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"Historical source" in works of the historian: to anniversary of the academician A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky

UDK 94 (470.57)


© A.R. Ayetbayev

Bashkir state university Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, 450074 Ufa, st. of Frunze, 32.

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In work an attempt of consideration of the methodological principles of a research of A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky is made. The problem of a historical source is the focus of attention of the author as "the realized product of human mentality" the Carried-out analysis showed that object of historical knowledge of A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky's works is the historical reality in the context of neokantian methodology.

Article is devoted to a significant event in life of historical community of our Fatherland in 2008: to the 145 anniversary since the birth of the academician Alexander Sergeyevich Lappo-Danilevsky.

The fate of this bright star of a methodological sky at all specific features, differences in world outlook and research approaches, thematic interests, the culture of the historical analysis in general reflected the fate of pre-revolutionary generation of the domestic intellectuals.

To Alexander Sergeyevich Lappo-Danilevsky the difficult role of the pioneer, pioneer in many fields of historical science and, first of all, in development of methodology of a historical research was foreordained. Works of this wonderful person, one of outstanding St. Petersburg historians, are appreciated only now when they are very demanded during an era of methodological chaos.

As it is represented, the many-sided talent of the academician Alexander Sergeyevich Lappo-Danilevsky more than once became an object of a research of inquisitive historians, but one party in creative heritage of this scientist-researcher is not up to the end revealed in historical science - it is special understanding of "a historical source". This perspective reflected in general the time, as well as time left the mark on differences in definition of an object of historical knowledge.

The academician A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky is the author of the new doctrine about so-called "products of culture" where the historical source is "the realized product of human mentality suitable for studying the facts with historical value" [1, page 375].

According to a fair remark of the scientist-methodologist M.F. Rumyantseva: the separate fact of culture (historical source) is considered by Lappo-Danilevsky as the party of whole. The historical source is the fact of interaction of an individual and the social environment of which change of the social environment is result. To Inta -

being drawn by each isolated unique fact, the researcher is forced to choose from them the facts with historical value.

Defining a source study subject - a historical source - as "the realized product of human mentality", Lappo-Danilevsky investigates methods of interpretation which purpose is understanding of an individual of the past - the creator of the work of culture (historical source) [2, page 143].

Understanding of the author in the course of interpretation of "source" is the cornerstone of any historical research as having only correctly understood "source", the historian can establish - "he can receive knowledge of what fact from this source" [3, page 173].

Alexander Sergeyevich Lappo-Danilevsky in detail proves understanding of a historical source as culture product (unlike a nature product). Thus, the author strongly objects against inclusion in a concept of sources of historical knowledge of the natural phenomena, thereby emphasizing distinction of the world of the nature and the sphere of culture [2, page 143].

According to M.F. Rumyantseva, the principle of "recognition of others animateness" is accepted by the scientist in regulatory and teleologic value, that is "as the scientific hypothesis necessary for an explanation of some part of reality". It is possible to tell that reproduction of "others animateness" is reached mainly in the course of interpretation of a historical source.

Lappo-Danilevsky defines historical interpretation as "valid scientific understanding of a historical source". Understanding of the author in the course of interpretation is the cornerstone of any historical research as having only correctly understood a source, the historian can establish - "he can receive knowledge of what fact from this source".

Alexander Sergeyevich Lappo-Danilevsky allocates four methods of interpretation - psychological, technical, typifying and individualizing - and pays attention on neobkhodi-

188K 1998-4812 Bulletin of the Bashkir university. 2008. T. 13. No. 3

the bridge of their combination in different combinations depending on features of the studied historical source.

The typifying interpretation, on the one hand, creates conditions for individualizing, during which the historical source is considered as "a product of more or less integral identity", and, on the other hand, allows to recreate evolutionary and koekzistentsialny integrity of culture that in turn creates conditions for adequate understanding of social and cultural phenomena. In fact typifying interpretation allows to understand a historical source more deeply, than the author understood it.

Alexander Sergeyevich Lappo-Danilevsky consistently connected neokantian teoreti-to the informative concept to methodology of history and methods of a historical research. The author introduced in historical science recognition of "others animateness" as the sistemoobra-zuyeshchy principle of strogonauchny historical knowledge and I developed a problem "the stranger" in its historical component [3, page 174].

Thus, the historical source understood as the realized product of human mentality on the basis of the principle of "others animateness", is already research construction as "that mental value which the historian attributes to a material image of the source interesting it in effect is not given it directly (it is inaccessible to its direct sensory perception)".

Secondly, the historical source as a product of mentality is "result of creativity (in a broad sense) as individual act".

Thirdly, essentially important concept is the concept about "its teleologic unity in terms of its appointment". The creative act as conscious purposeful action gives unity to a source: "a source - whole teleologic in terms of its purpose, that is the creator's purpose". Idea of the purpose of creation of the work of culture is a basis of his understanding.

It should be added to it that at such understanding of a subject of a source study as backbone in a source study research the procedure of interpretation (scientifically significant understanding of a source), but not establishment of reliability of its separate data acts. Of course, the problem of reliability keeps the value, but is solved not only by verification of separate data (for what we most often have no opportunities), but also by understanding of a source in general and understandings the purpose of reporting of information and its place in the integrity determined by purpose of a source [2, page 144].

Fundamental differences in understanding of a historical source between A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky's "followers" also consist in it

from RGGU and "Kovalchenko's school" in MSU. The academician Ivan Dmitrievich Kovalchenko defines "a historical source" as "the data carrier on the basis of which the historian reconstructs the socio-historical reality studied by it". In this sense "source" bears functions of accumulation, storage and broadcast of information. Interaction of objective historical reality and the creator of "source" is characteristic of process of creation of "source" here [4, page 118].

it is natural

that the designated differences in definition of a historical source eventually are caused by different understanding of an object of historical knowledge: historical reality at A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky and idea of the past, recorded in sources at I.D. Kovalchenko [5, page 9].

It is necessary to emphasize what underwent methodological views on a historical source of Alexander Sergeyevich Lappo-Danilevsky and formation of its system of "diplomatics" on konkretnoistorichesky material in parallel. If the author formulated the approach to judgment of a historical source in the main theoretical work - "History methodology", then the source study analysis on the basis of this theory was developed in "Essays of the Russian diplomatics of private acts".

We will use A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky's methodology in the analysis of concrete historical materials on a perspective of institute of the patrimonial right of the Bashkir people in the first half of the XIX century. It is necessary to emphasize first of all that in this diplomatic analysis the historical source will be initially understood as "the realized product of human mentality" and in this sense - as a reality subject.

In the huge world of assembly materials of the diploma about an allowance represented contractual documents on leasing for a certain term of the Bashkir patrimonial lands to "pripushchennik" from the ill-matched ethnoclass population of the Orenburg province in the first half of the XIX century.

In the center of our research - the initial stage of the diplomatic analysis of diplomas about an allowance, namely the partition of the act on its components (clauses). By consideration of the chosen perspective in the center of attention there are assembly sources of the first half of the 19th century postponed in CGIA RB in originals and copies.

The regional archive on representativeness of historical reality concedes nothing in this plan to "capital". The Fundirovannost of any source depends not on in what archive depository there is a document now, and from its return. The used documents belong to very short historical interval in some 50 years and cover in general only heads -

ro-Mishar and teptyaro-bobylsky population of Bashkiria.

In the preliminary analysis of pripuskny acts the place and time of drawing up diplomas is established, that value what the author of the contractual document on delivery of the earth for rent wanted to give it what aims were pursued whose interests they were formed reveals. Throughput acts are considered as culture phenomena displaying mental human activity.

The diplomatics by means of topology establishes the place of commission of an allowance on the basis of the direct and indirect data hidden in its text. The chronology of an allowance is time of signing of the contract. The considered pripuskny records are always supplied date. For example, "state peasants of the Perm province of the Krasnoufimsky County, Potashinsky volost moved into on the Bashkir lands of the Upeysky volost of the Troitsk county in 1781, and in 1801 signed the new contract for capture of lands in court (i.e. for rent) for 50 years from now on" [6].

The diplomatic analysis of pripuskny record (the legal analysis of the act by the author it was not made) breaks the form into its components - clauses. Alexander Sergeyevich Lappo-Danilev-sky considered that giving the contract a written shape, each act reflected in the structure its elements in the form of separate thoughts. Anyway, as a part of each pripuskny record it is possible to allocate several clauses:

1) names, surnames of the contractors (addressee or the sender) making the transaction and subject of the transaction, it is frequent with the indication of borders of the territory of possession. For example, "in the Orenburg County the Bashkirs of the 9th canton from the village of Belekey Abyzovo and Davletkulovo Ishmukhamet Ishkulov, Absalyam Ilchibayev with companions rented for burning out ugolya pine to the wood at distance in length of 7, and in width of 3 versts to Preobrazhensky to the copper-smelting plant since June 14, 1830 on the condition testified by the former kantonny chief Aryslanov" [7].
2) terms of transaction: "teptyar from cheremis the village of Toktarovo of the Birsk County were stewed bashkirets of the Eldyatsky volost for a period of 50 years with a condition of payment of a quitrent on 50 kopeks a year from the yard" [8].

Signing of the contracts since July 27, 1837 had to be made by notaries only with the permission of the Orenburg military governor [9].

3) signatures of the persons who made the transaction and manhandling of poslukh (witnesses) who certified the act the signatures (tamga).

So, the analysis of diplomas about an allowance for patrimonial lands of Bashkirs in the Orenburg province in the first half of the XIX century plans only in the most general terms (according to A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky's methodology) a perspective of partition of the act for its components (clauses). This methodological procedure has paramount value for studying problems of pripushchennichestva institute in the context of "a historical source" as "the realized product of human mentality" [10].

Thus, the only condition of overcoming the current methodological chaos is connection of the continuity which is broken off in the 90th of the XX century with the Soviet heritage and organic inclusion in this historical fabric of the scientific fulfillments of "pre-revolutionary" authors rejected by earlier Marxist historiography [11].

Characterizing opposite approaches to the analysis of "a historical source", it is necessary to consider time and historical working conditions of A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky and I.D. Co-valchenko and also the fact that they are the embodiment of development of a historical thought in the field of methodology of a historical research.


1. A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky Metodologiya history. Release 2. SPb., 1913.
2. M.F. Rumyantseva.//History 1999 questions. No. 8.
3. M.F. Rumyantseva. "Others I" in historical knowledge: I.I. Lapshin and A.S. Lappo - Danilevsky//History and historians. 2001. Historiographic messenger. M, 2001.
4. I.D. Kovalchenko. Methods of a historical research. M, 2003.
5. I.N. Danilevsky, Boars V.V., O.M. Medushevskaya, M.F. Rumyantseva. Source study. M, 1998.
6. CGIA RB. T. SILT . OpL. 1251.
7. CGIA RB. T. SILT. OpL. 1321.
8. CGIA RB. T. SILT. OpL. 2001. L.5.
9. CGIA RB. T. SILT. OpL. 1429.
10. A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky Ocherk Russian diplomatics of private acts. SPb., 2007.
11. Nikolaev I.Yu. Problema of methodological synthesis and verification in the history in the light of modern concepts of unconscious. Tomsk, 2005.

Came to edition of 01.03.2008

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