The Science Work
History
Site is for sale: mail@thesciencework.com
Category: History

Worthy display of a two-centuries way of the higher medical education in Kazan and values of the largest Kazan medical schools



BIBLIOGRAFIYA And REVIEWS

worthy display of a two-centuries way of the highest

MEDICAL EDUCATION IN KAZAN AND VALUES of the LARGEST KAZAN MEDICAL SCHOOLS

The high ability to generalize historical events is inherent only in their true experts, and two solid books published in recent years in Kazan devoted to the deep analysis of development of the higher medical education numbering two centuries in this wonderful city - the real feat of group of the authors who are highly appreciating the alma mater.

Paying tribute to the biographic dictionary which appeared in 2004 under edition of the prof. V.Yu. Albits-kogo and the academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Science prof. N.H. Amirov, we will consider in the present review new fundamental generalization of these scientists in collaboration with professional. A.S. Sozi-novym and the prof. A.B. Gallyamov - & #34; History of Kazan State Medical Universiteta" (Kazan, prod. & #34; Магариф" 2006) that, undoubtedly, has to find the display on pages & #34; Kazan medical журнала".

Undoubted difficulty to take the most considerable events which were taking place for the last two centuries from the richest history of the well-known Kazan university and dynamics of transformations of medical faculty and to estimate their value, it is successfully overcome by authors of the called book. Logical was an essence of deep objective approach to activity of a number of the largest Kazan scientists in the field of medicine for the expired centuries. The constant aspiration of authors to allocate the main milestones of development in Kazan of the largest original medical schools, to light their evolution and to estimate value is characteristic. In general it forces the reader to belong to this work as an important event in the history not only medicine of our country, but also the analysis of world medical heritage.

From the analysis in the first two chapters of sources of medical education in Kazan (1804-1836) the authors pass to statement of its development during N.I. Lobachevsky's era. Dedicated work of the first professors who put cornerstones of the higher medical education in Kazan during an era of the great reforms which occurred with accession in Russia of the emperor Alexander II, in particular after a statement by it in 1863 the university charter about expansion of powers of council of the university and the rector is covered in initial two chapters laconically and at the same time rather thoroughly (with a mention of the most outstanding events in development of medical faculty of the university).

The number of students sharply increased in Kazan. Characteristic of activity of F.H. Erdman and K.F. Fuchs, pupils of the last - I.S. Dmitriyevsky and K.V. Pu-pyreva and also the first professor of medicine in KA -

zan of I.P. Kaminsky, the first elective rector of the Kazan university prof. I.O. Brown and some other scientists allows to understand sources of formation of medical faculty.

The chapter 3 contains detailed consideration of activity of medical faculty at the end of HS - the beginning of the XX centuries. As it was mentioned, the outstanding role in development of the Kazan university belongs to the ingenious scientist, his rector with 1827 on 1846 N.I. Lobachevsky, the creator of non-Euclidean geometry. Its amazingly far-sighted scientific and vigorous organizing activity caused the subsequent development of the largest schools of sciences of the university, including creation of the well-known medical schools. The major incentive to progress of medical education in Russia were activity of the St. Petersburg medico-surgical academy and work of the great scientist - the surgeon N.I. Pirogov.

At the Kazan university in 1858 the department of physiology was headed by F.V. Ovsyannikov whose works were combined with neuropharmacological researches (A.A. Sokolovsky), located large school of chemists (N.N. Zinin, A.M. Butlerov, V.V. Maher-kovnikov, A.M. Zaytsev), astronomers (M.A. Kowalewski), biologists (N.P. Wagner), mineralogists and geologists (N.A. Golovkin, A.A. Shtukenberg), etc. The large therapeutic school of N.A. Vinogradov developed (since 1863) - the founder of the Kazan society of doctors, the territorial medicine developed. Since 1868 anatomist P.F Lesgaft, the bright representative of the functional direction, stood up for introduction of female medical education (since 1872). At departments, offices - pharmacological (I.M. Dogel), hygienic (I.P. Skvortsov), the museum of pathological anatomy (A.V. Petrov) and some other were formed. In Kazan, microbiological researches (N.M. Lyubimov, N.F. Vysotsky, I.G. Savchenko, V.K. Menshikov), bases of sanitary business developed. It is important to note activity in those days of students' scientific society in which many future coryphaeuses of domestic medicine were brought up. Patrons I.I. Alafuzov, Ya.F Shamov and other merchants built by the beginning of the XX century in Kazan buildings for large clinics.

Thus conditions for the period which is very logically generalized in chapter 4 under the name & #34 were created; Golden Age Kazan medical школы" (1863-1917). In it the main data on development of the well-known schools - anatomic (E.F. Aristov, P.F. Lesgaft, V.N. Tonkov, N.D. Bushmakin and dr), physiological which in are stated

HGH after N.O. Kowalewski was headed a century by N.A. Mislavsky who was studying central nervous system together with V.M. Bekhterev and trained such physiologists as K.M. Bykov, I.P. Razenkov, D.V. Polumordvinov, A.V. Kibyakov, M.V. Sergiyevsky. The Kazan neurohistologic school (K.A. Arnstein, A.S. Smirnov, A.S. Dogel, D.A. Timofeev, A.N. Mislavsky, B.I. Lavrentyev) became world-famous. Together with the Spanish school of great Ramón Kakhal they conducted long-term polemic with the German neurohistologists (F. Shter, etc.) - adherents & #34; ретикулярной" theories of the structure of nervous system also gained the win sealed in an age of the electronic microscopy which showed details of the structure of synoptic communications. The famous English scientist Langley, the French neuromorphologists, etc. was closely connected with citizens of Kazan in the researches

The department of medical chemistry or as now it is called, biochemistry, in 1863 was founded by A.Ya. Danilevsky. Its morfofunktsionalny researches of proteins are classical. As the academician of ANT prof. D.Y. Zubairov noted, A.Ya. Danilevsky's researches devoted to destructions of erythrocytes were conducted by means of the centrifuge invented by it. He confirmed existence in a brain of the centers detaining & #34; reflective движения" on warm-blooded animals, worked on studying sechenovsky braking. A.Ya. Danilevsky's successor head of the department of medical chemistry became

A.Ya. Scherbakov. He, besides, together with the pathologist A.V. Petrov wrote the book & #34; Notes about territorial medicine in Kazan губернии" (1871), generalizing the principles of development of this progressive method of health care in Russia in general. At the end of HGH of a century this department was headed by A.A. Panor-mov who developed the doctrine about diabetes developed earlier in Kazan in clinic by N.A. Vinogradov.

Large researches at medical faculty were conducted by the given scientist I.M. Dogel who studied influence of many pharmacological funds for various functions of an organism, including the neurofabric relations. The analysis of development of pharmacology was carried out at the university

B.H. Boldyrev, I.P. Pavlov's pupil. As volunteers during experiments at department of pharmacology young doctors and students, including A.D. Speransky, S.V. Anichkov, B.I. Lavrentyev participated. Let's notice that according to the charter of 1863 the department of pharmacognosy and pharmacy was provided, but its activity did not differ in special achievements up to teaching the doctor of medicine on it

V.V. Nikolaev, who, still being a student, could show that vagus nerves have the two-neural building.

At faculty there was a department of the general pathology (pathophysiology) run by V.V. Pashutin - the founder of this discipline in Russia. He created

model of cardiovascular pathology, and in the subsequent objects of study became a hypothermia (A.N Horvat), fagotsitoz (I.G. Savchenko who created departments of a pathophysiology in a number of the cities of Russia). A.V. Petrov mentioned above and his successor N.M. Lyubimov created school of a patanatomiya, and the subsequent pathologist F.Ya. Chistovich headed & #34; Kazan medical журнал".

The forensic medicine was taught together with hygiene in the beginning, and then, since 1869 for the first time in the country organized independent department of hygiene, under the leadership of A.I. Yakobiya. In the subsequent her managers A.Ya. Scherbakov, outstanding hygienists I.P. Skvortsov and M.Ya. Kapustin created doctrine bases on this branch of preventive medicine.

Certainly, the gold fund of medicine the integral and main part includes illumination of clinical disciplines, and N.A. Vinogradov, N.A. Kotovshchikov, A.N. Kazem-Beck, M.N. Cheboksa-rov, N.K. Goryaev, A.G. Teregulov, S.S. Zimnitsko-go, V.F. Orlovsky's activity and some other therapists deserves the separate detailed analysis. Works of heads of surgical departments - A.N. Beketov, N.F. Vysotsky (he developed also otorhinolaryngology), N.A. Gerken, L.L. Levashin, N.I. Studensky, V.I. Razumovsky have not smaller value (at the same time he created the Saratov, Tiflissky and Baku universities). He made also neurosurgical operations together with L.O. Darc-shevichem and was a teacher of large surgeons - P.I. Ti-Hove, V.L. Bogolyubova, I.A Praksina, etc. The medical faculty of the Kazan university became famous for such outstanding clinical physicians as obstetricians A.I. Kozlov, K.F. Slavyansky, V.M. Florinsky (founder of the Tomsk university), N.N. Fenomenov and V.S. Gruzdev who created the largest school of obstetricians of Russia. V.M. Bekhterev's activity - the famous neurologist, the psychiatrist and the founder of the Russia's first neurosurgical institute had world value (after moving to St. Petersburg). In 2007 the 150 anniversary since the birth of this great scientist will be celebrated. Continuing the list of large clinical physicians of Kazan, it is necessary to call psychiatrist V.P. Osipov, ophthalmologists E.V. Adamyuk and A.G. Agababov, the dermatologist A.G. Ge, pediatricians N.A. Tolmachev, P.M. Argutinsky-Dolgorukov, neurologists D.P. Skalozubov, L.O. Darkshevich.

The history of development of medical education after 1917 entered a new stage of the existence. Years of formation of medical education during the Soviet era and transformation of faculty of the Kazan university to medical institute are covered in two subsequent chapters saturated with the richest materials.

Deep, sometimes the tragic reorganizations which came in the heaviest years of civil war, not

could not affect activity of the university. In the book which appeared under the editorship of V.Yu. Albitsky, N.H. Amirova the extreme difficulties in life of the university, the city and country taking place in 1917-1922 - time of revolutionary shocks are et al. objectively displayed. 1922-1929 - the period of final demolition pre-revolutionary and formation of the Soviet higher school are allocated. When white in September, 1918 left Kazan, it was left by many professors and teachers, most of students of the university. As the historian of the Kazan university V.S. Korolev, & #34 writes; the great campaign of educated public on the East..." began;. My teacher - the prof. A.N. Mislavsky noted that similar reaction to change of the power was also in other university cities including in the capital where scientists sought to go abroad. Here a fragment from the letter of the April 4, 1920 received by it from Army medical college of Petrograd from the great Russian scientist - the creator of the unitary theory of blood formation of professor A.A. Maximov: & #34; Alexander Nikolaevich Mnogouvazhayemy!... Very long time ago I have from you no news. I here somehow live, somehow I work, but it is possible to print nothing. I will be very glad to receive from you news. Truly yours And. Максимов". Soon the prof. A.A. Maximov emigrated from Russia. "Driven to despair by living conditions in January, 1922 the Moscow professorate went on strike", - authors of the reviewed book write and provide the list of many scientists who left Kazan in difficult years.

At the Kazan university by 1927 there were only physical and mathematical and medical faculties, others were liquidated. In response to ruin, epidemics and a difficult economic situation emergency measures on restoration of medical education were taken. Along with expansion of enrollment of students and involvement of youth to management of higher education institution were open Clinical institute (GIDUV is later), traumatologic, trakhomatozny and tubercular institutes and also the Tatar research institute of theoretical and clinical medicine are organized. The youth in those difficult years aspired to a profession of the doctor. It is undoubted that experience of a number of the large professors who remained and also come back to Kazan (V.S. Gruzdev, V.M. Aristovsky, S.S. Zimnitsky, E.M Lep-sky, M.N. Cheboksarov, V.L. Bogolyubov, A.V. Vishnevsky, V.V. Chirkovsky, V.N. Ternovsky and many others) played the crucial role in restoration of level of medical education. For example, the academician A.A. Bayev who was in the 20th years the student of medical faculty of the Kazan university excitedly told me about the high level of classes at department of the histology directed by A.N. Mislav-sky, especially in the B.I group. Lavrentyeva. As if bewitched, students listened inspired

Boris Innokentyevich's explanations, not only drew medicines, but also painted cuts. In this way perceived these classes and N.G. Kolosov who remained at department of histology the teacher and, despite all difficulties, with enthusiasm was engaged in scientific work, publishing together with G.I. Zabusov and I.F. Ivanov articles in magazines & #34; Zeitschrift fuer mikroskopische-anatomische Forschung" & #34; Anatomische Anzeiger" etc. The founder of domestic electrophysiology F.F. Samoylov wrote down the Russia's first electrocardiogram. A.V. Vishnevsky developed a method of a local anesthesia, the surgeon V.L. Bogolyubov wrote the country's first textbook on the general surgery. Great discovery of oxidizing phosphorylation was made in Kazan by V.A. Engelgard-tom, and other krupneyshey opening - participation of the chemical intermediary in interneural communications was made by A.V. Kibyakov that gained the global recognition on the XV International congress of physiologists headed by academician I.P. Pavlov in Leningrad in 1935. Works of citizens of Kazan A.D. Speransky, K.M. Bykov, S.V. Anichkov were included into gold fund of medicine. It should be noted that else in 1930 the medical faculty of the Kazan university, having separated from it, began to be called as the Kazan state medical institute to which in post-war years (1966) the name was appropriated

S.V. Kurashova.

The history of medical institute in Soviet period is in detail stated in the reviewed book and names of such managers of departments as A.F. Agafonov, S.M. Alekseev, M.P. Andreyev, M.I. Goldstein, I.V. Domrachev, E.A. Domracheva, M.A. Erzin, I.V. Zaikonnikova, V.V. Izosimov, V.P. Kamchatnov, N.N. Lozanov, B.L. Masur, Z.I. Malkin, P.V. Manen-kov, V.V. Miloslavsky, N.P. Medvedev, V.N. Murat,

A.E. Ozol, I.M. Oksman, L.G. Svatko, K.A. Svyatkina, N.V. Sokolov, A.G. Teregulov, V.H. Frauchi, A.H. Ha-midullina, I.F. Kharitonov, V.N. Choubin, T.D. Epstein, are memorable to thousands of doctors - graduates of our alma mater.

Activity of departments of institute during 1930-1994 is covered in the chapter 6. The organization of faculties and new all-institute departments is shown, special attention is paid to activity of institute in days of the Great Patriotic War when a set of hospitals began to be headed by the staff of medical institutes of Kazan (including GIDUV). In the years of war about two thousand doctors whose more than a half left on the front were trained. Scientific work concentrated on the help to wounded in their treatment, restoration of the lost functions, anti-epidemic work. Names of the employees who died on fronts and also the list of veterans of war are given in the book.

In post-war years veterans and mno-came to ranks of students grown wise the endured years

gy of them supervised the public work at faculties and courses. and also headed departments. One of the most active rectors of institute prof. R.A. Vyaselev participating during the war in liberation of Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Austria actively participated in revival & #34; Kazan medical журнала". It also realized the idea of opening of the Central research laboratory - the USSR's third after Moscow and Leningrad. Opening of CNIL considerably stimulated work of employees on doctoral and master's theses in connection with concentration in it the valuable expensive equipment. It is also necessary to note that 18 veterans of war managed departments. At the description of post-war years of life of institute are covered in the book the organization of dental faculty and development of new departments up to 1994 when the official resolution Kazan medical is in details described. the institute of S.V. Kurashov received the name of the Kazan state medical university.

The come reorganizations in the field of licensing, certifications and accreditations of medical education, introduction of paid training, changes in the sphere of post-degree education of doctors led to a number of significant changes which authors analyze in the chapter 7 of the considered book. Certainly, here it is necessary to continue search of optimal solutions that it is fairly noted by authors in the summary of final chapter.

The book is enriched with valuable materials in the form of a number of applications: bibliographic data, data on rectors and administrations of the transformed medical faculty of the Kazan university during all its bicentennial history, structure of departments and courses, their development. The 10th application containing memoirs of graduates of the university is of great interest.

As for comments on the book and the possible prospects of studying history of the higher medical education in Kazan, follows, obviously, to strengthen and add with examples of penetration of the ideas of the Kazan scientists into work of many institutes of the country (including RAS) statement 10 & #34; посылок" about a role of the Kazan medical schools. In this regard the next monograph - the book generalizing data on development of the major Kazan medical schools in our country and abroad is relevant. In essence, this third book is even necessary as it will continue huge long-term work of the historical researches imprinted in two fundamental historical publications mentioned in the beginning of the review under the editorship of the prof. V.Yu. Albitsky and the academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Science N.H. Amirov, etc. (2004, 2006). The book can be published in the subsequent and in English as world fame of the Kazan medical schools

arose at the beginning of the XX century. For example, in the book of 2006 it is fairly mentioned global value of opening of the Kazan physiological school, at the same time the world popularity was gained also by the Kazan neurohistologic school opposing in the first half of the XX century together with the Spanish school of Ramón Kakhal the German school F. Shtera, the nervous system defending the so-called reticular theory of the building. The Kazan school won, having protected the neural theory, and carried out long & #34; война" scientists-theorists brought huge benefit not only to physiologists, but also neurologists and psychiatrists, i.e. clinical physicians. Works of the Kazan neurohistologists were closely connected also with the largest scientists of England (Langley, etc.) and France. Achievements of the Kazan neuromorphologists were constantly published in the central, issued then generally in German magazines & #34; Zeitschrift fuer mikroskopische - anatomische Forschung" & #34; Anatomische Anzeiger" etc. Annual cooperation with the German morphologists continues so far. In 2003 for collaboration in Nuremberg the prestigious award is got. Similar collaborations are conducted also by other representatives of the Kazan medical schools in different countries. The history of their cooperation in historical aspect and can be described today both the Kazan scientists, and the graduates of Kazan working in Moscow, St. Petersburg and other cities. By the way, it is necessary to make the amendment to the description of scientific heritage of the academician. V.N. Ternovsky's Russian Academy of Medical Science - the largest historian of medicine. Statement that it & #34; the initiator of the new scientific direction on study vegetative nervous системы" it cannot be recognized as correct. On the contrary, according to the lights it developed and continued the true scientific direction of the Kazan neurohistologic school. It is known that data on world value of this school founded by the prof. K.A. Arnstein contain in books by B.I. Lavrentyev, N.G. Kolosova,

V.N. Shvaleva, etc.

In this regard, along with recognition of world value of the Kazan physiological school in the long term it is possible to disclose more widely value of the well-known Kazan neurohistologic school, distribution of activity of her pupils and their schools as in the country (Moscow, Leningrad-St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Cheboksary, Samara, Saratov, Volgograd, etc.), and in the former federal republics and abroad. For example, in St. Petersburg systematically there study the international forums - Kolosovsky readings in functional neuromorphology (in May, 2006 the fifth took place, the largest on coverage of the works presented from the different countries - Russia, France, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Belarus, etc.). For the last decades in Saransk three international symposiums Russian neuromor-took place

fologichesky society of the name B.I. Lavrentyeva, where the scientific USA, Germany, Poland acted. Further publications about value of the Kazan neuromorphological school are expedient. New monographs about large figures - founders of the Kazan medical schools and their followers are necessary.

The prof. D.M. Zubairov possesses the most valuable historical materials about development of biochemical school of academicians V.A. Engelgardt and A.A. Bayev, creation of own school of biochemists. It possesses opening of continuous fibrillation. This subject can also decorate the estimated trilogy about value of the Kazan medical schools, as well as the description of school of the academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Science A.D. Ado and some other the well-known Kazan schools. It is necessary to light activity of new scientific Kazan school of the emergency children's surgery, in the latest time which is successfully developed under the leadership of the doctor of medical sciences L.M. Mirolyubov (the pupil of surgical school of professors N.P. and V.N. Medvedev).

In the last decades the special progressive influence on development of scientific work of the university was got by activity of department of occupational health and occupational diseases. Created in pre-war years (S.M. Aranovsky, 1939), it developed vigorous activity in the middle of the last century. After management of department of Sh.H. Zhdanov it up to 1981 the prof. V.P. Kam-chatnov who gave to her current rector KGMU to the academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Science N.H. Amirov directed.

The school of sciences created by N.H. Amirov which defined new methodical approaches to the solution of problems of medicine of work and industrial ecology, including cancerogenic and mutant danger of certain productions chose the most relevant and progressive path of the deep analysis of nevrogenny influences in the conditions of different types of occupational diseases recently. Carrying out continuity of the general direction of the Kazan medical schools, N.H. Amirov directed researches of violations of vegetative regulation of functions of an organism, in particular among users of vidiodispleyny terminals. It was shown that the subjective discomfort is connected with treason -

niya in the nervous centers which are carrying out regulation of functions of an organism with adverse features of a microclimate of jobs. This direction is most relevant when accounting a certain social stress peculiar to many countries in the conditions of economic difficulties and fight against the terrorist phenomena today, and only at some institutes of the country, in particular in St. Petersburg under the leadership of the academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Science of Artamonova, similar researches are conducted, however at the Kazan medical university this direction arose earlier and is carried out most thoroughly that should be analyzed as creation of progressive school in studying occupational diseases with involvement of the theoretical departments studying problems nervous traffic (physiology, histology, biochemistry, etc.).

Thus, need of end of the trilogy about medical schools of Kazan for last two centuries ripened now.

The large contribution to process of formation of the called medical schools undoubtedly brought & #34; Kazan medical журнал" based more than a century ago. His high authority among doctors of Russia, versatile coverage of the major events in development of clinical disciplines in XX and the beginning of HH1 of centuries played the major role in strengthening of the authority of the Kazan medical schools. It is necessary to pay tribute to work of the editorial board of the magazine which is strictly selecting the most significant and perspective works which draw attention not only of clinical physicians, but also many theorists. Development of a number of large creative undertakings in medicine is continuous within century took place with the participation of this well-known oldest magazine. Its activity is also worthy the deep historical analysis.

So, book & #34; History Kazan state medical университета" (2006) it is unique on the value as for domestic, and world medical science as contains the valuable scientific historical generalizations allowing to track a fruitful way of development of medicine in Kazan since first decade of H1H of a century.

Prof. V.N. Shvalev (Moscow)

Ricardo Bryant
Other scientific works: