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Category: History

Phenomenon of historical consciousness and feature of its study

a. A. Sidelnikov



Work is presented by department of a technique of training of history and to social science.

The research supervisor - the candidate of pedagogical sciences, professor V.V. Barabanov

In article various approaches to studying problems of historical consciousness in a historico-philosophical context are opened, the main positions of domestic and foreign philosophers and historians are allocated. Characteristic of the social and psychological aspects of historical consciousness affecting structure of beliefs of the personality and also on formation value is given

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relations to the past. Results of a special social research of modern ideas of graduates of high schools of the history of Russia are presented.

In this article are submitted various approaches of a historical and philosophical context of studying of problems of historical consciousness, basic positions of domestic and foreign philosophers and historians are allocated. The characteristic of social - psychological aspects of the historical consciousness influencing structure of belief of the person, and also on formation of the valuable attitude to the past is given. There are results of special sociological research of modern representations of graduates of high schools about a history of Russia.

A practical research of level сформированное™ historical consciousness - difficult and multistage process. Owing to versatility and discrepancy of scientific interpretations of intrinsic and structural characteristics of this spiritual education, a number of the questions connected with determination of its content is in a preliminary stage of study. The relevance of studying a problem of content of historical consciousness is directly connected with the fact that owing to a large number of various reasons caused by the social processes which are taking place in modern society, some elements of historical consciousness can be mobile. So, in the late eighties social researches in the USSR fixed sharp differences of the emotional relation of the population by the whole historical periods for a short period under the influence of mass media. Historical consciousness for many people remains the specific navigation system in the world from this point of view of history, including both the znaniyevy, and emotional and value bases, defining at the same time some behavioural features.

The information field of a research of a problem of studying a phenomenon of historical consciousness is in several adjacent fields of knowledge, the most important of which are history and philosophy.

In the western scientific tradition the similar rapprochement was designated by the cross-disciplinary approach in studying history proclaimed representatives of the French school of "Annals" (M. Blok, F. Brodel, L. Febvre,

Zh. Le Goff), considering a story as global science about the person in society which has to study the past in organic unity of all elements making it. In the Russian historical science the concept "historical consciousness" was repeatedly used still scientific

XIX centuries, in particular those who dealt with issues of the theory of historical process and sociohistorical knowledge (V.O. Klyuchevsky, A.S. Lappo-Danilev-sky, M.I. Kowalewski, N.I. Kareev and many others). In scientific literature of the Soviet period the concept "historical consciousness" was almost not discussed as according to provisions of historical materialism the conventional forms of public consciousness appeared only political, legal, esthetic, moral, philosophical, religious and scientific consciousness. Studying other possible forms of consciousness was not welcomed and actually not initsiirovalos1. Contrary to the similar formalistic bans, it is necessary to refer emergence of "historical consciousness" to the Soviet period as independent scientific problem.

Concerning essence of historical consciousness there are many various points of view, it is possible to carry the following to the most representative.

The researchers believing that understanding by people of social time is the cornerstone of historical consciousness treat the first group. As A.Ya. Gurevich, "wrote... in society there is always not some uniform "monolithic" time, and the whole range of the social rhythms caused by regularities of various processes and

nature of separate human collectives..." 2. "Only interface of all modalities of time (that is possible only because of the present) is able to transfer a statics of reminiscence and contemplation to dynamics of goal-setting and anticipation", - M.A. claimed Barg3.

It is possible to carry the researchers considering that social memory is the cornerstone of historical consciousness to the second group. So, Yu.A. Levada considered that, ".analiziruya historical consciousness as one of the memories elements of society (social organism), we have an opportunity to see defined a zakonomer - Nosta in the ratio of different types of this consciousness." 4.

In the field of pedagogics the interpretation of a phenomenon of historical consciousness was undertaken by I. Rolfes and I.Ya. Lerner. If. Rolfes approached a phenomenon of historical consciousness through containing - ny, considering that it consists of positive knowledge and well-known interpretation, of the proved conclusions and deep-rooted prejudices, I.Ya. Lerner defined historical consciousness as the system of the historical knowledge and methods of knowledge which became beliefs of the personality, installation and the instrument of cogitative and practical activities of the personality, turned on judgment and assessment last and modern social deystvitelnosti5.

The entrants of higher education institutions who professionally decided on the sphere of interest and decided to arrive on humanitarian faculties where history is one of profile objects belong to one of the groups which are of special interest in the sphere of a research of historical consciousness. So, for the purpose of study modern

representations of entrants of faculty social to a naukRGP of A.I. Herzen about the history of Russia the questioning in which 56 people took part was carried out from June 30 to August 30, 2006. During questioning it was necessary to find out:

1. How well modern entrant knows history XX of Russia of a century and what questions of character will be raised at it by the greatest difficulties.
2. What sources for obtaining information on any historical events it uses.
3. What factors influence its relation to the history of Russia.

The average time of filling of one questionnaire was from 35 to 50 minutes. Each questionnaire included 50 questions which were grouped in two semantic blocks: in the first block the questions connected with identification of actual level of the historical knowledge arriving, in the second directed to clarification of their emotional and value relation to the history of Russia were carried. Besides the specified division of the questionnaire into two semantic parts, the subjects of local groups of questions created on the following bases were defined: history and present, family and history, school and education.

The history of the country in the 20th century. By drawing up the substantial block of the questionnaire, questions from the collection of tests of the centralized testing of 1997 on stories for the 11th klassa6 were used and for 2005-2006 7 Average size of the correct answers from the presented eight groups of questions were 48.7% (tab. 1) of the collection of control measuring materials of the unified state examination in history that is low pokazatablitsa1

Distribution of answers of entrants on the temporary periods of history

The time period in the history of Russia in the 20th century presented in the questionnaire by appropriate questions 1905-1917 1917-1920 1920-1930 1930-1940 1940-1950 1950-1970 1970-1990 1990-2000

Average sizes of the correct answers on the temporary periods of history XX of Russia of a century, % 42 46 57 41 48 58 48 50

a tel for level of training of the entrants arriving on faculty where history acts as one of professional objects.

Considering small group of respondents and also the fact that check of actual level of historical knowledge of entrants can become a subject of a special research, certain regularities by results of answers to record Uda - an elk. Results of the tasks directed to check of the actual material: places, circumstances, results of historical events - showed up to 70% of the correct answers. The tasks directed to ability to group historical events in the set sign received up to 60% of the correct answers. The greatest complexity (up to 40% of the correct answers) was caused by the tasks directed to establishment of the chronological sequence where knowledge of historical eras, the definition of any given event by the corresponding historical period demanding the appeal to contextual knowledge is important.

School and education. High 58% of respondents consider the knowledge, 27% answered in the negative, 15% found it difficult to answer. At the same time at 93% of grade in history in the school certificate "4" both "5", and only 65% are ready to give themselves such marks.

As definition of the key factors promoting deeper understanding history at lessons at school, several possible answers among which it was necessary to choose, in their opinion, the most important were offered entrants. On the first place the sequence and logicality of statement of a training material (66%) was put; to the nonlearning work connected with history 55% of votes were given, depth of the analysis of the studied facts, events, the phenomena received 40%, communication of the studied material with the present - 35%, the personal attitude towards the teacher of history - 23%, novelty of a training material - 11%. In the five of the main sources

about any historical events, on a five-point system the following entered: on the first place the entrants put scientific literature (4.02), ranked second lessons and textbooks of history (3.47), the third place was received by documentaries (3.45), the fourth place was taken by the handbooks on history demanded on the eve of the examinations for going to the universities, fiction got the fifth place (3.25).

History and present. The questions concerning identification of interaction of history as fields of knowledge with its manifestation at the level of ordinary life entered into this group. Whether on the first question of the questionnaire "Are interested you the history of Russia?" 98% of respondents answered in the affirmative, from them 56% noted that this interest is very high, and only 2% expressed opinion that history interests them a little. The need for historical knowledge is felt by 100% of respondents, and only 42% noted that they have not enough for ordinary life of that historical knowledge which they possess, at the same time 50% are more often than five times for the last month in communication with the family, friends, acquaintances and strangers touched upon the subjects connected with history, and only 2% answered that they never lifted similar subjects.

At the answer to the question "What Is Your Interest in History Defined by?" several options were offered entrants. The interest in history of 64% of respondents was motivated with the fact that its study helps to learn the truth about the past and to overcome possible mistakes in the future. Opinions that studying history helps to understand the modern socio-political phenomena and the fact that strong knowledge of history allows to conduct the reasoned discussion in the disputes connected with historical subject gained the equal number of percent of the vote (43%). 45% of entrants noted that knowledge acquired in the course of studying history is necessary for them in future profession.

Family and history. 92% of respondents answered positively the question "Whether Your Parents Tell You about Your Grandmothers and Grandfathers?". In 50% of similar stories moral assessment of events prevails, in 30% of cases the similar stories represent an interlacing of plots and the actual material, and only 18% of similar stories are the facts with the exact indication of time of an event and its details. Nevertheless on the question "Whether There Was at You a Complete Picture of History of Our Country on the basis of History and the Fate of Your Family?", 69% answered positively, besides that stories by relatives took only the sixth place (2.96 points) in a question of the five of the main sources

about any historical events.

One of the most considerable events

Centuries, affected almost each family in Russia, Great Otechestven - Nye war of 1941-1945 became XX . For updating of this subject at the local level the questionnaire included several questions, related. In a question of how there passed the Great Patriotic War through the fate of your closest ancestors: parents, grandfathers, great-grandfathers, it was offered to entrants to note answers all answers concerning any of their relatives. At 77% of respondents the immediate family was at war during the war at the front, at 50% served or worked in the back, at 48% was in blockade in Leningrad, at 32% was wounded, at 27% someone from the immediate family was missing, at 20% was wounded or was killed in battles, at 16% died in war or soon after war of wounds, at 14% was in evacuation, at 7% was in concentration camps, at 6% was at war in guerrilla groups. And only 2% from those who filled out this questionnaire were at a loss with the answer that demonstrates that events of 1941-1945 concerned most of respondents. At the same time answered the question "Whether the Facts of Participation of Your Relatives in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 Are Familiar to You?" of 48% that

know about some (three-five facts), and 42% answered that they well know about many (five and more) facts.

Analyzing historical consciousness as one of elements of memory of society, we have an opportunity to see certain regularities in the ratio of different levels of this consciousness, to make out social myths, inevitable or necessary for certain conditions of a public system. The analysis of such contradictions, along with identification of actual level of historical knowledge interviewed allows to draw conclusions about osoben - nost of their historical consciousness and as a result - about behavioural stereotypes.

Low level of historical knowledge of entrants at their steady interest in the history of Russia shows that this gap will be inevitably reduced, but it does not mean at all that at the expense of those sources of information which were noted as the main: scientific literature, classes and textbooks on stories. This conclusion confirms an example when 69% of respondents expressed opinion that on the basis of history and the fate of the family they had a complete picture of history of Russia, indirectly disproved by the answer which showed that stories by close relatives about history take only the sixth place as the main sources of information. At the same time history of family is a key factor in the analysis of ordinary level of historical consciousness. So, events of the Great Patriotic War affected families of 98% of respondents, having defined their value relation to this event, at the same time 90% expressed opinion that they know about three and more facts of participation of their immediate family in events of 1941-1945. However the real historical knowledge imparted in the course of family communication often has emotional and unsystematic character and is capable to place at best psychological accents and to define the value relation to any given fact,

but they cannot create a complete picture of history of the country.

Certainly, influence of the educational environment on formation of historical consciousness is big. At the general interest of entrants in the sequence and logicality of statement of a training material, 55% of respondents gave the preference to nonlearning work, understanding that selection of contents and result will entirely depend on their efforts.

Being difficult spiritual education, historical consciousness demands consecutive and thoughtful study it

contents, direct and indirect manifestations. Subjects of a ratio of public and individual historical consciousness, a role of various historic facts in its formation, ratios of ordinary and scientific-theoretical levels of historical consciousness still are in the sphere of interest of special social researches. Need of similar study is caused by the importance of the appeal to history each person and importance of understanding of mood of modern society, for the purpose of prevention of social explosions of various character.

1 V.A. Eljchaninoye. Historical consciousness. Barnaul, 2002. Page 7.
2 A.Ya. Gurevich. Time as cultural history problem//philosophy Questions. 1969. No. 3. Page 112-113.
3 Barg M.A. Eras and ideas. Formation of historicism. M, 1987. Page 6.
4 Yu.A. Levada. Historical consciousness and scientific method//Philosophical problems of historical science. M, 1969. Page 193.
5 I.Ya. Lerner. Historical consciousness and conditions of its formation//Teaching of history at school. 1988. No. 4. Page 19.
6 Zaytsevo T.V., G.I. Slutskaya, M.T. Studenikin. Tests. History of Russia. The 11th class. M, 1997.
7 Unified state examination: history: control. will measure. materials: 2005-2006 / Under a general edition of O.V. Volobuyev. M, 2006.
Francisco Hampton
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