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Public policy on training of officers and completing of troops of communication by it in days of the Great Patriotic War


Anatoly ZHARSKY, Vladimir KHOKHLOV

public policy on training of officers and completing of troops of communication by it in days of the Great Patriotic War

From the beginning of the Great Patriotic War also the system of training for troops of communication, and a rhythm of activity of military schools changed. Experience of war showed that positive technical control of troops is provided with soldiers operators.

The training of the personnel for the signal forces, rhythm of activity of their high military institutions has changed at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. The experience of the Great Patriotic War proved the fact that the reliable technical control over the forces was achieved by the soldiers-signallers.

courses of second lieutenants and junior military technicians, reserve officers, advanced training courses, practical method of training, reserves, training terms; courses for junior officers and military technicians, retired officers, advanced training courses, practical method of training, reserves, terms of training.

ZHARSKIYA Anatoly Petrovich — to. soldier. N, lieutenant colonel reserved officer, senior research associate of Institute of military history of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation of

Vladimir Sergeyevich KHOKHLOV is a colonel reserve officer, the member of the Russian Writers' Union, the president of the All-Russian public organization of graduates, commanders, teachers of the Donetsk highest military-political school of engineering troops and troops of communication and members of their families of

The first days of war showed that the system of preparation of officer shots existing in peace time cannot provide adequately a necessary reserve of officers and experts of communication for expansion of field army and completion of their loss during fighting.

The emergency actions for the accelerated training for troops of communication were carried out in pursuance of the directive of the General Staff of June 30, 1941 which significantly corrected the system of preparation of officer shots for troops of communication in the conditions of the begun war, including terms of preparation, the program, quantity and structure of military educational institutions (higher education institutions) of troops of communication and their completing.

The order of the National commissariat of defense No. 0229 of July 16, 1941 established the reduced training terms for naborov1 that gave the chance considerably to increase release of officers.

For the accelerated training of commanders of companies of communication from among command structure of a stock the directive provided the organization at some schools of communication of three-months courses. According to the instruction of the General Staff from 2.7.1941 50 people studied g at these courses at the Leningrad school, at Kiev — 60 and at Voronezh — 302.

For speeding up of training of commanders of platoons the network of district and front courses of second lieutenants was expanded, and terms of training at them are reduced to 1 — 3 months. At some districts, courses of second lieutenants for training only of commanders of platoons svyazi3 were created. In February, 1943 their preparation was stopped and requirement was satisfied at the expense of graduates uchilishch4.

The state made the decision on expansion of network of higher education institutions of communication. In particular, former Murom advanced training courses

1 CAMO Russian Federation, t. 71, op. 12171, 13, l. 76.
2 In the same place, l. 90.
3 In the same place, 3, l. 102.
4 In the same place, 107, l. 60-61.

the commanding structure of communication by August 1, 1941 were reorganized into the Murom military college of communication; The Mogilev advanced training courses of a nachsostav of communication of a stock relocated to Kuibyshev were transformed on August 15, 1941 to the Kuibyshev military college svyazi1.

All military colleges svyazi2 were transferred to new states with increase in number of cadets to 2,000 persons. In addition, in connection with increase of a role of a radio communication in management of troops, about one radio battalion numbering 400 people variable sostava3 was entered into the structure of the Leningrad, Kiev, Murom and Ulyanovsk schools of communication.

When completing military schools of communication by variable structure the directive demanded to be guided by the following installations:

a) the command faculty of academy is completed with the officers of troops of communication having a command experience not less than a year and which mainly got fighting experience;

b) engineering faculties of academy and military faculty of MIIS are completed with students of 3 — 4 courses of civil higher education institutions of related specialties in number of 75% of the general reception, and 25% — nachsostavy of troops;

c) military colleges of communication are completed with the persons liable for call-up of a stock having full and incomplete secondary education.

At the same time, even taking into account the above measures, younger officers was not enough. It was connected with considerable fighting losses among junior officers and also need of completion of continuously formed new parts and divisions of communication. Therefore command was forced to go also to such measure as appointment to command positions of the foremen who caused a stir in fights, sergeants and privates who well seized specialty with the subsequent assignment by it corresponding officer zvaniy4.

Due to the transition of academy of communication,

1 In the same place, 13, l. 76.
2 Except for the Kiev military college of communication. — Primech. bus
3 CAMO Russian Federation, t. 71, op. 12171, 83, l. 197.
4 The collection of materials on studying experience of war No. 23. - M.: Voyenizdat, 1947, page 126-127.

schools and courses it was necessary to change to the reduced terms of training radically training programs, to reduce amount of the studied disciplines. For listeners and cadets the 12-hour working day (8 hours of planned cool and field classes and 4 hours of obligatory self-preparation) was established. The main emphasis in teaching was placed on formation at listeners and cadets of practical skills. The directive GUSKA of July 6, 1941 demanded: "Exclusively practical method of training has to be the basis for preparation. From the first day of study the cadets have to study in the field, at various area, day and night in any weather and it is obligatory with an equipment, getting practical receptions and skills on providing uninterrupted combat liaison" 5.

Extremely tense situation with completing of troops officer shots was also caused also by need of urgent moving by fall of 1941 of some higher education institutions of communication to eastern regions of the country. So, the Leningrad school of communication was relocated to Uralsk (Kazakhstan) 6, Kiev — in by Krasnoyarsk7, and VETAS — in Tomsk8.

To summer of 1942 the certain experience of the accelerated training of officers of troops of communication was accumulated. "The instruction about an order of holding final examinations in military colleges of communication", approved as the deputy people's commissar of defense, the chief of GUSKA, the lieutenant general I.T. Peresypkin on July 6, 1942 became the document generalizing this experience. It determined the volume of knowledge of the graduate of military college of communication.

According to this instruction, final examinations were held on the following disciplines: political preparation, the communication service, topography, drill, work on a key, reception aurally and station and operational service, army radio stations and cable and telephone business. Exams were held komis-

5 CAMO Russian Federation, t. 71, op. 12171, 83, l. 12-15.
6 In the same place, t. Leningrad school of communication, op. 393281, 1, l. 101.
7 In the same place, t. Kiev school of communication, op. 110978, 3, l. 112.
8 Military academy of communication Decorated with the Order of the Red Banner of the Order of Lenin: historical essay (1919 — 1999). - L.: YOU, page 55.

these which chairmen were appointed the chief of GUSKA. According to the directive of Head department of personnel of NPO and the deputy people's commissar of defense I.T. Peresypkin, to graduates the military rank "lieutenant" in case of the termination of school on "well" and "perfectly" or "second lieutenant" was given at the termination of school with assessment "indifferently" 1.

At the same time sharp reduction of terms of training of officers had an adverse effect on quality of their preparation. Qualification of graduates of schools and academy in the first years of war was low. Quite often from fronts complaints to weak training of graduates of schools, their inability to work on means of communication and bad knowledge as them material chasti2 arrived.

Only in 1943 in troops of communication officers reserves began to collect (the number of a reserve of fronts and GUSKA by the end of this year was 6 thousand people). It gave the chance since July 1, 1943 to increase training terms in military colleges of communication up to 2 years, and in academy and the Moscow institute of communications engineers - up to 4.5 years.

Further when the Red Army finally seized a strategic initiative (i.e., since the second half of 1943), the situation on fronts allowed to carry out some more actions for improvement of training of signal officers, namely:

>- finally to stabilize terms of training and to bring them to the level of pre-war;

>- to improve the system of selection of entrants for higher education institutions and courses of troops of communication;

>- to complete academy, schools and courses of troops of communication by more qualified faculty;

>- taking into account experience of the Great Patriotic War to start improvement of the organization of educational process and educational and methodical work in academy, schools, on courses;

>- to improve supply of higher education institutions of communication with an equipment;

>- to increase the responsibility of cadets, listeners for progress and to enter to -

1 CAMO Russian Federation, t. 71, op. 12171, 94, l. 72-75.
2 In the same place, 83, l. 13-14.

polnitelny measures of stimulation of graduates by establishment of categories and lgot3.

Experience of war confirmed that the best contingent for replenishment of officer shots of troops of communication are the foremen and sergeants who perfectly mastered the equipment of the specialty at practical work. Therefore since 1944 not lower than 7 classes of high school began to admit mainly ordinary and non-commissioned officer's structure of troops of connection with education to schools of communication, and in academy - it is not lower than 10 classes of officers with education, having practical experience in troops of communication during not less than 2 let4.

Completing by their faculty members was a serious problem for military schools of troops of communication. At the beginning of war many teachers were directed to formation of the developed parts of communication. Instead of them the commanders called from a stock, or who, at best, had the accelerated training went to schools. The vast majority of them had no experience of teaching work. In schools of communication there was a considerable shortage of faculty members: in the Leningrad school of communication - 30 teachers, in Kiev - 29, etc. 5

According to the decision of the State committee of defense in 1943-1944 a number of the events directed, first, to elimination of "fluidity" of shots and, secondly, to improvement of quality of constant officers in higher education institutions of communication is held. It was forbidden to second constant officers from higher education institutions of communication. Measures to replenishment of schools by missing officers by special selection of officers from field army were at the same time taken. In line with the public personnel policy also recertification of constant structure of higher education institutions of communication was carried out: the teachers who are not meeting requirements imposed to employees of higher education institutions were subject to replacement with participants of the Great Patriotic War. In schools of communication for teaching and team work during this period of time was naprav-

3 In the same place, t. 54, op. 12301, 175, l. 70-73.
4 In the same place, t. 71, op. 12171, 230, l. 18; 159, l. 65-66; 239, l. 8-9.
5 In the same place, 239, l. 27.

Lena more than 1000 ofitserov1. Besides, during the period from May, 1943 to May, 1944 passed a training of 210 teachers of higher education institutions of communication at the front.

The tendency to growth of qualification of the faculty was outlined. For example, in academy of communication by the end of 1944 of 62% of teachers had academic degrees and ranks; 18 people worked on theses during this period, including 5 officers were applicants of degree of the doctor nauk2.

the state began to give

Much more attention to supply of higher education institutions with the new technology of communication. In the first and the beginning of the second period of war security of higher education institutions of communication with property of communication averaged 25-30% of regular requirement. On May 19, 1944 the chief GUSKAizdal the order "About Training of Commanders and Technicians in Schools of Communication" in which demanded: "... at revenues to supply of troops of the new equipment to give it in academy and higher education institutions of communication from the first parties. To Dosnabdit higher education institutions of communication by samples of the latest technology of communication" 3. By the end of 1943 all schools of communication communication was completely provided with the put property, and the material and technical resources of higher education institutions of communication surpassed pre-war level in the general level and quite provided training of military operators in the conditions of wartime.

Providing higher education institutions of communication with educational literature, the manuals, the guides and charters reflecting experience of the Great Patriotic War improved. Only in the first half of 1944 in schools of communication 36,375 copies of educational editions, were sent to MIIS voyenfak to VETAS - 6,840 copies, - 3,285 copies, to courses uso-

1 Along with it the field army in a replacement procedure received highly qualified personnel from higher education institutions which, thanks to good theoretical preparation, quickly accustomed to a front situation, gained fighting experience and successfully directed parts and divisions of communication when performing complex combat missions.
2 CAMO Russian Federation, t. 71, op. 12171, 210, l. 21-24; 304, l. 3-5.
3 In the same place, 253, l. 48; 303, l. 45.

an officers vershenstvovaniye -

3 017 pieces. For academy of communication and a voyenfak of MIIS it was written out foreign literature, mainly technical, for 23,000 currency rub

A number of new textbooks was published. So, for schools of communication new textbooks on radio engineering, electrical equipment, telephony, telegraphy, the communication service were published. In all these textbooks the experience of war was as much as possible considered.

As for issues of increase in responsibility of trainees and their stimulation, it should be noted the following here. The national commissioner of defense accurately established by the order procedure for determining quality of progress of cadets and listeners, estimates of educational divisions and criteria of definition of categories for graduates of military colleges of communication. Order of the primary choice of vacancies for vypuskni-kov-excellent students was restored. The statute of "The excellent student's board" according to which on it surnames of the listeners and cadets who graduated from higher education institution with honors were brought was entered.

Besides, in academy of communication for promotion of work of excellent students and stimulation of scientific growth of listeners the following pooshchreniya4 was applied: upon termination of each academic year the outstanding listeners excellent students were represented to award of a scholarship; for listeners - personalized scholars and excellent students special cards which were handed at a general meeting of faculty by the chief of faculty were established and granted the right to a number of privileges and advantages.

Thus, the system of training of signal officers, experiencing difficulties at the beginning of war, by the end of 1942 adapted to conditions of large-scale fighting and further, thanks to a complex of the above actions, quite satisfied requirements of field army.

4 In the same place, 232, l. 170; 368, l. 10-11.
Eduard Michael
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