chronicle; in them obviously ideological similarity, and often and loan of stylistic elements of "Tale of Igor's Campaign" [1, page 25]. At the same time these stories show the increasing penetration into their stylistic registration which is based on folklore, elements of a translated and Russian church knizhnost and, as a result, in the literary form all of them more differ from the traditional annalistic story, marking, thereby, consecutive development of a military subject from team of the chronicle to the typical military story. N.V. Vodovozov's assumption concerning authorship and the name of the story about Alexander Nevskom whose essence in what pervooriginat this work was druzhinno-military is characteristic in this plan, and processing was monastic from where and the dual name "Povest." and "Life." [1, page 112].

Continuity from the princely chronicle to the military story is confirmed also in the analysis "Stories about ruin of Ryazan Batyem" by D.S. Likhachev who considered that this story is created on the basis of the lost chronicle supplemented with national legends which "not only supplied to the author with the main information, but also defined an art form of the story, having told her both local color, and mood depth, having selected also art means of expression" [2, page 141142]. Noting a reasonable combination in the story of elements of a knizhnost and folklore, D.S. Likhachev emphasizes that "the author made not the bylina and not a historical song, but in the book work he resorted only to those book art means which did not contradict its own national vku-

>, and to those means of national poetry which could be entered into a knizhnost without resolute withdrawal pains of all book system of creativity of the Middle Ages" [2, page 142].

A specific place in the history of Old Russian literature is held by the military stories devoted "to Mamayev to slaughter" - Battle of Kulikovo on September 8, 1380 in which the joint Russian army gained a historical victory over the outnumbering army of the khan Mamaya. "Za-donshchina", the short and extensive annalistic story and "The legend on Mamayevy slaughter" enter a so-called Kulikovsky cycle. The same cycle is adjoined by "Sergey of Radonezh's Life" and "The word about life and a prestavleniye of the grand duke Dmitry Ivanovich". Many issues of their literary history, especially chronological order, remain controversial that in principle does not influence regarding our analysis - reflection by means of the developing knizhnost of new elements in development of military science.

In terms of bigger commitment of book tradition, authors of these works of opinion of researchers, in general, coincide. So, S.K. Shambinago who at the beginning of the 20th century "tracked, as far as possible the literary history of stories about Mamayevy slaughter" allocated the following: "Entering the material represented by oral legends into contents, stories use besides all stock of writing of that time: editors quote various books of the Scripture, are familiar with a set of lives of Saints, by them there does not pass any large literary monument (Alexandria, Povest about Tsaregrad's capture and so forth)" [10, page IV]. In the last quarter of the 20th century L.A. Dmitriyev, noting a close interlacing in literary monuments of the Kulikovsky cycle of elements of folklore with methods of book rhetoric, characterized Zadonshchina as "the book and rhetorical work with pronounced church and religious coloring", and saw a stylistic originality of "The legend on Mamayevy slaughter" in "association within a uniform poetic phrase of turns oral and epic in character with book and rhetorical images and phrases" [3, page 347, 350-351]. These estimates demonstrate, the increasing penetration of elements of a knizhnost into military stories. Book nature caused their popularity at Old Russian readers and long life as works of writing: "Manuscripts in a large number were produced for sale, illustrated, read, obviously, by all classes of society. Reflecting in itself changes in public and political life, stories became the work quite modern, and it

the circumstance even more expanded a circle of their readers" [10, page IV].

At military historians "The legend on Mamayevy slaughter" became the axiomatic work [9]; fragments from it and other stories of the Kulikovsky cycle in one form or another are widely used in military and historical works. But that is remarkable, as literary critics did not ignore elements of especially military character. So, S.K. Shambinago emphasized that ". it is impossible to disregard instructions for two moments of fight, for a role of a zasadny regiment, on distribution of voivodes in the field of fight, on a case with the grand duke" [10, page VI]. It demonstrates that the policy strokes used by the grand duke Dmitry and voivodes on the eve of and during Battle of Kulikovo are reflected in editions "Legends." it is so realistic that they are noticeable even for the researcher who does not have special knowledge from the field of military art.

Along with receptions, typical for military stories (military appeals, a hope on the God's help, the description of weapon, figurative comparisons of battle with a thunderstorm, and soldiers with birds, etc.) in "the Legend." new policy strokes which essence is clear even to the modern reader are shown. First of all, it belongs to the organization of investigation (guard), to the choice of the place of battle and creation of a fighting order (arrangement of regiments), allocation of a reserve (zasadny regiment). In particular, there are concrete mentions of a parcel of sentry outposts with a task to see the advance Tatar parties and to define their intentions. The sentry regiment carried out the task, got the notable captive (language) who reported that Mamay already approached Don and expects approach of allies: "Nowadays bo the tsar is on Kuzmin corduroy roads, does not hurry ubo, but expects Olga Ryazan and Yagayla Lithuanian". These data helped to define the place of battle. On the Council of War it was decided to be transported through Don, to burn bridges that was not any thinking of retreat and to take the place, favorable to battle. Arrangement of regiments was very careful - "till the sixth o'clock", at the same time the most reliable regiment with skilled voivodes as a reserve was taken away in an ambush - "a green oak grove". Night before battle is presented by the author as "test will accept", but, in fact, it is a way of investigation as at night sounds are heard more distinctly, and fires allow to specify arrangement of the opponent concerning the troops.

The description of Battle of Kulikovo, its outcome and value are very in detail commented by many experts. Let's consider some estimates characterizing a literary maturity of military stories of the 15-16th centuries and their influence

on further evolution of a military subject. So, M.V. Melikhov, supplementing the analysis of stories of the Kulikovsky cycle with scrupulous studying "The story about capture of Tsargrad by Turks" 1, notes, along with expansion of a circle of book sources, formation of "etiquette formulas of the military narration" [6, page 10]. The logic of his reasonings brings to a conclusion that the traditional Russian military story reached in XV - the beginning of the 16th century of apogee in the development as, according to him, "in the second half of the 16th century the destruction of etiquette in a genre of the military narration begins what with evidence confirms & #34; Kazan история" - synthesis of the epos, chronicle and military story" [6, page 15]. Such assessment, especially regarding "destruction of etiquette in a genre of the military narration", is represented, in our opinion, not quite reasonable. The situation, not on time, and in fact, is similar to evolution of a military subject at a boundary of the 12-13th centuries, but nobody finds the bases to claim that military stories of the 13th century destroyed any formulas created in team of the princely chronicle and presented in "Tale of Igor's Campaign". Undoubtedly, some elements "leave" a genre, are replaced new, but it not destruction, but development. Equally as at a boundary of the 12-13th centuries the active penetration of elements of a knizhnost caused new shape of the military story in comparison with druzhinny chronicles, and in the middle of the 16th century the military story gained new quality owing to certain stylistic and subject changes and also because of expansion of a circle of documentary sources and the increasing preference authors of real historical events and the facts. These changes are noticeable also in "The Kazan history", and in military stories of the 17th century, but it is the subject of the separate analysis.

In conclusion, we will try to summarize the presented generalizations about evolution of a military subject in Old Russian literature and extent of reflection in the Russian military stories of real events of history and elements of military art.

First, the stare on evolution of a military subject in the context of history of Old Russian literature taking into account some conclusions and opinions of historical and literary and military and historical character gives the grounds for allocation of three

the periods in the history of the Russian military story: the initial stage (11-12th centuries) was the period of origin of a genre of the military story in the form of druzhinny princely chronicles; the second period (XIII - the beginning of the 16th century) is characterized by development of the traditional Russian military story in the classical (reference) samples peculiar to this genre; in military stories of the third period (from the middle of XVI to the 18th century), along with typical templates of the military narration there are elements on which the new literary genre - the military and historical novel will be created subsequently.

Secondly, the genre of the military story appeared on merge of two traditional currents: oral national legends about military events of ancient Russian history and the developing knizhnost, both translated, and the Russian church. In process of penetration of elements of a knizhnost into traditional annals, stylistic receptions were improved, and reflection of military events and military science changed towards bigger realness.

List of references

1. N.V. Vodovozov. Russian military story of the 13th century//Uchen. zap. T. 87. Kaf. Russian litas of the Issue 7. - M.: [b. and.], 1958. - 181 pages
2. Military stories of Ancient Russia. - M.; L., 1949.-358 pages
3. Dmitriyev L.A. Literary story of monuments of the Kulikovsky cycle//Legend and story about Battle of Kulikovo. - M.: Science, 1982. - Page 306-359.
4. For the Russian land!: Monuments of literature of Ancient Russia of the 11-15th centuries - M.: Sov. Russia, 1981. - 518 pages
5. Who with a sword: Three works of Old Russian literature XSh-XV of centuries - M.: Young Guard, 1973.-128 pages
6. Melikhov M.V. Old Russian military stories: problems of a syuzhetoslozheniye and ideological and art transformation of a genre in literary and hand-written tradition of XV-XVSh of centuries: avtoref. yew.... Dr.s filol. sciences. - SPb., 2003. - 32 pages
7. N.N. Obruchev. The review of the hand-written and printing monuments relating to the history of military art in Russia for 1725. - SPb., 1853. - 151 pages
8. A.S. Orlov. Heroic subjects of ancient Russian literature. - M.; L.: Academy of Sciences of the USSR publishing house, 1945. - 143 pages
9. Anthology of the Russian military history. - M, 1947. - 640 pages
10. S.K. Shambinago. Stories about Mamayevy slaughter. - SPb., 1906. - 190 pages

Material came to edition of 28.01.2010

Information about the author: Sergey Nikolaevich Lyutov is a doctor of historical sciences, professor, ph.: (383) 266-26-30, e-mail:

1 This story in this article in detail is not considered as does not answer the subject of our analysis - to reflection of development of military science in Russia.
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