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Category: History

Filosoviya of "secret societies"


E.V. Osipov Moscow

It is rich with both scientific achievements, and secrets 20th century. One of them is the freemasonry which fingers the mysteriousness minds of many researchers. The labyrinth of fantastic hypotheses in which historians of freemasonry, still, in effect were long lost is not quite destroyed, besides all history of freemasonry is covered with a veil of secrecy.

In the history of mankind there were always certain circles which had considerable impact on the people as by means of the knowledge, and contacts, thereby they persistently stamped a current of history. Perhaps, the strongest impact on social development was made by church by means of the structures hidden in the basis, so-called "secret societies" which, using forms and methods of influence on mentality of people, subordinated them to the will. It is possible to carry the award of masons created at the time to this secret society.

The true origin from which the movement of masons appeared is a working guild of bricklayers who in Europe erected the well-known constructions of a gothic style. For this purpose extensive architectural and static knowledge was required. Therefore first bricklayers were very loved and respected at the people. Also the origin of a symbol of masons is explained by it: compasses, a corner and lot - just the most typical working tools of the bricklayer.

Bricklayers united in separate groups which moved over the countries, offering inhabitants the services. Before the main construction they at first equipped the place for accommodation and rest - I lay down.

And every time when builders left the area of construction of buildings, before a look of people arose surprising on beauty, convenience, design of the building. It affected most of the people as if sorcery. The best bricklayers of guild carefully protected the "secret" knowledge of architecture. Any stranger could not comprehend construction secrets. It was actually forbidden to write down any information about remeslostroitel, their skill, life, hobbies, traditions. It became one of the reasons of why we till today so know about masons and their rituals a little.

Inclusion in structure of a box first was allowed only handicraftsmen. In HUI of century began to accept in them also honorary members which had other professions and were especially respected. Thus, a late great number of kings became brotherhood of an award. The more there was a box, the creation of its "organization roof" was more important. It occurred in practice in 1717 in England at formation of "A big box". The centers of masons it is possible to call England, Ireland and France at this time. Masons were active also in Germany.

Considerably position of masons when in Europe the reform of church was made changed. As a result of this reform the rights of Catholic church were considerably limited, obstacles were especially delivered to excessive extravagance and a number of unseemly cases of clergy. During this period the need for construction of the buildings glorifying God was sharply reduced. Thereby, the bricklayers traveling everywhere became not really necessary to society.

The field of activity of "quick" bricklayers significantly decreased. Boxes had to look for other field of application of the abilities if they did not want to die. Organizational association of bricklayers led to the fact that boxes turned into the debatable centers of the liberal thought. "Free" bricklayers created places of collecting for liberal people who actively criticized power and public structures. At the same time, from open debating clubs the special group of masons (secret order) with absolutely other purposes and the decentralized form of the organization which worked, as a rule, was allocated it is reserved.

In the book "Freemasonry and its Ancient Mystic Rites" Ts.V. Ledbiter (1847-1934) - during lifetime the recognized theosophist under the name of Helen Blavatski - it is very detailed approaches a research of the organization of masons, Masonic thinking and emergence of rituals. He emphasizes that the ideas of masons proceed from the mystical doctrine applying for disclosure of special divine secrets, this eclectic connection of mysticism of the Buddhism and other east exercises with elements of an okkultiya of heterodox Christianity.

Today it is difficult to prove from where originates development of this award. Most likely, its beginnings are lost in antiquity fog. Ledbiter generally refers to mythological ideas of the beginnings of the Egyptian culture - he proceeds from sudden appearance of the prophet in 40,000

This prophet who was to the ancient people allegedly directly thanks to action of divine force, taught them to the main manifestos of the Egyptian divine world and told them about an origin of the universe. He learned the population to practice of a cult and postponed a print of a system of mystical circles which citizens could enter, passing examinations. Ledbiter emphasizes that there were always two ritual levels: in the beginning all public "external rituals" practiced, but at the same time also internal rituals which could not be available to the ordinary citizen because of not knowledge were held. Here he sees a parallel with beds of masons whose high levels were also open only for the chosen circle.

Further transfer of these thoughts Ledbiter investigates through Cretan myths and, at last, Jews and Romans who can be considered responsible for expansion of ideology in Europe. Transfer of internal rituals followed carefully only in an oral form to the elected follower.

A little later with fall of the Roman Empire and the increasing Christianity the end of publicly practiced rituals came. In 399 Teodozius issued the decree which ordered to destroy all scenes of action and institutes of "heretics" and their belief to eradicate. Thus, late Masonic ideals had to practice in absolute identity and be transferred to avoid church prosecution.

The fact that in boxes influential persons as honorary members were accepted led to politicization of masons. They devoted themselves more to both more charitable and social aspects in society, especially in America.

Immigrants who in most cases because of prosecution left Europe flight expected freedom and prosperity of their personality from the new world. The disappointment was more and more when it became obvious that the British Kingdom had the impact and on the American colony, constantly raised taxes and taxes. It brought in America to constantly growing free movement of masons. In 1732 Daniel Cox, the famous mason, having shown special activity, tried to unite free movements and to oppose in common the British king. Its attempts were noticed by such people as George Washington and Benjamin Franklin who entered an award in 1760-1770. Thus, the famous American politicians became not only members of the Masonic order, but also gave an impetus to the beginning of politicization of Masonic ideology.

It is in this regard interesting, for example, that the known Boston Tea Party was organized by masons publicly. In 1773 a little dressed as Indians of people led by Samuel Adams seized the English sailing vessel and threw out overboard 100 boxes with tea as a protest against high taxes on import of tea. It was already not only the economic, but also political protest of the Masonic movement.

The declaration of Independence of the USA which came into force in July, 1776 was signed from the American side by also some masons.

The president Washington distributed the instructions - only to officers who similarly belonged to an award. It should be noted that among brothers of an award of masons there were two more U.S. Presidents: L. Johnson and T. Roosevelt. Today there is a significant amount of the beds scattered worldwide. Researches show that it is possible to proceed at least from 40,000 beds, the number of members in which is estimated at least at 6 million. Freedom-loving and roofing felt - the rantny behavior of masons can be characterized as a certain ideal of their activity today. Even the tendency to acceptance in initially purely men's Masonic societies of women is looked through.

However, as well as from now on, ancient rules of an award work: to keep in secret an initial ritual and the exact doctrine, so it will always be difficult to stranger to study this award fully. There is only a hope that his members owing to their accessory really will be able to understand the world better - to what each mason by all means aspires - and will be able to be protected by means of it from any troubles and misfortunes.

The freemasonry came to Russia already as branch of ready foreign structures. The first box was open in 1731, in only several years after emergence of the first English box in 1717. The reason of aspiration of the Russian elite in freemasonry was the same, as well as in other countries.


The orthodox church did not provide a worthy intellectual alternative to what became obviously outdated.

Someone saw in freemasonry it the "advertising" party which is traditionally exposed into the forefront - the union for the sake of the approval of morality. And here many examples of surprising charity, true self-sacrifice for the good of the people appeared. The whole states were spent for the help to persons in need, for development of education, for search and maintaining cultural values, for restoration in consciousness of society of historical memory of the great people and the corresponding book publishing.

Someone went to conscientious search of the truth in the field of the theory of social construction, studying all existing religious and secular views of the matter and, at the same time, getting under influence of spiritually foreign views. Attempt to realize these the ideas in society pushed many on the way of conspiratorial activity, on shaking of the existing state foundations, on the way of preparation of revolution.

But there was also another. The foreign Masonic centers were connected with some reigning dynasties of the western countries. Using the principles of hierarchical submission of the Russian branches and also certain members of the beds from Russians, they turned many of the Russian masons into direct traitors of the Homeland - forced to carry out them collection of information of prospecting character and also to carry out secret-service activity. There were among masons and many unscrupulous adventurers wishing to promote in secret societies, to reach high social standing, being incapable to make it differently.

All this together shows the reasons of rejection by society of Masonic ideals, and even emergence at many people of hatred to them though the upper society was "infected" with freemasonry very thoroughly.

Thus, world outlook fundamentals of freemasonry significantly differ depending on stratification of society, social and religious and confessional conditions. Representatives of masons of all times and the people, all religions and the directions in absolutely identical expressions declare utter impossibility to convey the true meaning of freemasonry, about the deep mystery of the ideals, traditions, thoughts and actions.

Harald Felix
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