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Rehabilitation of the Balkar people: problems and decisions



4. I. Babich. National traditions in public life of Kabardians. M, 1995.

5. A.I. Musukayev, A.I. Pershits. National traditions of Kabardians and Balkars. Nalchik, 1992.
6. T.G. Stefanenko. Ethnopsychology: The textbook for higher education institutions. M, 2000. Page 24.
7. A.A. Ardasenov. Transition state of mountaineers of the North Caucasus / Izbr. works. Vladikavkaz, 1997. Page 112.
8. See: Proverbs and sayings of the people of the East. M, 1980; Ingushetia and Ingushs. M.; Nazran, 1996; Chechens: history and present. M, 1999.
9. The Brachnost, birth rate and mortality in Russia and in the USSR / Under the editorship of A.G. Vishnevsky. M, 1977. Page 116.
10. B. Dalgat. Materials on common law of Ingushs//Izv. Ingush scientific research institute. Vladikavkaz, 1929. Issue I. Page 3.
11. Balkar national lyrics. Nalchik, 1957. Page 41.
12. The central state archive of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (further - CGA RSO - A), t. 11, op. 10, 6267, l. 2.
13. The collection of information about the Caucasian mountaineers (further - SSKG). Tiflis, 1868. Issue I. Page 54.
14. The report of the chief of the Tersky region for 1900. Vladikavkaz, 1901. Page 57.
15. B.Ts. Urlanis. Dynamics of the population of Russia on the eve of October//Scientific notes of All-Union correspondence economic institute. M, 1957. Issue 2. Page 16.
16. A. Skachkov. Experience of a statistical research of a mountain corner. Vladikavkaz, 1905. Page 95.
17. Caucasus. 1894. No. 311.
18. Bgazhnokov BH. Adyghe etiquette. Nalchik. 1978. Page 50.

North Ossetian state university _____________

19. Power of work. 1928. No. 4.
20. I. Kanukov. In the Ossetian aul. Stories, essays, journalism. Ordzhonikidze, 1985. Page 276.
21. M.M. Kowalewski. The law and custom in the Caucasus. M, 1890. T. 1. Page 287.
22. Collection of data on the Tersky region. Vladikavkaz, 1878. Issue I. Page 284.
23. SSKG. Issue III. 1890. Page 21.
24. V.Ya. Ikskul. Caucasian stories. Tskhinvali, 1969. Page 188 - 189.
25. SSKG. 1868. Issue I. Page 55.
26. G.M. Tsagolov. Edge of hopeless poverty. Vladikavkaz, 1912. Page 75.
27. Yu.Yu. Karpov. Female space in the culture of the people of Caucasus. SPb., 2001. Page 200.
28. Periodicals of the Caucasus about Ossetia and Ossetians. Tskhinvali, 1980. Issue I. Page 62.
29. Tersky sheets. 1894. No. 12.
30. K. Khetagurov of SOBR. soch.: In 5 t. T. 3: Dzaudzhikau, 1951. Page 231.
31. G. Vertepov. Economic position of lower reaches of the Terek River//Tersky collection. 1903. Issue 6. Page 160.
32. From cultural heritage of the Slavic population of Kuban (materials to lecture courses and a practical training). Krasnodar, 1999. Page 173.
33. The statistical monograph on a research of stanitsa life of Tersky Cossack army. Vladikavkaz, 1881. Page 345.
34. RGVIA, t. 330, op. 51, 1625, l. 52.
35. CGA RSO - And, t. 20, op. 1, 45, l. 80.
36. The report of the chief of the Tersky region for 1902. Vladikavkaz, 1903. Page 65.

On June 25, 2002

© 2003. - M.A. Sabanchiyev

REHABILITATION of the BALKAR PEOPLE: PROBLEMS AND DECISIONS

Overcoming consequences of mass repressions 20 - the 50th - one of the main keynotes of history of Russia in the left century. The encouraging breath of the XX congress, liberalization of long-term orders allowed most of the repressed people to find the historical homeland and to begin the revival. However from the middle of the 60th "thaw" was replaced by "frost". And only the course towards democratic transformations taken at a boundary 80 — the 90th, gave to process of rehabilitation of the repressed people a second wind. The truthful analysis of the past, a restoration of justice were necessary not only for the sake of the historical truth, in memory of the victims of lawlessness and an arbitrariness, but also for the solution of essential problems of democratization, legality, publicity. On September (1989). A plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU it was noted,

that "the facts of an arbitrariness and eviction of the people from places of their accommodation in days of the Great Patriotic War deserve strong condemnation... It is necessary to make everything for restoration of the full rights of the repressed people" [1]. The analysis of the crimes committed against them, the bringing to their publicity induced VS USSR to accept on November 14, 1989. Declaration "About Recognition Illegal and Criminal Repressive Acts against the People Which Underwent Forced Relocation and Providing Their Rights". That VS USSR, in 30 and 40 broken the fate of these people, confessed and confessed before them" for the allowed lawlessness. In the Declaration the fact of deportation is recognized as crime against humanity, and all who participated in genocide of the people, are declared the actual criminals.

In 1991 - 1992 in the sphere of regulation of relationship of the center and the republics VS RSFSR, including its Chamber of nationalities was most of all made. The law on rehabilitation was drafted by authoritative qualified professionals - the doctor of jurisprudence V. Kovalenko deserved by the lawyer of the Russian Federation I. Kostoyev, etc. 26 apre-

* la of 1991 of VS RSFSR adopted the Law on rehabilitation. In

it the President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin signed the same day.

According to the Law "victims of political repression" fall under definition of 15 people, eleven of which were deported from the territory of the Russian Federation: Koreans, Germans, Finns, Kalmyks, Karachays, Chechens, Ingushs, Balkars, Crimean Tatars, Bulgarians and Greeks. In a preamble to the Law VS RSFSR condemned an arbitrariness of the authorities in relation to the whole people and confirmed their full innocence. The law restored historical justice: the document provides for all repressed people of the Russian Federation full rehabilitation - political, territorial, social, cultural.

According to Article 3 of the Law the political rehabilitation of the repressed people "means recognition and implementation of their right for recovery of the territorial integrity existing to anticonstitutional policy violent pe-

* a rekraivaniye of borders, on restoration of the natsionalnogosudarstvenny formations which developed before their abolition..."

^ Article 6 concerns territorial rehabilitation re-

the pressirovanny people, i.e. return of the lands illegally sawn-off in days of the Stalin mode which were earlier belonging to them, under their jurisdiction [2]. At the same time accounting of will of the specified people is supposed.

Article 10 of the Law says: "Social rehabilitation of the repressed people means that to the citizens who underwent repressions, time of their stay in special settlements (places of the reference) is enlisted in an experience in a threefold size. In this regard also increase in the amount of pensions on age for every year of work is provided...". Besides, the damage caused by the state is subject to stage-by-stage compensation.

Cultural rehabilitation provides implementation of a complex of actions for restoration of spiritual heritage and to satisfaction of cultural needs of the repressed people and also return of former historical and place names.

* On May 17, 1991 there was an order of Council of ministers of RSFSR about an order of implementation of the Law. It was entrusted to the ministries and departments of the Russian Federation under -

> to prepare for I offers on cancellation of all gosudarstven-

the ny acts which formed a basis for illegal forced relocation of the people from places of permanent residence to develop concrete measures for recovery of integrity of the natsionalnogosudarstvenny formations and administrative-territorial borders existing before their violent anticonstitutional change

the sizes and the mechanism of material compensation to the deported persons [3].

Специальным& the resolution of Presidium of VS RSFSR of June 3, 1991 for consideration of questions and preparation of offers on practical restoration of lawful. the rights of the rehabilitated people the government commissions on each of them were created. The commission on Kabardino-Balkarian the ASSR from 11 people the deputy chairman of the board of Ministers of the Russian Federation A.F. Kamenev headed, the working group on preparation of regulations about political rehabilitation of the deported people - the People's Deputy L.N. Gen. Having discussed messages of heads of commission, the Soviet of Nationalities of Russian Armed Forces noted on September 25, 1991 total inability of these working bodies to the solution of the designated problems [4]. The chairman of the commission for Kabardino-Balkaria I.N. Lazarev was appointed the order of the Government of the Russian Federation. The commission together with the interested ministries and departments till February 13, 1992 had to develop the mechanism and an order of implementation of the Law on rehabilitation. However in June, 1992 it was noted that the realization of the Law is enabled by the Government unsatisfactorily, the mechanism of realization is not worked out and the Law remains actually outstanding [3]. & #34;

The end 80 - the beginning of the 90th - the period of activization of process of national revival of Kabardino-Balkaria. Solutions of problems of the repressed Balkar people became sense and an essence of the Balkar national movements and came under the spotlight of power structures of the republic. At the initial stage between them there was a certain interaction and mutual understanding. A basis for this purpose was carrying out by the legislative and executive authorities of the republic a number of the actions for rehabilitation of the Balkar people authorized by the center. In August, 1990 VS KBASSR considered the Declaration "About Recognition Illegal and Criminal Repressive Acts against the People Which Underwent Forced Relocation and Providing Their Rights" adopted by VS USSR and noted that in March, 1944, as a result of actions of totalitarian regime, arbitrariness and lawlessness the Balkar people moved from the historical homeland to Central Asia and Kazakhstan innocently suffered. VS KBASSR condemned repression as the act of lawlessness and arbitrariness, charged to Council of ministers to prepare the system of measures for complete recovery of the rights of the Balkar people. The commission on preparation of offers on restoration of the Areas of Balkaria in borders for January 1, 1944 was created and Day of remembrance of the victims of violent eviction of the Balkar people is determined (on March 8). In the resolution "About the Law of RSFSR "About Rehabilitation of the Repressed People" of VS KBSSR the Law was accepted to the management; the commission for introduction of offers on its realization was formed and also the request to VS RSFSR contained to accelerate making decision on the mechanism of implementation of the Law [5].

These decisions which appeared after adoption by the central authorities of the package of documents, the Law on the repressed people and the subsequent acts for many years served as an incentive for national movements of the Balkar people. In July, 1990 the resolution PVS KBASSR registered public organization of the Balkar people of Tyore ("The Balkar forum"). In 1990 - 1994 the movement "Tyore" and National council of the Balkar people became the most popular organizations among the Balkar population and on a number of problems could influence republican authorities. With adoption of law on rehabilitation at the federal level the official recognition of the repressed people as legal entities appeared. Especially it was promoted by the legal expert approach developed in federal based on Article 13 of the Law providing the publication of separate resolutions on each of the repressed people [6].

Fixing of the political status of the people at the federal level increased authority of the Balkar national movements and public organizations and led to qualitative. to change of nature of their activity. It was expressed in a complex of the main requirements of national movements - immediate and unconditional implementation of provisions of the Law on rehabilitation, restoration of the Areas of Balkaria within land use at the time of deportation of the Balkar people in March, 1944, observance of its economic and welfare rights.

A magic phrase "the lack of the mechanism" and formulations similar to it shaded heart of the matter and significantly constrained its decision authorities not only in Kabardino-Balkaria. The created republican commissions on a being did not start implementation of a circle of problems of rehabilitation of Balkars. They were engaged in study of documents and studying the offers on rehabilitation prepared by national movements of the Balkar people more. An important merit of the last - in identification and statement of the vital issues of rehabilitation. Adoption of the order of the Government of the Russian Federation "About allocation of capital investments on development of mountain settlements and farms of Kabardino-Balkaria" of August 6, 1991

was the main outcome of those years

In the solution of problems of national and cultural revival and development of the repressed people, - their informal rehabilitation the essential role was played by such public organizations as the Confederation of the Repressed People of Russia (CRPR), Fund of the repressed people and citizens with whom the Ministry of National Policy of Russia supported close contacts. KRNR was founded in November, 1990 by social and political movements of Balkars, Ingushs, Karachays, Crimean Tatars and Soviet Germans, united the organizations of ten repressed people and coordinated - their work. KRNR and Fund prepared a databank about victims of political repression

the people, through them collections of the documents "Confederation of the Repressed People of Russia", "Rehabilitation of the people and citizens were issued. 1954 - 1994", books from the Repressed People of Russia series, are spent shooting of documentaries about the deported people. These organizations considerably promoted moral and psychological rehabilitation of the repressed people, destroyed the image of "people traitors" created by Stalinism.

In July, 1991 KRNR held the first congress. Representatives of human rights and public organizations of the repressed people participated in its work. Speakers told about implementation of the Law on rehabilitation on places. According to them, the Law was not carried out in one of regions due to the lack of interaction between federal and local authorities. As a legislative initiative of Confederation the congress sent a package of bills on * to rehabilitation of a number of the repressed people including Balkar, to the Russian President, the Supreme Council and Council of ministers of the Russian Federation.

of the Problem of the repressed people and a way of their decision, the course of implementation of the Law on rehabilitation were discussed also at the subsequent congresses of Confederation. It developed rather universal scheme of the mechanism of implementation of the Law which could serve as a basis of the concept of rehabilitation, and practical carrying out it in life. With finding of the official status of one of the largest social and political movements of the renewed Russia KRNR began to participate in lawmaking, her theorists and analysts developed specific proposals on the imminent problems of the repressed people as a legislative initiative [7]. It is possible to call, in particular, the address of KRNR on the issue of complete recovery of statehood, the territorial, political and economic rights of the Balkar people, the draft resolution of VS RSFSR on rehabilitation of the Balkar people, etc.

In general participation in lawmaking, the open, legally issued performance in protection of the repressed people, emphasis of attention on legal aspects and mobilization of separate efforts on association and coordination of activities for problems of rehabilitation can be referred to number of the most important achievements of KRNR.

In 1992 - 1996 in Elista (Kalmykia), Karachayev-sk (Karachay-Cherkess republic), Nalchik (KBR) and Sleptsovsk (Ingushetia) five All-Russian scientific conferences on a subject "The repressed people took place: history and present". In March, 1993 in Moscow there took place the "Problems of Rehabilitation of the Repressed People in the context of the Modern National Relations" conference, and in November, 1998 the Ministry of National Policy held a meeting of the Round table on the subject "Implementation of the Law "About Rehabilitation of the Repressed People" as Factor of Strengthening of the Federal Relations" with learning -

stiy scientists, specialists of the Government of the Russian Federation, State Duma and heads of the obshchestvennonatsionalny organizations. These forums, the publication of their materials allowed to make property of the general public not healing last and again arisen wounds of the repressed people, to formulate and make public crucial issues of innocently punished population, to learn about depth and scale of the problems facing the state and society in overcoming all negative consequences of Stalin genocide.

The decree of the Russian President of June 15, 1996 approves "The concept of the state national policy of the Russian Federation". In it it is noted that "demands the permission a number of problems of the repressed people: it is necessary to accelerate development and implementation of the relevant acts directed to elimination of consequences of repressions and deportations concerning these people" [8]. On this background the parallel initiative which the Balkar social movements on meetings, meetings and other actions connected with Day of remembrance of the victims of violent eviction (on March 8), the 50 anniversary of deportation (1994) and Day of revival of the Balkar people (on March 28) took more and more gained strength.

In 1991 - 1992 the main work on preparation, adoption and implementation of legislative regulations on rehabilitation of the repressed people was carried out in Russian Armed Forces. It is enough to note that these years the parliament adopted more than twenty resolutions and orders. During the subsequent period the role of executive bodies and territorial subjects of the Russian Federation increased. In accordance with the established procedure local authorities prepared the corresponding draft of the program and appealed to federal bodies to take cognizance of them. The Government of the Russian Federation gave an assignment to the interested ministries and departments. The final version of the document coordinated with Ministry of National Policy of Russia was led up to the Government decree.

Drafts of presidential decrees on rehabilitation were developed by both local, and federal authorities. After the procedure of their coordination in State legal department at the Russian President Administration the draft of the decree was submitted for the signature to the Russian President. The federal body responsible for preparation of the decree, the Ministry of National Policy of Russia was [9].

All this is the evidence of that great attention which was paid by the state and society to the people which experienced horrors of deportation and the special settlement. The law on rehabilitation earned and began to bear real fruits.

In 1993 - 1996 considerable work on rehabilitation of the Balkar people was carried out. At the initiative of the President of KBR V.M. Kokov and the Government of the republic essentially important documents at the federal level are accepted: The decree of the Russian President "About measures for rehabilitation of the Balkar people and the state support of its revival and razvi-

Tia" (of March 3, 1994), the Russian Federation Government decrees "About Measures for Acceleration of Restoration of Legitimate Rights of the Balkar People Which Underwent Deportation in 1944" (1993), "About social and economic support of the Balkar people" (of June 10, 1993), "About measures for implementation of decrees of the Russian President and Russian Federation Government decrees on the state support of social and economic development of Kabardino-Balkar Republic in 1995 - 2000 years" (of July 31, 1995).

These documents strengthened a legislative basis and brought material resources for the solution of problems of the Balkar people. They also became a basis for acceptance of a complex of regulations in the republic: decrees of the President of KBR "About some measures for rehabilitation of the Balkar people in connection with the 50 anniversary of its repression" (of March 7, 1994), "About establishment of Day of revival of the Balkar people" (of March 25, 1994)., "About payment of single allowances to some categories of citizens of the Balkar nationality which underwent forced relocation in 1944" (of March 23 and on July 23, 1994), orders of the Cabinet (Government) of KBR "About an order of compensations for ownerlessly left household and property to rehabilitees" (of August 24, 1995), etc.

Leading of line under the tragic past assumes at least compensation for damage to the victims of lawlessness or their successors. The act of the Russian Federation of July 1, 1993 made changes and additions to the Law "About Rehabilitation of the Repressed People" which extended to citizens from among the repressed people effect of the Act of the Russian Federation "About Recovery of Victims of Political Repressions" and defined an order of compensation of damage to the rehabilitated people and certain citizens. Bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs rehabilitated 38,550 Balkars. By the end of 1996 of 25,380 Balkars received lump sums on 500 thousand not denominated rubles. All rehabilitated citizens of the Balkar nationality including who were born in places of eviction till February 11, 1957 entered this category

Compensation (from 40 to 100 minimum wages) for the household seized by the state and the property is paid to all families or their successors sent from the republic. However it should be noted that the sum to 6.3 thousand rubles, of course, does not correspond to the actual losses.

The social rehabilitation which is not finished in the second half of the 50th was carried out. Situation according to which time spent on the special settlement from 14-year age is set off in seniority in a triple size was fixed in a legislative order. To all who endured the tragedy of deportation since March 1, 1991 the recalculation of pensions is made, household and other privileges are provided.

Restoration of the rights of natural persons - one of components of liability for an arbitrariness, but the making derivative. The main element of liability consists in

mitigations of consequences of genocide as infringement of national group, in creation of necessary economic conditions for perhaps faster and complete recovery of this group. In 1992-1997 on construction of facilities of industrial and non-productive purpose in a mountain part of the republic from the federal budget more than 40 million rubles arrived

Despite sharp speeches of the President of the republic, plunder and misuse of budgetary funds took place. At the request of the President in 1996 the special commission carried out an inspection of target use of the funds allocated for rehabilitation of the Balkar people. Use of 3 billion rubles not to destination and loss of 1.7 billion not denominated rubles is revealed. The attention to lack of a due order in payment of compensation for material damage is paid [10]. The main reason of current situation seems that the government practically withdrew from control of expenditure of the multi-billion sums. There was no serious public control also.

Work on cultural rehabilitation, restoration of spiritual heritage of the people and satisfaction of his esthetic requirements was conducted. Dozens of young men and girls in 1993 - 1995 entered to the university of KBR and the Russian Federation on out-of-competition reception. The feature film "The Road on Edge of Life" (director R.H. Muradyan) devoted to deportation of the Balkar people in 1944 is prepared. The folklore and ethnographic Balkaria ensemble is created, the Balkar drama school is open For preparation of creative shots at the North Caucasian institute of arts. In Tyrnyauz the branch of teacher training college, in the settlement of Kashkhatau - branch of two technical training colleges began to function. The construction of a memorial complex to the victims of genocide of the Balkar people in Dolinsk is completed. Books about the tragedies of the people until recently forbidden begin to appear. Within national and cultural revival of the people of KBR and strengthening of unity of the people of Russia on October 11 - 14, 1995 there passed Days of KBR in Moscow.

The parliament of KBR restored the Elbrus and Chereksky administrative-territorial Areas of KBR.

Responsibility of the state to the people which became object of its genocide assumes, in addition, compensation of moral damage to all national group. Many governments confessed on behalf of the state for the crimes committed by their predecessors. It is thought, without it moral improvement of society is impossible. From this point of view it is pleasant that the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin as the head of state - the USSR right receiver in day of the 50 anniversary of deportation of the Balkar people addressed it with the words of sympathy and apologized for all horrors of Stalinism [11].

According to the Decree of the Russian President of March 3, 1994. "About measures for rehabilitation Balkar on -

sorts and state under a derzhka of its revival and development" the Federal target program "Social and Economic and National and Cultural Revival of the Balkar People in 1996 - 2000." was developed. Officially formulated purpose of the Program consisted in "recovery of historical justice by elimination of consequences of deportation of the Balkar people, finishing a condition of development of welfare and production infrastructure in mountainous areas of Kabardino-Balkar Republic to the national average standard of living of the population" [12]. On March 21, 1996 it was considered and on April 3 is approved by the Government of the Russian Federation. The total amount of budget financing of the Program had to be 2 billion 674 million rubles. The solid basis laid in the Program gave real prospect for further social and economic, spiritual and cultural development of the Balkar people. However in the conditions of deepening of a financial and economic crisis, deterioration in indicators of the social environment the Ministry of Economics and the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation could not provide assignment according to the Government decree. Owing to this fact a lot of things from planned in the Program did not manage to be made, and situation has to be improved by real actions. In the long term a part of the main objects which remained unrealized could be integrated into the federal target programs "South of Russia" till 2006, Prielbrusye and other synchronous programs.

The problem of return of Balkars from the republics of Central Asia and Kazakhstan to Russia and their arrangements continues to remain complex. Still there is no purposeful policy of the state in this sphere, intergovernmental agreements with the republics Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan about an order and terms of organized return of Balkars and their families to KBR are not concluded. As a result of more than 6 thousand Balkars living in Central Asia and Kazakhstan cannot return home.

Apparently, the solution of all problems of rehabilitation of the Balkar people and elimination of all consequences of genocide are complicated by crisis in economy, policy and spiritual life of the country. For this reason many of the projects of natsionalnokulturny revival and development of the Balkar people mentioned above were not implemented up to the end. From here incompleteness of process of rehabilitation of the Balkar people, as well as other repressed people. For this reason this problem is reflected in the special report (2001). Assemblies of the people of Russia to the Russian President "About national health of the people of Russia. About a state and the prospects of the state national policy": "to resolve properly issues of rehabilitation of the repressed people; to define measures for restoration and protection of the rights of violently deported people"

The value of the Law on rehabilitation that in this document it is proclaimed political reabilita-

tion of the "disgraced" people. The law created the legal framework for the conceptual solution of problems of rehabilitation and national development of the repressed people on the state basis.

The painful point of two-stage process of rehabilitation of the Balkar people (end of 50 and 90 of the 20th century) represents the missed possibilities of concentration of federal funds on carefully selected, priority directions today and also inappropriate use and squandering of a considerable part of the allocated funds.

Adoption of law on rehabilitation demanded courage and hardness, and its embodiment in life - wisdom and discretion:

Literature

1. Really. 1989. On Sep. 24
2. Human rights activists of the repressed people. M, 1996. Page 76, 77, 89.
3.‘ Rehabilitation of the people and citizens. 1954 - 1994 / Sost. I. Aliyev. M, 1994. Page 162 - 163.
4. Sheets of VS RSFSR. 1991. No. 42. Article 1337. Page 1595.
5. See: B.M. Zumakulov. Rehabilitation of the Balkar people. Nalchik, 1998. Page 90.97.
6. Khopyor LP. Modern ethnopolitical processes of North Caucasus region: problems of political management. M, 1997. Page 38.
7. M.N. Guboglo. Rehabilitation of the repressed people. Hopes. Reality. Illusions//Confederation of the repressed people Russian Federation. Nalchik, 1995. Page 19, 26.
8. National policy of Russia: history and present. M, 1997. Page 661. •
9. Alafayev A.A. Ministry of National Policy of Russia and a problem of rehabilitation of the repressed people//Totalitarianism in Russia (USSR) of 1917 - 1991: opposition and repressions: Materials nauch. - prakt. konf. Perm, 1998. Page 142-143.
10. North Caucasus. 1997, 2.
11. Kabardino-Balkarian truth. 1994. March 10.
12. Federal target program "Social and Economic Development and National and Cultural Revival of the Balkar People in 1996 - 2000".
13. Independent newspaper. January 2001, 30.

Kabardino-Balkarian state university

On September 26, 2002

2003 S.A. Chuprynnikov

GENESIS of the NORTH CAUCASIAN LABOR UNIONS AS MOBILIZATION STRUCTURES of the SOVIET STATE

The trade-union movement on Don, Kuban and Stavropol Territory began the formation, as well as in the majority of regions of Russia, during the first Russian revolution of 1905 - 1907. However owing to historical conditions and events, rather poor development of the industry, its structural and organizational registration happened later, than in industrial regions. Characteristic of its first stage (pre-October) in the North Caucasus - dissociation, short duration of existence and structural amorphy of the trade-union organizations. It were more various societies, the unions and associations. It is specified in archival documents: 1900 - creation of the unions of food industry workers and metalworkers; 1903 - the union of loaders and printers. They arose in Rostov-on-Don, Ekaterinodare, Armavir, Novorossiysk.

In the same years in the explored regions also the first attempts of merging of labor unions become across. In 1907 in Ekaterinodare the Central Bureau (CB) from 18 people is created. At one of its meetings it was asked about expediency of presence at the Central Bank of representatives of socialist parties: social democrats (Bolsheviks and Mensheviks), revolutionary socialists, dashna-

k, the Ukrainian socialist nationalists with advisory capacity. Voted pro 10, refrained - 2. The central bureau existed short time, but the attention of political parties to trade-union movement was designated at once.

The analysis of archival sources allows to claim that this movement in the explored region as however and in the country, had rather strong and indissoluble connection with political parties. Labor unions of Don, Kuban and Stavropol Territory from the first steps faced quite often not one, and several parties and various fractions existing in parties. Some of them (national socialists) were limited "to establishment close and friendship, without aiming to subordinate to labor unions of party", others (social democrats are Bolsheviks, Mensheviks) sought to become at the head of labor unions, proceeding from the Lenin installation stated in November, 1905 that social democrats will try "to enter in full strength all party organizations into all labor unions" [1].

In relationship of labor unions with parties the Bolsheviks allocated them the place of a component of party, Mensheviks - a role of strong points of the

Ruth Collins
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