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Category: History


str. 1 of 6 E.B. Firsov


In a historiography of domestic culture recently again the keen interest in history of cultural life of the Russian province is observed.

The appeal to the offered subject is caused by requirement of studying provincial culture because at the end of the 20th century in public consciousness in the relation to the province certain changes are observed.

In Russia the word "province" and derivatives from it are approved at a boundary of the XVII-XVIII centuries, after administrative reform of Peter I. In fight of Novaya Gazeta Europeanized and "old", pre-Pertine, traditional culture was overshadowed, on the periphery of cultural development. Therefore cultural differences already at a boundary of the XVIII-XIX centuries began to be perceived as "split of the Russian culture".

Provincial culture became a symbol of all stagnant, "old", inert, hostile to social progress. A.I. Herzen wrote about "two different Rossiyakh": imperial, noble, got an external, "overseas" education, and "communal", "the black people", not capable to estimate it "imported education". [1] V.O. Klyuchevsky in sketches to lectures about "The western influence in Russia after Pyotr" wrote, how about "a gap between ancient and new Russia", and about "emergence as a result of it "two hostile warehouses and the directions of our life which turned society on fight with each other"". [2]

The concept of "split of national culture" became widespread in modern scientific literature. This problem was investigated at the time by P.N. Milyukov, N.P. Antsiferov, I.M. Grevs, N.K. Piksanov and others. The problem of "split of the Russian culture" is quite in detail studied up to the 19th century. But as for the culture of a boundary of the XIX-XX centuries, in a modern domestic historiography the aspiration to explain bifurcation of culture with split of the society is observed. Consecutive consideration of the Russian culture as the systems of subcultures is represented to the most perspective. The place and traditional, and "capital" culture found in space of the Russian culture of the province.

Russia was always the country of big spaces. The world of culture of provincial Russia is not less difficult, than the world of "capital" culture. Therefore, addressing the culture of the province, it is necessary to distinguish the culture of different territories in three foreshortenings.

The first: on remoteness degree from its administrative and cultural centers, that is St. Petersburg and Moscow.

The second: on extent of penetration and reproduction of cultural capital forms.

The third: on development of historical and cultural local traditions.

It is necessary to consider local specifics as result of the difficult, mediated interaction of the economic, political and ideological factors peculiar to each single historical period.

The appeal to a subject is obviously important also because by the end of the 19th century there was a considerable evolution in idea of provincial Russia. The province realized the importance and relevancy. Provincial culture ceased to play a passive role in perception of "program", "advanced" impulses from the cultural centers. Sometimes the province set an example in ability to create culture. Studying a role of the province, provincial culture as "keepers of traditions" which is important for development of new culture is important.

Besides the aforesaid the studying activity of representatives of provincial culture of "a side of centuries" who considered point of the creativity a statement is represented extremely important

a priority of the person with all richness of his spirituality. In this regard it should be noted two specific characteristics of provincial culture. First, it is universalism of the provincial intellectuals. As a rule, the same person created societies, opened libraries, taught in one of local educational institutions. It is also type of the intellectual social activist. Secondly, the intellectuals were in the center of local circles, salons, "cultural nests". At the same time creative process was carried out in the form of dialogue of the center and provinces in which the last remained not only "the keeper of traditions", but also the cultural peculiar potential on the basis of which any innovations in the capitals gained development.

Therefore studying cultural capacity of the province, in relation to the culture of the Silver age because "at the beginning of the century difficult, often painful fight of people of the Renaissance against narrowness of consciousness of the traditional intellectuals was conducted, - fight for the sake of spirit is represented important". [3]

Approach of new century bore with itself new political, social, moral problems. At the end of the 19th century the life of the province and its culture became inseparable from all Russian life and culture. In this regard the question is represented important: if the Silver age was not complete as a cultural era, then, having begun in the center whether it in general reached the province? And what elements were shown in the province?

As a result of the general cultural development of the country which considerably was reflected and on the provincial public, the province by the end of the 20th century strongly rose in opinion of the capitals. Correctly to estimate a role of provincial culture in the system of culture in general, it is necessary to address consideration of the intellectual field of culture. It includes not only the system of education and education, the museums, libraries, the publishing centers, forms of intellectual communication presented by various combinations of the scientific, cultural and public plan but also actually carriers - intellectual elite of provincial society.

The Penza province is indicative in this regard.

The All-Russian census of 1897 showed that 123.3 million Russians lived in the province and only 2.3 million - in the capitals. Urban population in provinces there were 14.5 million, that is is 6.3 times more, than in the capitals. In the Penza province 1,470,474 persons lived, from them 139,838 - in the provincial center. The literacy of the population respectively was 36.4% in the city and 14.7% in the province. [4]

In the province the gymnasiums forming the basis of an educational system became the centers of cultural, educational and educational life, as a rule. The fact that teaching personnel for gymnasiums prepared originally at the universities is remarkable, and is later in special teacher's rooms and Pedagogical Institutes. The cultural environment of the province was formed, therefore, in an education system. "The Penza provincial sheets" about it wrote: "The most noticeable event of the present week, undoubtedly, it is necessary to recognize opening at us in the city of Penza of teacher's seminary... Opening of this institution our society... looked forward long ago as the need for education was felt every year more and stronger, and together with it become more and more oshchutitelny a lack of the people who are specially prepared for departure of a duty of teachers". [5]

In the Penza province in the second half of the 19th century there were 102 educational institutions. In the most provincial center, besides Noble institute, the teacher's seminary, a men's gymnasium, theological seminary, school of gardening, two women's schools worked.

The noble institute was open on January 1, 1844 on donations of noblemen. It was average educational institution for children of noblemen and officials. It existed till 1863 and was famous for the teachers. V.I. Zakharov who graduated the Main Pedagogical Institute in St. Petersburg and V.I. Loginov, the graduate of the Kazan university worked as teachers of literature, the teacher of natural sciences - V.A. Aunovsky, the graduate of the Main Pedagogical Institute in St. Petersburg. They were distinguished by goodwill to pupils, care of moral formation of the personality, high insistence to itself. The work at institute they, responding to progressive ideas of time, were combined with vigorous public work.

In 1859 in Russia free sunday schools, and then and territorial began to appear. Penza

the province was not an exception. In 1864, territorial schools here too appear, in 1867 the territorial Medical assistant's school opened, and the teacher's seminary training teachers for elementary schools opened on September 12, 1874 doors. As we see, by the end of the 19th century in the Penza province there was on the person growth of number of educational institutions. But gymnasiums remained cultural and education centers. After closing of Noble institute the building in which it was placed, the provincial power were delegated to a men's gymnasium.

The Penza men's gymnasium - one of the oldest educational institutions of Russia. The national school which formed the basis to a gymnasium was open at the empress Catherine II in 1786. As the gymnasium is an institution exists since 1804

Progress of the Penza gymnasium and strengthening of her authority in the educational district would not be possible without activity of wonderful teachers. Doctor P.F. Filatov who became famous to all Russia wrote: "It is impossible to forget the outstanding developed person V.V. Hokhryakov teaching us history. This teacher struck me with the method of teaching, and a subject, hated to me before, became my darling". [6] Other pupil of Hokhryakov - M., Zagibalov, the member of an ishutinsky circle, noted: "He taught us to pay attention to point of events and their influence on mankind, but not to the empty list of the facts". [7]

Among graduates of the 70th of the 19th century there were such which became national history: Nikolay Pavlovich Zagoskin is a professor and the rector of the Kazan university, Neil Fedorovich Filatov, the founder of pediatrics, brothers Beketov - Andrey - the botanist, the honorary member of the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences, one of organizers of the High female courses, Nikolay is fiziko-chemist, the academician, Alexander Solomonovich Razmadze is professor of the Moscow conservatory, the composer, the author of works according to the theory of music. And Konstantin Romanovich Evgrafov (ended in 1877) became one of founders of public libraries.

High professional level of figures of education in the province defined that public and social role which was played by provincial gymnasiums not only in the province, but also in the capital and in Russia in general. Many provincial scientists and writers started the career teachers of provincial gymnasiums and schools.

So, the director of the Penza gymnasium R.A. Shabre received an academic degree of the doctor of philology and occupied professorial department at the Kazan university, and the teacher of the Penza gymnasium V. Perevoshchikov also became professor of the Kazan university. The first carried out reform on transformation of the Penza gymnasium to the gymnasium consisting of classical and real offices, the last, being a teacher of a gymnasium, was engaged in scientific activity what he received the master's degree for. Thus, gymnasiums, being the centers of provincial intellectual elite, prepared shots for the university centers, promoting formation of cultural potential both the province, and all Russia.

Folding of the intellectual environment - process long. It can both accelerate, and to slow down. It depends on a condition of educational cultural and educational institutions and information means.

By the beginning of the 20th century Penza had the status of the provincial city. Significant events for residents of the province was opening of railway traffic, the cable station, the first printing house in the second half of the 19th century. And the beginning of the 20th century in Penza was marked by creation of office of Imperial Russian technical society (1902), the Penza society of fans of natural sciences (1905) and the Natural-historical museum.

October 3, 1892. "The Penza provincial sheets" informed on opening of public library. The group of the Penza intellectuals in 1890 began to strive on need of opening for the provincial center of public library of M.Yu. Lermontov. "Long-awaited opening of the Penza public library" as reported "The Penza provincial sheets", took place on October 1, 1892 "in the presence of the governor A.A. Goryanov, the mayor, some chiefs of educational institutions, members of library and numerous public". According to the newspaper, the opened library "aims to fill an essential gap in educational institutions of Penza" which, "despite large number of the population, still not

had rather full, and, above all, all population, the library answering to inquiries, whenever possible". And "requirement in rather full and all an available collection of books of literary and scientific character was felt by all quite numerous intellectual part of the Penza society long ago and unanimously". [8]

In 1897 the public library in Penza totaled 1,028 readers. Generally it were pupils of gymnasiums, real, craft, technical, railway and parish schools, theological seminary, drawing school of N.D. Seliverstov, female gymnasiums, medical assistant's and Sunday schools. Officials of civil service, the face of trade estate and liberal professions, a ministry, military were her readers also.

Joined the board of the Penza public library: member of district court V.A. Volzhin, companion of the chairman of district court V.M. Ivanov, district doctor V.M. Manuylov, teacher of real school and female gymnasium V.V. Makletsov, director of national schools T.D. Kolosovsky, merchant of the 2nd guild V.N. Umnov and others. The initiative in establishment of public library was undertaken by the teacher of the Penza real school Vasily Vasilyevich Makletsov, and carried out conceived - the doctor Victor Matveevich Manuylov.

Thus, creation of library was business of exclusively public initiative. At the same time the characteristic sign of the provincial intellectual was detected: it was implemented as

the universal personality who is actively participating in various spheres and prosveshchenchesky activity.

In the system of the components which determined the general level and separate parameters of intellectual life in the province, the important place should be allocated to also book business - an enlightenment basis.

To reconstruct a circle of reading and level of art tastes of public, it is necessary to address the list of periodicals which the library already known to us had. Here received daily newspapers: "Citizen", "Modern times", "Russian sheets", "Russian life".

"Saratov leaf", St. Petersburg, Kharkiv and Penza provincial Vedomosti, "Practical life", "Craft newspaper", Vestnik Europy and Russkaya mysl, Severny vestnik, Russkoye bogatstvo, Bozhy Mir, Zapiski imperatorskogo Tekhnicheskogo obshchestva, Sbornik Imperatorskogo Russkogo Istoricheskogo obshchestva magazines. [9]

By the beginning of the 20th century in Penza there were nine bookstores which trade affairs developed quite successfully.

These circumstances of cultural life accelerated process of socialization of the province, increased interest in awareness of the importance by it in country life. Polarization of public forces at the beginning of the 20th century led to reconsideration of spiritual life in general, to emergence on cultural half of the province of type of the personality for which activity becomes way of personal self-expression.

As the cultural history of the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries shows, creative search of any rubezhny era is reproduced in consciousness of contemporaries in the form of dialogue new with old. At the same time it is necessary to remind that the Russian province always acted as the spiritual potential of the Russian culture as the touch to this tradition is a touch to "live heritage", and it in turn is a constant source for any latest currents in literature and art.

In one of reports of the Penza public library of M.Yu. Lermontov it was noted that "insistence of the Penza public spoiled by different izvestnost and celebrities such is what to invite them to Penza very and very hard business". However, despite such statement, board members did everything possible that in Penza prominent Russian writers, doctors, choristers, public figures, teachers could visit and meet readers: professor of the St. Petersburg university N.I. Kareev, professor of the Moscow university of columns L.A. Komarovsky, literary critic and historian Yu.I. Aykhveld, famous critic and historian P.S. Kogan and others.

The circle of subjects with which celebrities performed was diverse. So, on January 16, 1913 by the invitation of the lecture commission of a theatrical circle of V.G. Belinsky Penza was visited by the historian N.N. Gusev who was the personal secretary of L.N. Tolstoy. And on February 23, 1914 in the hall

meetings of commerce and industry employees the lecture "Decadent and Modernist Current to the Russian Literature" with which the privatdozent of the Moscow university A.I. Pokrovsky performed took place.

It is necessary to notice that Penza of a turn of centuries much more advanced other country towns in readiness of perception new and it was informed on fresh courses of art. Penza was included into the program of any tour of actors, poets, musicians as was on the Great Siberian way.

At the beginning of the 20th century especially big development is gained by art experimentalism in different types of art. It is explained by community of creative and even vital interests of artists, poets, actors, musicians. As a rule, communication of young innovators happened in an informal situation: from numerous salons and cafe to religious and philosophical societies.

Among fashionable and infamous artistic cafes in St. Petersburg there was a Stray dog cellar where people of various professions and a social status gathered. Here K. Balmont, O. Mandelstam, F Sollogub, V. Ivanov read the verses. N. Gumilev, A. Akhmatova, M., Kuzmin. Here concerts, theater productions, musical premieres were organized. In the province of similar scandalous institutions there was a little as cultural forces appeared insufficiently. However in the same 10th of the 20th century there were closer professional associations which had not so bohemian character. And here the province told the word.

One of them - the well-known association of the Moscow artists "The jack of diamonds", one of organizers of which became the graduate of the Penza art school A.V. Lentulov. In 1909 Lentulov participated in an exhibition of artists in Penza on which he presented surprising work: "L.G. Tsege's portrait".

Lidiya Grigoryevna Tsege was a wife of the Penza businessman patronizing art. She was gifted musically from the mother, the graduate of the Warsaw conservatory, and trained herself for concert activity. But acquaintance to Konstantin Karlovic Tsege and a marriage changed her life. They were united by deep passion to new, though in different areas (art and the equipment). This need to express itself publicly became the reason of foundation of their literary and musical salon which was visited by local officials and intellectuals and also young artists from the Penza art school. Time of emergence of salon belongs to a casual meeting of L.G. Tsege with the young artist A. Lentulov. During the portraiture sessions the circle of acquaintances of Lidiya Grigoryevna extends, at the same time also the salon extends. For the 10-year period of its existence visited here: V. Tatlin, M., Gerasimov, V. Bublyuk and others.

The value of activity of family of Tsege for development of local cultural life is high first of all the fact that around them the Penza intellectuals were grouped. The yesterday's provincial becomes the considerable personality, realizes this importance and seeks to show it. Exactly thanks to such creative people the intellectual field of culture of the province extends due to involvement in process of cultural creativity of different layers.

In 1914 Penza became one of 17 cities of Russia which visited during the tour young futurists: Vl. Mayakovsky, D. Burliuk, V. Kamensky. And not only because then in Penza in local art school the younger brother of David - Vladimir Burliuk studied. As it was already told, in the city by this time around salon of the Tsege family there was a circle of the Penza intellectuals. And pupils of the Penza art school were literally "raspropagandirovana" Vladimir Burliuk who was also a participant of this tour. As we see, arrival of futurists to Penza first of all was caused by the high level of readiness of local public.

It is possible to claim that the Silver age not only reached the province, but also took place. This conclusion especially is probable that, according to V.F. Khodasevich, supported by modern researchers, "the creative power of the intellectuals" was the cause of the Renaissance of the Silver age. "The Russian Renaissance" "was entirely obliged by the existence to really heroic intellektualnotvorchesky effort of the intellectuals of a turn of centuries". [10]

Speaking about the provincial intellectuals, we have to pay tribute to her cultural enthusiasm. Thanks to its efforts in the provincial cities at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries the new museums, libraries, musical classes and art schools opened, theaters functioned, were carried out

concerts and exhibitions, scientific organizations and literary and musical salons were created, the celebrations of literary and scientific anniversaries began.

In the culture of a turn of centuries there was a connection of traditions of leaving "Golden Age" and the new art directions, connection of efforts of capital and provincial culture.


[1] A.I. Herzen. Chosen literary critiques and notes. M.,1984. Page 208; A.I. Herzen. Chosen philosophical works. T.2. M.,1948. Page 267.

[2] V.O. Klyuchevsky. Unpublished works. M.,1984. Page 363.

[3] N.A. Berdyaev. Russian idea//philosophy Questions. 1990. No. 2. Page 135.

[4] The first general population census of the Russian Empire of 1897. Issue XXX. Penza province. SPb., 1903. Page 1.

[5] Penza provincial sheets. 1874. On Sep. 14

[6] P.P. Zelensky. A historical essay of the Penza 1st gymnasium from 1804 to 1871. Penza, 1889.

[7] In the same place.

[8] Penza provincial sheets. 1892. On Oct. 1

[9] State archive of the Penza region. F.5. Op.1. 6858. L.1

[10] Birch L.G. A silver age in Russia: unity without integrity//Russia during modern times: unity and variety in historical development. M.,2000. Page 83.

David Kim
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