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Pan-mongolism in views of the ataman Semyonov

leonid KURAS


Attempts of creation by the ataman Semyonov with assistance of Japan of the pan-Mongolian state in Transbaikalia are shown in article.

In the article the attempts of creation of a Pan-Mongolian state by chieftain Semenov with the assistance from Japan are shown. Keywords:

pan-mongolism, ataman Semyonov, "Great Mongolia", Japanese military mission; Pan-Mongolizm, chieftain Semenov,

"Great Mongolia", Japanese military mission.

The pan-mongolism problem, including number and in views of the ataman Semyonov, traditionally is of scientific interest both to Russian, and to a foreign historiography. This interest is caused including growth of national consciousness of the Mongolian people and results of carrying out Convention of Mongols of the world (Ulan-Ude, July 15 — 18, 2010).

In special fund of the Central archive of Federal Security Service (CA FSB) of Russia there are stored 25 volumes "Cases on Charge of the Former White Guard Ataman Grigory Semyonov" 1. The most important aspect of this source is identification of geopolitical ambitions of the Transbaikal ataman who sought to unite the Mongolian people in the purposes and to create the federal velikomongolsky state.

The idea of a pan-mongolism as possibilities of a unification of the mongoloyazychny people begins to blossom after the victory of the Sinkhaysky revolution of 1911 which brought independence of Mongolia. This idea received a second wind in days of revolution and the Civil war in Russia. After falling of the first Soviet power in Transbaikalia the ataman G.M. Semyonov obsessed with the idea of association of the Mongolian tribes developed active work on creation of the pan-Mongolian state, relying at the same time on the Japanese soldiery and leaders of the Buryat national movement. The Japanese researcher T. Nakami mistakenly believes that "Semyonov and his supporters did not create public authorities therefore he had no official relations with the foreign states, in particular with Japan" 2. Meanwhile, G.M. Semyonov in September, 1918 started creation of local governments with assistance of Japan. The idea of the ataman Semyonov about creation of national military formations finds understanding at leaders of the Buryat national committee (Burnatskom). In the fall of 1918 the head of the Buryat national thought (the Burnarduma, being Burnatsk) E. - D. Rinchino begins a compulsory appeal in ranks the Buryat - the Mongolian crew Zorigto-Bator. The solution of the problems connected with arms and equipment of national Buryat formations was undertaken by G.M. Semyonov.

In the course of strengthening of own power in the Transbaikal region the ataman Semyonov ceases to recognize the Supreme governor admiral A.V. Kolchak and starts realization of the idea about creation of the pan-Mongolian state that coincided with


Vladimirovich — and. N, professor, chief researcher of Institute of a mongolovedeniye, buddologiya and tibetologiya of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

1 CA FSB of the Russian Federation, N-18765, in 25 t.
2 Nakami T. Semyonov and Mongolian troops//International congress of orientalists. T. II. - M, 2004, page 124.

implementation of militaristic plans of Japan and progress of the Buryat national movement. If Japan had territorial claims and aspiration to attach the territory of the Russian Far East, then leaders of the Buryat national movement in the years of Civil war had the view of a problem of autonomy and a pan-mongolism. For the Buryat the kolchakovsky administration was negative to the idea of autonomy extremely, having seen it attempt to destroy the unitary state. It promoted a unification of the Buryat intellectuals because of a pan-mongolism. The national movement the Buryat made great progress. Within two years Burnatsk independently directed local governments and achieved recognition of the Soviet power in the beginning, and then — the governments of the Transbaikal region of the ataman Semyonov.

In 1919 M. Semyonov started realization of the idea. At the beginning of February at the Dauria station the meeting of panmongolist at which the decision on holding a congress was made took place and the main directions of its work are developed. The meeting distributed the invitation to princes of Bargi, the Inner and External Mongolia. In conditions when in Japan there was no unanimity of views on a problem of creation of the state of panmongolist, and the relations with England, France and especially were the USA quite cool, the Japanese militaristic circles tried to veil the interest in development of the pan-Mongolian movement. Thereby the ataman G.M. Semyonov received carte blanche.

The congress of panmongolist began the work on February 25, 1919 in Chita. At it there were 16 delegates. The Buryat of Transbaikalia D. Sampilon, N. Dylykov, AA represented. - D. Rinchino, Vampilun, Tsydypov, Bimbayev. He passed under the chairmanship of Neyse-gegen (hutukhta) of the Inner Mongolia Nichi-Toyna Manda Baira. Having opened a congress, the chairman reminded that at the time of Genghis Khan all Mongolian tribes made a single whole, and then, with weakening of Mongols, some tribes got under the power of China, and some — under the power of Russia. The congress made the decision on formation of the independent federal velikomongolsky state which part had to be

The Inner and External Mongolia, Barga and the earth of Transbaikal drill. Delegates elected the government which received Daursky's name by the name of the Transbaikal station Dauria at which it was located. Elected the capital of the new state Hailar it was occupied by the Chinese troops.

The ataman G.M. Semyonov, his assistant Volgin, a Cossack captain Shadrin who at a congress acted as the translator, and the major of the Japanese occupational troops of Sudzui took part in work of a congress. The ataman Semyonov for special merits in creation of the pan-Mongolian state the decision of a congress was entitled "gytsun-van" — "the most Saint prince" and the invitation to become the first adviser of the new government. However activity of the ataman G.M. Semyonov was selfish. He suggested the new government to sign an agreement under which favorable concessions on development of minerals in the territory of "Great Mongolia" were provided to it. The new state created regular army in which it was planned to call 20 thousand from the Inner Mongolia, from Bargi — 1 thousand, from Transbaikalia — 3 thousand persons. The ataman Semyonov through the baron Ungern allocated to the Burnarduma an interest-free loan of 2 million rubles with kerenkas for material security and training of future military units. Also Japan was ready to grant the new government secretly a loan. The Japanese press with delight wrote about results of a congress, especially allocating merits of the ataman G.M. Semyonov. Then at a congress the delegation was elected to the Versailles peace conference, and the text of the declaration for publication at a conference is made. The idea of the pan-Mongolian movement and need of formation of "the certain full Mongolian state" was proved in the declaration.

During this period a certain romanticism was peculiar to panmongolist. Leaders of the Buryat national movement were convinced that the international community will meet new political education with approval. In Article "Great Powers and Independence of Mongolia" E. - D. Rinchino wrote that success of the Mongolian revolutionary-national movement and the announcement of Mongolia by the independent federal republic will be of great importance in political and

economic life of the Far East and Central Asia. But even more he interested a question of practical feasibility of the idea of independence of Mongolia declared by the all-Mongolian conference.

However ambassadors of allied powers refused to delegation the entry visa to France. Japan which fed the pan-Mongolian movement and staked on it in the foreign policy did not risk to support aspirations of panmongolist openly. Thus, plans of the ataman G.M. Semyonov and leaders of the Buryat national movement were not fated to be carried out.

There was also one more reason for which the young pan-Mongolian state had no future. The leadership of External Mongolia which, first, expected reaction of the leading powers of the world acted as the main opponent of formation of "Great Mongolia", and secondly, fairly was afraid of loss of own statehood.

An attempt to resolve these contradictions was made at a conference of panmongolist in Chita in May, 1919 on which the decision to send to USU to Bogdo-hanu delegation was made, having tempted him with a promise of a throne of the all-Mongolian khan. In case of disagreement of the last, the Daursky government was ready to send a military expedition to External Mongolia.

Without having an opportunity to interfere with development of the pan-Mongolian movement, A.V. Kolchak's government sent notes to the governments of England, France, SASS. Nevertheless with assistance of the ataman G.M. Semyonov the new state took a number of steps directed to implementation of decisions of a congress and strengthening of statehood. The management of the Burnarduma came into close contact with Provisional government of Mongolia and received from the headquarters of the Mongolian troops 1 million rubles kerenkas on terms of delivery of the cattle and syrya1. Conscription the Buryat of the Agin, Barguzin, Selenginsky and Horinsky aimags began. Together with Buryats also Buddhist Tungus were called. For preparation of national shots mlad-

1 National Archive of the Republic of Buryatia (NARB), t. 305, op. 1, 1, 10, l. 136-137.

shy commanders the Daursky school of ensigns from which future lieutenant general of Manchukuo Urzhin Garmayev graduated was created.

Fall of 1919. "The great Mongolian state" actually broke up. However the pan-Mongolian movement did not stop the existence and remained under dense guardianship of the ataman G.M. Semyonov. Without paying attention to discontent of leaders of the Burnarduma, the ataman uses the Buryat military formations at discretion. Attempt of one of leaders of the Buryat national movement of M.N. Bogdanov to protest against sending Buryat a tsagda towards Nerchinsk for fight against guerrilla army of Zhuravlev, and then on the Irkutsk front led to his death.

Thus, a child of the ataman G.M. Semyonov — the Daursky government of "Great Mongolia" — existed seven months (from February to September, 1919). The Red Army took the offensive, and by the end of 1919 the territory of Western and Eastern Siberia was freed from Kolchak soldiers. At the end of 1919 the ataman Semyonov has a plan of direct invasion into Mongolia. On the one hand, G.M. Semyonov did not give up hope to talk over Bogdo-gegen and to become stronger in Mongolia, and with another — sharply there was a question of leaving from promptly coming Red Army.

in the Fall of 1920 the idea of the ataman G.M. Semyonov about creation of the federal velikomongolsky state suffered checkmate. It was promoted not only by progress of the Soviet troops on East front, but also scope of the guerrilla movement to Transbaikalia and growth of discontent with policy of the Transbaikal ataman.

In emigration the geopolitical ambitions do not leave G.M. Semyonov. In the first volume of criminal case of the ataman G.M. Semyonov the record of interrogation conducted in Mukden on August 26, 1945 around action of the 6th tank armii2 is placed. From it it is obvious that G.M. Semyonov became the actual leader of the Russian emigration

2 CA FSB of the Russian Federation, special fund, N-18765, t. 244; The Kouros L.V. Ataman Semyonov in emigration (on materials of the first interrogation)//the History of white Siberia. Materials of the 5th International scientific conference 4 — on February 5, 2003 — Kemerovo, 2003, page 224-226.

in Manchuria. He got back to the idea of a pan-mongolism again that corresponded also to plans of the Defense Ministry of Japan. At the initiative of the Japanese military mission in Harbin and with direct participation of the ataman G.M. Semyonov the Main bureau for the Russian emigrants (BREM)1 which united more than 50 emigre organizations was created. At the same time Grigory Semyonov was not only the leader of the Russian emigration in Manchuria, but also the conductor of policy of Japan in the Far East. Proceeding from testimonies of the ataman, he in 1934-1936 repeatedly met the head of the Japanese military mission major general Ando who suggested it to prepare the project about possible creation of the buffer state in Sovetsk Primorye where then it was planned to move emigrants, using at the same time methods of both ideological, and power pressure. Later it met the former commander of the Japanese troops in China general Nakamura who believed that it is not necessary to be limited to the territory of Primorye and the buffer should be expanded to Baikal. G.M. Semyonov established a continuous communication with the head of the Mongolian Federation in Kalgan (Inner Mongolia). In 1941 Semyonov prepared the project of creation of the uniform Mongolian state, assuming association of the Mongolian People's Republic and the Inner Mongolia, considering new education as the buffer between the USSR and Japan. At the initiative of G.M. Semyonov in Hingana the Mongolian military units under the leadership of Japanese began to be formed

1 N.E. Ablova. History KVZhD and the Russian emigration in China (first half of the 20th century). — M, 1999.

officers, the officer school for Mongols is created. In circles of white emigration, not without coordination with Japanese, the issue of creation in Transbaikalia of the state as Manchukuo and appointment of Semenova2 as his tsar of the ataman was discussed. This idea received realization in plans of the headquarters of Kvantunsky army. In July, 1941, according to messages of the Soviet investigation, implementation of this plan had to begin with capture by Germans of Moscow then "military units of the Russian emigrants under command of the lieutenant general A.P. Baksheev will enter on the territory of Transbaikalia from Manchuria. The anti-Soviet power led by the ataman G.M. Semyonov will be proclaimed. After that Semyonov will ask Japan for military aid at once. The Kvantunsky headquarters will send the troops and will begin actions against the Red Army together with Baksheev. It Japanese avoid declaration of war of the USSR" 3.

In 1944 the chief of the Japanese military mission major general Akikusa suggested to replace the Japanese troops in China with the Mongolian troops which formation the ataman Semyonov had to carry out.

Thus, and in the years of the Civil war in Russia, and in emigration G.M. Semyonov had own vision of the idea of creation of the pan-Mongolian state, being guided at the same time by great-power plans of Japan.

2 Archive of Management FSB of the Russian Federation on the Republic of Buryatia, t. 2, op. 1, 4. l. 73, 97.
3 A.V. Solovyov. Disturbing everyday life of the Transbaikal counterintelligence//Tells archives of intelligence agencies of the Chita region. — M, 2003, page 258.
Frances Kelly
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