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Light industry of the Volga region in days of the first five-years period. 1928-1932.



UDK 947084.6 (021)

light industry of the Volga region in days of the first FIVE-YEARS PERIOD. 1928-1932

N.A. SHAROSHKIN *, T.N. KUZMINA **

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky * Department of national history ** Department of national history and technique of teaching history

In article problems of development of light industry of the Volga region in days of the first five-years period (19281932) are investigated, conditions of restoration, reconstruction of operating enterprises, creations new, activities of the state and public organizations for improvement of work of various branches of light industry are analyzed. Istochnikovy base of a research is the archive and statistical material.

Light industry in comparison with heavy developed slower rates. Nevertheless and in this industry the expansion and reconstruction of operating enterprises were carried out, a number of new objects was under construction. Among branches of light industry the largest specific weight was occupied by cloth production. Generally it concentrated in the Average and Volga region. Merging of the union of workers of the textile industry (regional department of the Average and Volga region) included 17 enterprises, including 14 cloth factories, the lnopryadilny enterprise, rope and cotton factories. The last were in the system of the local industry. Cloth factories "Red October" (for December 1, 1928 there were 1727 workers here), of Lenin (1415 workers), of Lebedev (1173 people), of Gladyshev (1024), "The working creator" (842), World to Huts (738), etc. were considered as the largest enterprises for the output and the number of workers [1].

Concentration of the cloth industry in the Volga region (from 18 enterprises of coarse trust 14 were in the territory of the region) was not accidental. The Volga region had more favorable conditions for development of the industry. The geographical location of the region provided fast product sales. Here the base for development not only the coarse, but also semi-coarse and tonkosherstny industry was created. The Volga region possessed convenient communications with cotton regions of the country developed by cottage industry, shots of workers (in the region there were 3 thousand unemployed of this industry of production). The Grubosukonny industry of the region made a half of all output of rough cloth of the country and had big prospects. 11.6 thousand people were employed in the woolen industry of the Average and Volga region [2].

The five-year plan for 1928-1932 planned to increase production of cloth from 10 mln m in 1927/28 to 30 million in 1932/33. It was planned to invest in this production 27.4 million rubles, including 1.5 million on construction of factory of artificial wool. Also the construction of three factories on processing of hemp, felting and felt, knitted in Orenburg, weaving mill on 4 thousand machines, cotton plant in Syzran on 150 thousand spindles was provided [3].

Considering great value of this industry, the central and local authorities watched for

a condition of production, took measures for its further development. December 4 and 20, 1928. The Middle Volga regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), having heard reports of heads of trust of rough cloth and having noted certain achievements of factories in implementation of production programs, in improvement of quality indicators, recommended to make a transfer of the cloth enterprises on self-financing, to stimulate activity of employees of factories by holding competitions in shops, changes and departments, works of production meetings, rationalization groups [4]. The regional committee of party considered it necessary to increase capital investments by re-equipment and mechanization of works at the enterprises, housing construction.

The first year of a five-years period was marked by increase in volume of cloth production. 13 factories performed a production task on yarn for 98.9%, on surovyyu - on 97.5 and to ready goods - 98.4%. In comparison with 1927/28 production considerably increased. In 1929/30 the output increased by 32.1% though the production task on yarn was realized for 94.3%, on surovyyu - 91.4, to ready goods - 93.1% [5]. separate factories exceeded a production task (of Gimov, of St. Razina, Collective Creativity, of Gladyshev). Steadily the Red October enterprises, of Sverdlov and of Kalinin worked.

In December, 1929. The average and Volga regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) carried out survey of production activity of cloth factories. The regional committee noted insufficient financing of the cloth industry, a delay of carrying out decentralization of management of the enterprises therefore the shop administration had no big independence [6]. It should be noted that the leaders of edge paid special attention to the largest cloth factory to the Volga region (Red October). In 1929 2100 workers and 45 ITR worked here. This enterprise was reconstructed. The labor collective took active part in discussion of annual production programs. Questions of labor discipline, turnover of staff, rationalization of production, cultural and community service of workers, fight against illiteracy and semi-illiteracy, labor protection were in sight of the factory organizations. The special concern was caused by rationalization work. At a number of the cloth enterprises it was weak, me-

the ropriyatiya, the developed bureaus on rationalization, were not led up to workers. the technical personnel did not perform management of rationalization work. The funds allocated for efficiency work were not always used. So, from 25.5 thousand rubles which are released for 1929/30 for "Working creator" factory only 10.4 thousand, at factory of Lenin - 19.5 of 47 thousand [7] were used.

turnover of staff was a negative point in work of cloth factories. at the separate enterprises the workers were replaced completely. at factory of Lebedev 2349 workers left, it is again accepted 2053, at Collective Creativity factory according to 1241 and 1228, etc. [8]. The management of the enterprises, trade-union and other public organizations as measures against fluidity carried out self-fixing of workers, ITR serving. It was carried out according to the September appeal of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee, during monitoring procedure behind implementation of collective agreements. Mass work yielded positive results. At Red October factory 645 people, "The working creator" - 506, of Kalinin - 455, of Chicherin-306, etc. samozakrepitsya

The reorganization of trade-union work which is carried out in the light of decisions of the VI plenum of the Average and Volga krayotdel of the union of textile workers (1930) had positive impact on work of cloth factories. The plenum analyzed activity of trust of rough cloth for 1928/29 and the first quarter 1929/30. Noting a lack of qualified personnel, the plenum suggested to open in the region special school on training, courses on retraining of journeymen, textile technical school, production circles at clubs. It was planned to turn Red October factory into experimental-demonstrative for what it was offered to improve the structure of administrative technicians. Reorganization of trade-union work concerned both the regional device, and the factory organizations. Instead of the existing departments, sectors were created, the number of the released members of presidium increased, the institute of instructors was abolished. [9] The regular plenum of a krayotdel of the union held in August, 1930 summed up the results of reorganization of forms and methods of trade-union work. The plenum paid attention to improvement of activity of production meetings in shops, departments and groups again. At Red October factory such meetings functioned in groups, group organizers were allocated, so-called "reserve crews" which in the weaver's shop combated idle times of cars were created, allocated persons instead of not coming to work [10].

In May, 1929 the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), discussing a state and the prospects of development of the textile industry of the USSR, made the decision to enhance attention to quality indicators of cloth production (increase in labor productivity, decrease in product cost). It had positive impact on production activity of the industry. Kuznetsk district committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) on May 21, 1929

sent the decision of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee to the party organizations of cloth factories of the district [11].

On March 25-28, 1931 in Samara the first regional congress of sherstyanik at which it was noted that in two years of a five-years period the cotton-mills of the Average and Volga region increased production by 77% took place. However not all enterprises worked equally. So, 94 rub 66 kopeks, at Collective Creativity factory - 94 rub, of Lenin - 123 rub 12 kopeks were spent for processing of meter of cloth at Red October factory. This difference spoke about shortcomings of activity of separate factories that was explained by big percent of truancies, turnover of staff, their insufficient qualification, poor organization of work owing to what 20-25% of the equipment stood idle. from 409 representatives of an average and the senior technical personnel only 13 had the higher technical education, 87 - secondary technical. Nobody was engaged in training. Textile higher education institutions and technical schools had no offices of a grubosukonny bias [12].

The food question was a burning issue. Because of poorness of supply the conflicts arose food and manufactured goods among working cloth factories and in other industries quite often. In this regard issues of supply were often discussed at meetings of labor collectives, meetings of party bureaus and local committees of factories. On May 26, 1930 the party bureau of cloth factory Red October analyzed activity of working cooperative. Having revealed unsatisfactory supply of labor collective, it charged to Sila cooperative to carry out full and timely supply of workers of a plodoovoshchama, to create subsidiary farm in 1931 (a dairy farm from 100-200 heads of cattle, to allocate 25-30 hectares of the earth). On July 4 the question of supply of workers was brought again up on bureau of Communist Party organization. Having noted the facts of discontent of a part of workers with food supply, the bureau charged to a rabkoop to pay attention to this problem, to hold a special conference. At the same time the management, public organizations of factory discussed issues of assistance (village of Turdaki) to sponsored collective-farm economy. Supply of the industrial settlement with products in many respects depended on its state also.

Questions of development of rationalization work were brought up on the meeting of drummers of cloth factory Red October which took place in August, 1931. In the adopted resolution the management of factory undertook to control performance of rationalization works, to complete department of rationalization by skilled workers. The department and bureau of rationalization was entrusted to concentrate attention on research of opportunities of the best use of the production equipment and semi-finished products.

Special attention was paid to fight against turnover of staff which was a consequence of their unreasoned distribution, a low wage, a lack of spare parts, etc. At the same time it was said in a speech of the director of factory Kapustin, in our opinion, about

too severe measures of punishment of undisciplined workers, such as "resettlement of those to the worst apartments, and self-leaving to move within a day, to remove from supply. To offer all unemployed who is registered at FZK work, and in case of refusal from it to raise a question of an exception them from members of the union" [13].

In 1932 the condition of cloth production was discussed more than once by the regional organizations. On December 1 it was analyzed on bureau of the Average and Volga regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) which heard the report of the head of trust of rough cloth Grachev and chairman of regional committee dulko. The regional committee summed up the results of activity of trust for 1932 and planned the prospects of its development for 1933 on December 7 the meeting of presidium of the Average and Volga krayprofsovet at which the condition of the self-supporting movement in the industry was discussed took place. Noting growth of self-supporting crews from 23 to 46% for January-October, 1932, the presidium revealed also a number of the negative phenomena: absence in some crews of competitive fight for self-financing, shortcomings of their organizational economic activity (nonparticipation in intake of raw materials, delivery of the equipment, untimely finishing the plan, etc.). Factory trade-union organizations were recommended to organize crews on the basis of standard position of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions on shops for creation of efficient bureaus of manufacturing and shop production meetings, to carry out reorganization of their work [14].

As a result of activity of factory bodies and labor collectives the cloth enterprises increased the output: in 1932 the factory of World to Huts made products for the sum of 2801 thousand rubles, Collective Creativity (village of Zolotarevka) - 2639 thousand and "The working creator" - 2304 thousand rubles [15]. The Kuznetsk sheepskin and fur-coat plant achieved great success. After reconstruction it increased production from 350 thousand sheepskins (1929) to 700 thousand (1930) and to 1200 thousand (1931), in 1932 was planned to produce 1700 thousand sheepskins [16]. Successfully the Kuznetsk skinnery worked. It had 167 workers and produced 56200 large skin a year. Here the sewing workshops with 170 workers which were releasing 57500 short fur coats, the rope factory producing 1 thousand tons of a rope [17] worked. In 1929/30. The Kuznetsk enterprise successfully coped with promfinplany, having executed it for 126.5%, the sheepskin and fur-coat plant - for 100.2%, garment factory of-117.8%. The fourth Kuznetsk regional conference of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) which took place on December 10, 1930, summing up the results of work of the industry of the area, planned measures for strengthening of a working initiative for the best carrying out the third year of a five-years period, timely preparation for a construction season [18].

In days of a five-years period the Syzran skinnery improved production activity. In 1930 it implemented the plan for 101%, in 1931 - 104.8, 1932-105, 1933 - 248.7%. The best production workers were the chief of the tannic and tinctorial Nikolaev shop, the planer S. Kochetkov and the worker

N. Pervova [19].

Glass production of the Average and Volga region is presented by two plants and the enterprise of semi-handicraft type. Both plants were in the territory of the Penza district. The largest of them - Ni-kolo-Pestrovsky the Red Giant plant - had all-Union value and produced high-quality glass, crystalware. In 1931 the plant produced 833 t of blown, 863 t pressed and 184 t of pharmaceutical ware. In 1932 it was planned to produce 3360 t. The high-grade ware made by the plant was in broad demand in different countries. In 1931 it was exported for the sum of 607 thousand rubles, in 1932 it was planned to bring to east countries to 1200 thousand rubles. The Red Giant plant had three pot furnaces, the fourth was in a construction stage. On condition of implementation of the production program the enterprise could release up to 5 thousand tons of products in the presence of 2 thousand workers. The second glass plant at which 269 workers worked was located in the village. Top Shkaft of Luninsky district (former owner P. Burkin). It made wine ware, glass. In 1931 2114 thousand bottles and 41 t of glass were produced [20].

The paper stationery industry had several factories. The plan provided creation of two 15 thousand tons pulp and paper mills in Syzran and Ulyanovsk. The cost of construction of everyone was estimated at 18550 thousand rubles. Also reconstruction of the largest was outlined in the Average and Volga region of paper stationery factory of Lighthouse of Revolution for what 4080 thousand rubles, factories in Temnikov - 670 thousand [21] were allocated.

The paper stationery factory was founded in 1850. In the first year of a five-years period the factory, as well as many other enterprises, achieved production progress: a plan target to produce 8200 t of paper it was exceeded. 8449 t writing, printing and other grades of paper against 7984 t in 1927/28 were produced [22]. In 1930 at factory 1242 workers, the majority of whom had an experience from 10 to 30 years, were registered. Since January 20, 1930 the enterprise passed to shock work. In 1931 it made products for the sum of 6.5 million rubles, having issued nearly 11.5 thousand tons securities. Results of the survey which is carried out in May, 1929 show that the management of factory and public organizations paid attention to improvement of the production technology, attached particular importance to its rationalization. the circle of inventors worked. Living conditions improved: the dining room, kindergarten, a day nursery, library which number of readers increased with 76 (for January 1, 1928) to 707 (on May 1 worked

1929 ) [23].

For years of the first five-years period in Lower Volga area tanning and shoe and clothing industry was created practically again. Among new buildings there was skinnery No. 7 in Stalingrad and extract in Volsk (it was constructed in 1927-1929 with an investment of 2170 thousand rubles). The garment factory was almost anew constructed [24].

the Second regional congress of the union of textile workers (August, 1930) set the task of construction in Stalin -

a hail of hosiery factory, in Saratov - knitted, in Astrakhan - setevyazalny. Issues of improvement of promfinplan, finishing them to the shop, the machine were discussed; questions of supply of workers, awardings for overfulfillment of plan targets. The need of improvement of living conditions of workers of the textile industry was indicated also by the 12th extraordinary congress of the union of textile workers. "Considering that the labor productivity raising, performance of a promfinplan depends on the correct setting of working supply and public catering, - it was said in the decision of a congress, - the immediate task of the cooperative, trade-union and economic organizations is focusing of operating masses on cooperation work improvement... the closed distributors, garden economy, dairy farms" [25].

A number of the enterprises was reconstructed. However, despite growth of the output, the specific weight of edge in the general Narkomata system of light industry was low. In 1932 the enterprises of the industry made over the country of products on 7832 million rubles, in the Lower Volga region - only on 39.1 million. The planned construction of cotton and knitted factories to which share 54.6 million rubles of 65.2 million capital investments determined by the plan fell was cancelled [26]. Achievements in this industry were available only on sewing and shoe production. Sewing production from 1928 to 1932 increased by 2.3 times, tanning, fur and shoe - in 3.6 [27].

Light industry gained the further development in the national areas of Volga region where it was developed also before adoption of the first five-year plan. The structure of the industry in the ASSR of Germans of the Volga region by the beginning of a five-years period looked as follows: textile production gave 47.3% of gross industrial output (13.4 million rubles), knitted - 2.3% (662 thousand), tanning - 2.1% (585 thousand). Thus, these three industries produced 52% of all industrial output of the republic [28]. from year to year capital investments increased. By drawing up the five-year plan the central and regional bodies paid special attention to development of the textile industry. January 25, 1929. The Lower Volga regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) approved the development plan for the industry for 1928-1933 from 11 textile enterprises of edge 8 it was planned to create or reconstruct in the autonomous republic. In Baltser the new spinning mill on 100 thousand spindles and tinctorial was under construction - on 335 thousand poods of yarn, the weaver's, finishing fabrikia extended, production of fabric it was planned to increase from 11 to 50 mln m. In the village. Franck increased the power of Fortshritt weaving mill (from 210 to 500 machines). All enterprises were equipped with high-speed machines of the Platte system for production of motley fabric (sarpinka) [29]. In days of the first five-years period the textile industry continued to develop at the expense of historically developed shots of German weavers. In 1931 1242 workers, in 1932-1601 were engaged in it. At products cost it won first place, having given in 1932 36.6% of all products of the industry (13.1 million rubles) [30].

Tatar belonged to the ASSR to number of the leading branches of light industry the felting, sewing, tanning, shoe and beginning to develop fur. The new enterprises constructed in days of a five-years period had all-Union character, developed products for export [31]. Among large construction objects of Tataria there was a factory of the Kazan mekhkombinat. The first fur factory was put into operation in 1928. In July, 1929 the construction large sheepskin merlushechno - the astrakhan plant (OMKUZ) which took effect by the end began

1930 . For the fifth anniversary 13.4 million rubles were invested in construction of the mekhkombinat. It united five factories, two utilization plants, mechanical plant No. 7, FZU factory school, fur technical school and large-scale subsidiary farm. By the end of the first five-years period the plant produced about 50% of all fur products of the country [32].

Specific weight of light industry at the end of the fifth anniversary was 73.4% of all products of Tataria. [33] In all-union volume the republic produced 50.4% of valyany footwear, 9.2% of linen and 5.3% of sewing products. In 1928. Tatar released the ASSR 707 thousand pairs of leather footwear, in 1932 - 2399 thousand; the production of linen fabrics increased from 3893 thousand m (1928) to 4400 thousand (1932) [34].

Thus, light industry of the Volga region in days of the first five-years period achieved a certain progress: operating enterprises were reconstructed, technological process was improved, a number of the new enterprises of easy production was under construction. Much attention was paid to quality indicators of work: to increase in labor productivity, decrease in product cost. Hard work on decrease in turnover of staff, increase in labor discipline, training improvement was conducted.

list of sources and LITERATURE

1. GARF. T. 5457. Op. 14. 1. L. 73; GASO. F.R-672. Op. 1. 37. L. 53.
2. RGAE. T. 4372. Op. 26. 693(3). L. 237.
3. In the same place. L. 209, 237, 239; 1080. L. 17.
4. GASO. F.R-534. Op. 5. 9. L. 71-72; SOGASPI. T. 655. Op. 2. 13. L. 115-117, 254-257.
5. GARF. T. 5457. Op. 14. 1. L. 70.
6. GAPO. F. P-54. Op. 1. 32. L. 72-74.
7. GAPO. F.P-483. Op. 1. 152. L. 56-58.
8. GARF. T. 5457. Op. 14. 1. L. 72-73.
9. GAPO. F.R-381. Op. 1. 11. L. 35, 37-38.
10. In the same place. 9. L. 108; GARF. T. 5457. Op. 14. 1. L. 74.
11. Pravda. 1929. May 8. No. 102; GAPO. F.P-475. Op. 1. 79. L. 22.
12. For industrialization of Middle Volga. 1931. No. 4. - Page 22-23.
13. GAPO. F.P-483. Op. 1. 165. L. 39-40, 63-66.
14. GAPO. F.R-381. Op. 1. 154. L. 32-33.
15. In the same place. F.R-453. Op. 1. 1600. L. 11; F.P-672. Op. 1. 17. L. 35.
16. RGAE. T. 4372. Op. 29. 105. L. 36; GAPO. F.P-672. Op. 1. 59. L. 45.
17. GAPO. F.P-672. Op. 1. 37. L. 53.
18. In the same place. 10. L. 25.
19. Volga Commune. 1934. February 8.
20. GAPO. F.R-453. Op. 1. 1600. L. 11, 23; RGAE. T. 4372. Op. 31. 1494. L. 9-10.
21. RGAE. T. 4372. Op. 26. 1080. L. 16.
22. GAPO. F.R-453. Op. 1. 1600. L. 20; F.P-54. Op. 1. 32. L. 13.
23. GAPO. F.P-54. Op. 1. 36. L. 70, 78, 80-81; 32. L. 63; F.R-453. Op. 1. 1600. L. 24; F.R-381. Op. 1. 35. L. 95-98; F.P-670. Op. 1. 6. L. 7-8.
24. RGAE. T. 4372. Op. 31. 1588. L. 10.
25. GARF. T. 5457. Op. 14. 4. L. 58-59, 99, 113.
26. RGAE. T. 4372. Op. 31. 1588. L. 70; 1480. L. 171172.
27. The Saratov region in 70 years. Saratov, 1987. Page 30.
28. RGAE. T. 4372. Op. 31. 1588. L. 7-9.
29. N.A. Bolotov. The industry of the republic of Germans of the Volga region in the 1920-1930th//the History of Russia: problems of economic and socio-political development. - Volgograd, 1995. - Page 119.
30. RGAE. T. 4372. Op. 31. 1479. L. 223; 1588. L. 6.
31. GARF. F.A-261. Op. 1. 551. L. 30.
32. U.B. Belyalov. The leadership of the Communist Party in socialist industrialization in the national republics of Central Volga area (1926-1940). Kazan, 1978. Page 177-179.
33. GARF. F.A-261. Op. 1. 551. L. 30.
34. National economy Tatar ASSR. To become. sb. Kazan, 1957. Page 34.

UDC 947,084

sociocultural aspect of activity of COTTAGE INDUSTRY cooperation in the 1920th (on materials of the Volga region)

Lake of V. of YaGOV

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky Department of the contemporary history of Russia and study of local lore

In article the sociocultural aspect of activity of cooperation including policy on promoting of the cooperative movement through carrying out cultural and mass and educational activity, the organization of exhibitions, the museums and other forms of work is considered. On the example of cottage industry cooperation of the Volga region, the main problems interfering change of social shape of a cooperative system in the conditions of the New Economic Policy come to light.

Bolsheviks in days of the New Economic Policy used cooperation on only as the organizational form competing with the private capital, but also as a way of involvement of small producers in cultural construction. Also work on change of social shape of the cooperation was conducted. It has to be promoted by propaganda and promotion of the cooperative movement. Its forms were various, but orientation one - involvement of a small producer in socialist construction. For this purpose throughout all recovery period in the Volga region campaigns during which new members were involved in cooperation were conducted, the organizational system was improved. In the majority of the issued magazines of that time ("An economic way", Central Volga area, "Pravda's Sower", "A cooperative way", etc.) there were headings devoted to sociocultural problems of cooperation.

For promoting of the cooperative movement in the 1920th the close attention was paid to creation of the handicraft museums and holding exhibitions. In the Samara province for improvement of quality of handicraft products at GSNH courses for instructing of small producers were founded, exhibitions of handicraft products with award of awards for the best exhibits were organized, the indicative enterprises of advanced type [6] were organized.

The state realized huge value of various exhibitions for demonstration of progress of socialist construction. Therefore in December, 1921 the IX congress of Councils of RSFSR decided to hold the first All-Russian agricultural and handicraft and industrial exhibition. Originally it was planned to be opened in the fall of 1922. However in view of the large volume of works on the organization of an exhibition and mitigation of consequences of a crop failure its opening was postponed for 1923

In 1923 the cottage industry cooperatives of the Volga region participated in the All-Union agricultural and handicraft and industrial exhibition which opened on August 19, 1923 in Moscow. At a preliminary stage of preparation for an exhibition in all provinces of the region provincial exhibition committees which selected the most qualitative and competitive products [24 were created. On May 13].

In the Penza province the provincial exhibition committee was founded on December 2, 1922 (gubvy-stavky) which for preparation for the main exhibition of the country founded several commissions, including: cottage industry and cooperative [13. Page 51]. In counties of the province the district commissions of assistance on the principle of the organization of a gubvy-stavkom were organized [17]. Penza gubvystavky assumed to present down products, products of setevyazalny, shpagatny, rogozhno-kulevy and penkopryadilny productions on an exhibition.

Mary Powell
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