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Category: History


nadezhda of LIPATOVA, Alexander GOLOTIN


In article mechanisms of relationship of the Soviet power and society in the first years of existence of the Soviet state are analyzed. In detail the typification mechanism which became in hands of the Soviet power a basis for unification and turned into the instrument of working off of a technique and technology of promotion, mechanisms of interaction of social groups in the Soviet society is considered.

The article aims to exhibit mechanisms of mutual relation of the Soviet power and the society in the first years of existence of the Soviet state. At this time by means of typification the power served a polygon where the Soviet rulers tested new methods of propaganda, as well as means to direct the lines of interaction between social groups.

society, power, ideology, social experiment, type, typification; society, power, ideology, social experiment, type,

An image — the brightest form of transfer of memory, a typical image — the most standard form of judgments, representations and in some cases — a basis for actions. How this most typical judgment which sometimes becomes a basis of typical acts and typical mistakes is born? Experience of the initial stage of development of the Soviet power shows, this typical mask which turned into fundamentals of social engineering, policy and stratification of new Soviet society was how strong. The Soviet power as if the diligent school student, worked according to all points of dictionary definition of the word "type". Let's consider step by step this definition on materials Volga region periodic pechati1 those years.

The person sees with own eyes, trusts the eyes, claiming that any given action took place on his eyes, and he saw all this. At the same time in some cases a visual row can be reproduced both in reality, and on the screen of the TV/movie theater/computer, on pages of newspapers, on pictures, in literary texts by means of an art word, etc. On the basis of these images of people gives situations any given sense, becoming that repeater of an event and its interpreter. It is remarkable that the person who is the witness of an event, the eyewitness, the participant is put by the owner of almost exclusive truth in the opinion of people around. However even in understanding of the certificate there is a certain duality noted at the time of the first written law "Russian Truth" of Yaroslav the Wise.

The Old Russian right distinguished two categories of witnesses — vido-k and poslukh. Video recorders are witnesses in modern sense of the word, eyewitnesses of the fact. Poslukh are persons who heard about the incident from someone, the having data at second hand. Sometimes understood as poslukha also witnesses of good reputation of the parties. They had to show that the defendant or the claimant — the people deserving trust. Without knowing even anything about the disputable fact, they just kind of gave characteristic to any given party in process. The second type of witnesses is characteristic at vozniknove-

1 Samara newspapers: "Day of the Soviet promotion" (1919), "Issues of Komsomol work" (1924), "Voice of youth" (1924); Nizhny Novgorod newspaper "Molodaya Rat" (1923); Saratov newspapers: "The children's truth" (1919), "For the diploma" (1924), "Reserves of Marxism (1925).


Nadezhda Valeryevna LIPATOVA — to. and. N, associate professor of history of the Fatherland of UlGU


Alexander Valeryevich is the graduate student of department of history of the Fatherland of UlGU

scientific research institute of typical judgments of any given event or person. During an era of mass distribution of blogs, LiveJournal of social networks the issue of transformation of secondary data in smysloobrazuyushchy images is topical. Most of bloggers never directly saw and did not hear politicians whom they discuss, about whom write and who are criticized or praised. Shift from the field of informing and the certificate as the Old Russian video recorder in the field of a poslukh often comes down to a set of widespread stamps - the characteristics, to cast having nothing in common with reality.

"Face type", "the typical representative", "type", "a standard face", "tipchik" — the most part of such judgments of people can make after couple of phrases, views, sometimes without entering with object of "typification" communication process at all. According to definition of the dictionary of S.I. Ojegov, the word "type" has several values. First, the type is the form, a look having certain signs; secondly — the highest division in systematization of animals uniting classes close by origin, thirdly, is the category, category of the people united by community of some external or internal lines; fourthly, it is the person differing in characteristic properties, signs; sixthly, it is the pretext which is equated on sense to words it is similar, it seems, like (people of type..., the typical, standard project, the standard contract, a typical image).

The Soviet power marked out signs of typification, developed criteria by which it is possible to determine social type of the class enemy, worthy head, reliable Party member, etc. Tipoobrazuyushchy signs for an image of the head/leader become a form for casting of the new person. These signs are most brightly shown through a prism of the social/class enemy, and the leader/hero/revolutionary has to be perceived as his antipode. Uncompromising approach to typification during Civil war was formulated by M.Ya. Latsis: "Do not look for certificates that the defendant acted as case or a word against the Soviet power. The first question which you have to set: to

to what class it belongs what its origin what education or a profession. Answers will define the fate of the defendant. In it the value and point of red terror" 1 consists. Close attention to a social cradle of each member of society was caused also by that, its new framework was strongly indistinct. By 1921 in economic measurement there is neither left exploiter, nor operated. Only the lumpen proletariat and the peasantry kept some patrimonial lines social gruppy2. However legislatively established class principle of dictatorship of the proletariat dictated rather clear markers for structuring the population which broke up in 1921 to supporters of Bolsheviks and their numerous opponents including and in "the" class proletarian niche. The question of social roots finally turns into one of tools for a material obtesyvaniye in hands of the state sculptor.

Identification of type (look) which had to reproduce similar was the following step. Revolutionary power tried to offer the vision in all spheres of society, including and sexual/family aspect. In the French revolution an ideal image was a soldier-grain-grower whose "the physical force reliably protects this virtuous citizen from excesses and defects" 3 while in the Soviet option the proletarian for whom "purely physical sexual desire is inadmissible from the revolutionary and proletarian point of view was this social ideal... Sexual desire to klassovo to hostile, morally opposite, disgraceful object is the same perversion, as well as sexual desire of the person to a crocodile, to an orangutan" 4.

1 Tsit. on: L. Gudkov. Ideologem of "enemy": "Enemies" as mass syndrome and mechanism of sociocultural integration//Image of the enemy. — M.: OGI, 2005, page 50.
2 T. Vikhavaynen. Internal enemy. Fight against narrow-mindedness as moral mission of Russian intelligentsia. — SPb.: IDES of Kolo, 2004, page 146.
3 Gerard de Puimege Chauvin, soldier-grain-grower. An episode from the history of nationalism. — M.: Languages of the Russian culture, 1999, page 144.
4 A.B. Zalkind. Twelve sexual precepts of the revolutionary proletariat//Revolution and youth. Communistic University of Ya.M. Sverdlov, 1924.

These characteristics were assigned to each of social types and turned into a cliche which replaced personal characteristic and was designed to change human measurement of human relations. Characteristic of youth of the revolutionary leader can serve as one of examples. The Soviet "soldier of revolution" is a young man who will never grow old. The veteran of revolution as image does not exist as he is always young spirit and its physical aging is not connected with spiritual in any way. In propaganda texts, illustrations there are practically no age images, even in obituaries placed the photo / kartinku-portret the person at young age. Such situation remained long enough, in fact, ideal images changed together with change of average age of the country leaders of Councils, however revolutionary heroes forever remained young.

On the basis of these characteristics typification formulas on which characteristic of any given type of the person was under construction were created. It were questionnaires, questionnaires, characteristics and even obituaries. Lines from the obituary of Item Kononova1 — the zampo-litprosvet of the Nizhny Novgorod city town committee of Komsomol which show markers of formation of texts about leaders can be an example. Emphases are placed on a social origin (peasant poor), a response to revolution, i.e. self-identification with the major moment in country life (at the first echoes of October entered...), party/revolutionary/underground / public work and study as the moment of regeneration and transition to new quality (year study in a provincial partshkola finally issued his Marxist outlook) inside (that is very important for an image, it — ours) social group and recognition behind it an educational mission (the ability is correct to understand revolution questions).

So, the Red Army man F.I. Chetverkin in the letter in "The country newspaper" gave such description of the commander: "At the exit from a lump -

1 Young host, Nizhny Novgorod, Jan. 1925, 6

Nata, we in the doorway met the commander of group, it it had a communist since 1905, hair long, combed back, eyes its black, in a leather suit, through shoulders belts to which the attached checker and a revolver, hung on a wide belt belt two manual grenades" 2.

Analogies or comparisons turned into common nouns and became either a sentence, or a praise depending on a connotation and an image of the political figure which became a basis for comparison (the Bolshevik of Lenin type, the situation is developed, as "in Kamenev and Zinovyev's episode", etc.)

These principles were implemented in resolutions on control of graphic material. The power intentionally formed typical, recognizable images. In the resolution of April 27, 1924. "About an order of reproduction, distribution of busts, bas-reliefs, pictures, etc. with V.I. Lenin's image" fear said that mass distribution and replication "creates danger of assimilation by a general population of the distorted Ulyanov-Lenin's image, and therefore distribution of any images, except fotograficheskikh3 was forbidden without the permission of the special commission.

At strict observance of the principles of typification it was not necessary to study long the biography of the person, to learn his character — was large dabs to outline a portrait enough. According to this scheme the peculiar cliche allowing to separate in two-three accounts "" from "stranger", to reveal the counter-revolutionary, the internal enemy was created or, on the contrary, to proclaim the person the faithful companion. Moreover, typification, speaking to Marxist terms, became base of a superstructure for unification — the following step in formation of new Soviet socialist society.

2 Voice of the people. Letters and responses of ordinary Soviet citizens on events of 1917 — 1923 / under the editorship of A.K. Sokolov. - M.: ROSSPEN, 1997, page 38.
3 Culture and the power from Stalin to Gorbachev. Censorship in the Soviet Union. 1917-1991. Documents. - M.: ROSSPEN, 2004, page 79.
Steven Edward Malcolm
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