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To the HISTORY of FORMATION of KAZYMSKY KOMI In the 1920-1930th.

vestnik of archeology, anthropology and ethnography. 2010. No. 2 (13)


In the 1920-1930th

N.A. Liskevich, V.V. Farnosova

On the basis of the analysis of field materials and archival sources the initial stage of formation of kazymsky Komi in the 1920-1930th, dynamics of their number, social composition, formation of collective farm and marketability of reindeer-breeding economy are considered.

Komi, Komi-izhemtsy, Kazy, collective farm of Skachko, Kazymsky cultural base.

An important part of ethnohistorical researches is studying migration processes, identification of details of formation of the centers of compact resettlement of ethnoareal groups outside the territory of initial accommodation, their adaptation to the new natural and social environment of dwelling and mechanisms of preservation of ethnocultural heritage. Memories of the general historical past, joint practice of development of the new territory become a powerful factor of consolidation of group and maintaining ethnic identity. Historical legends, stories about legendirovanny characters, the landscape elements reflecting activity of ancestors serve as the cultural symbols significant for ethnic identification, and are important historical and ethnographic sources. It is in this regard interesting to track change of historical memory and to reveal the most significant plots on the history of formation in representatives of the ethnoareal groups living in the new territory during two-three generations.

In 2010 field researches in the villages of Kazym and Polnovat for collecting data on details of an initial stage of formation of ethnoareal group kazymsky komi1 were conducted, field materials were complemented with data from archival sources. Modern the Komi (Komi-Zyrian) population of Northwest Siberia descends from the Komi - the Izhma immigrants from the region of Komi whose migration movement in Berezovsky the district (county) of the Tobolsk province began in the first third of the 19th century and proceeded until the end of the 1920th — the beginning of the 1930th [An occasion, 2006, page 48-70]. The period since the end of the 19th century to the middle of the 1920th was noted by expansion of borders of the territory of resettlement of the Komi-izhemtsev in Berezovsky edge, settlement groups near the rivers Nadym, Nyda, by Kazy, Pur are formed.

In spite of the fact that the group of kazymsky Komi was created late enough, it is insufficiently investigated in the ethnographic relation. Separate mentions of residence of the Komi-izhemtsev in the basin Kazym and their number contain in G.A. Startsev's works [1926, page 46-48], L.N. Zherebtsova [1982, page 181]. Data are provided in A.V. Kozmin's works devoted to reindeer breeding of Western Siberia that Komi moved on Kazy since 1923 to the middle of the 1930th, generally from the territory of Cisural area, characteristic of traditional lines and features of modern state-farm reindeer breeding of izhemets is given [1990; 2003, page 13-85]. In the collective monograph "Kasum-Ekh" the marriage interaction of indigenous people with the Komi, Russian and other is considered (according to household books of Kazym-sky s/s for 1984), the details of economic transformations in Kazym in the 20th century including connected with reindeer breeding of the Komi come to light [Golovnev, etc., 1993]. E.P. Martynova notes influence of reindeer breeders-izhemtsev on technology of Ugrian reindeer breeding, reveals the Komi of loan in kazymsky Khanty [1998, page 97, 110]. A detailed information about the number and the Komi's classes in the early thirties contains in the monograph by O.D. Ernykhova lighting history of the Ka-zymsky revolt of 1933-1934. The author leans on a wide range of the unpublished written sources which are stored in the state archives of Tyumen, Khanty-Mansiysk, regional archive of the item Beryozovo, scientific archive of Museum of Nature and Man (Khanty-Mansiysk) [ER-nykhova, 2003]. In the fundamental work of T.N. Dmitriyeva devoted to the complex analysis of toponymy of the territory of accommodation of kazymsky Khanty and forest Nenets the history of the Kazymsky region and an ethnic situation in the region, including the history of formation is briefly lit

Field researches were conducted with financial support of the Field grant of Presidium of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science.

the Komi of the population and the loudspeaker of their number in the 20th century [2005, page 21-25]. In the context of the analysis of lean-gvoetnichesky contacts on Kazym and their reflections in toponymy the Komi's retrospective - the Khanty ethnic and language contacts is considered, the folklore and toponymic data collected by the author, confirming prescription of these contacts are provided [In the same place, page 446-464].

Office-work materials (reports, letters, reports of research and land management expeditions to Kazym's pool) became additional sources. Oso4buyu reports and construction plans and development of cultural bases in the 1920-1940th have value [GUTO GASPITO. T. 107. Op. 1. 457; NA TGIAMZ. 255, 257, 259, etc.]. In the report of research group of society of studying edge at the museum of the Tobolsk North working at the territory of Kazymsky native council in 1926 field materials of group are collected and systematized and the project of cultural development of edge is developed [GUTO GAT. T. 690. Op. 1. 122, 123.]. General information about the organization of work of group and results of its work is published by V.M. Novitsky in 1928. Hand-written version of the report on work in the Kazymsky native area more detailed and informative, but survey was carried out only in Priobye, and for work in Prikazymye the group did not have enough time and means therefore the data on the Kazymsky region collected by V.M. Novitsky during research works in 1911-1913, some these censuses of 1926-1927, messages of locals and so forth [GUTO GAT are attracted to illumination of a situation in Kazym's pool. T. 690. Op. 1. 122. L. 2]. In this regard V.M. Novitsky, characterizing resettlement, number and classes of the Komi of the population, provides exact data for 1913 and presumable, received according to locals — for 1926. Data on migrations of Komi-Zyrians on Kazy because of the Urals in 1924-1926, data on population, including Zyrians, their classes, territories of a kochevaniye of reindeer-breeding farms are provided in the development plan for economy and culture Prikazymya for 1939-1942 made by the chief of Kazymsky cultural base agronomist Beglov [NA TGIAMZ. 207]. It is possible to find biographic data on the Komi consisting in party and working in cooperation in villages in minutes of meetings of party cells and commissions on cleaning of party he Is plump also Kazy [GUTO GASPITO. T. 107. Op. 1. 165]. In 1946 the field researches in Kazym's pool were conducted by N.F. Pryt-kova, her report contains data on reindeer breeding of izhemets, including on a production cycle, structure of herd, use of products of reindeer breeding, transport, terminology is given. Its field materials are partially published by S.V. Turov [2006, page 255-259] 2.

In the 1920th the territory Prikazymya was Berezovsky's part of the district executive committee created in 1922. In 1926 the Kazymsky native council with the center in the village was created. He is plump, in 1931 it was divided on Polnovatsky and Kazymsky (with the center in yur. Amnya) [Kurikov, 2008, page 108, 112]. The begun construction of a kulbaza, formation of integrated cooperative, trading stations promoted inflow of new immigrants, including Komi. Incentives to resettlement were wealth fodder resources of the kazymsky tundra, the absence of epizootic diseases, desire to avoid pressure of the Soviet power and collectivization [Dmitriyev, 2005, page 447, 448; Kozmin, 2003, page 85]. Resettlement processes continued to the middle of the 1930th [Kozmin, 2003, page 85].

In projects of settling of the Kazymsky region, increase in number and population density special attention was paid on need of attraction to resettlement of Komi-Zyrians: "Of course, the zyryano-native national economic region can be and somebody has to be announced for free planned colonization by his representatives of any nationality, but hardly, except Zyrians and the few representatives from lower reaches of Irtysh or Bør - zovsko - Surgut and Narymska Obi will wish to settle strongly here in the nearest future..." [GUTO GAT. T. 690. Op. 1. 122. L. 11]; "So, on Zyrians. it is necessary to pay exclusive attention in the sense of resolute fight against mortality them. because it is the main and, perhaps, the only element which will colonize these areas" [In the same place. L. 12].

According to researchers, confirmed by archival documents and field materials, formation of the Komi of the population in Prikazymye takes place in the first half of the 1920th. In the report of the instructor Berezovsky of an ukom of RCP(b) of I. Kuzmin on work of a revkom and life of indigenous people of the Kazymsky volost in 1921 it is said that all population of the Kazymsky volost "consists only of foreigners — ostyak, Zyrians" which lead a nomadic life, but data on their number are not provided [GUTO GASPITO. T. 67. Op. 1. 12. L. 3-3 about.]. On

The document is stored in scientific archive MAE (Cabinet of curiosities) RAS (F. 18. Op. 1. No. 4).

given V.A. Kozmina, reindeer breeders of the Komi begin to get actively on a right bank of Ob to the south of Beryozovo in the first quarter of the 20th century. Their resettlement began in 1923 with the territory of Cisural area and the areas which are directly adjoining Beryozovo. In 1924 on Kazy 15 families of the Komi-izhemtsev with the North Berezovsky of the area with herd of deer in 3 thousand heads moved that was caused by an anthrax epizooty [Kozmin, 1990, page 73; 2003, page 85]. In the development plan for economy and culture Prikazymya for the third five-years period of 1938-1942 made by the chief of the Kazymsky kulbaza agronomist Beglov it is also noted that the Komi reindeer breeders removed on Kazy because of the Urals in 1924-1926 [NA TGIAMZ. 207. L. 3].

According to the data received by V.M. Novitsky from locals, for the first time four families of the Komi of reindeer breeders appeared in 1924 from "the Lyapinsky side", they were attracted by abundance of the fodder Kazyma resources: "having let in investigation in 1924 with herd in 500 deer the Zyrians Rochev and Konev at once considered all favorable conditions for a kochevaniye with deer here and the next year decided to remain in the region for long accommodation" [GUTO GAT. T. 690. Op. 1. 123. L. 58]. They located in Kazym's top and near the Lake Numto, were not engaged in hunting, "preferring to exchange for deer and goods (oil, etc.) furs" [In the same place. L. 31 about.].

According to modern stories, among the first Komi of immigrants in Kazym's pool Pyotr Rochevy and Alexey appeared, they had nicknames — Heating Pyotr (Pyotr Chaika) and Heating Ale [E.P. Istomina, 1952]. Or other names are entered — the first in 1922 there arrived two brothers Rochev Vasily and Pyotr [A.A. Kanev, 1936]. There arrived Popov, Vokuyev later, they "ran from Civil war and from the Soviet power", went on the kazymsky earth two ways: the first of Husbands, the second of Saranpaul through Beryozovo along winter routes [M.I. Vokuyev, 1928]. Resettlement of the 1920th contacts an anthrax epizooty: "Such disease that it seems the healthy deer runs — and will fall to horns. And it is impossible to peel — the microbe will get, anthrax. Because of it also moved, they not immigrants were, voluntarily went" [F.Ya. Voku-ev, 1929]; "There life became hungry in the 1920th, it is bad to live steel, and Zyrians — reindeer breeders, and those years there deer strongly began to vanish, anthrax was, the whole families died. Who as managed to separate and survive little by little. And as construction of cultural base began — began to move [A.A. Kanev, 1936].

After resettlement of the Komi long were not proved in the settlement, and kept a former nomadic way of life [Kozmin, 2003, page 85]. Komi with all herds of deer wandered in a northeast part, in upper courses of the Sorum River [NA TGIAMZ. 207. L. 3 about.; Ernykhova, 2003, page 19].

Authentic data on dynamics of number of the Komi are submitted in materials of a census of 1926-1927, then prior to cultural construction and collectivization in the early thirties of accounting of the population were not. But after emergence the cultural bases in annual reports on work of cultural bases were given data on national, social composition and population in the 1930th in Kazym. According to G. Startsev, by the end of 1925 in Kazym 34 Komi were registered [Startsev, 1926, page 46-48]. On materials of the Subpolar census of 1926-1927, in the territory of Kazymsky (Polnovatsky) of the tuzsovet near the lake in top of the Kazym River in yur. Howled 1 economy of the Komi-izhemtsev consisting of 8 people and in 9 nomadic farms — 60 people was noted [The list of settlements..., 1928, page 62, 70]. In the report of 1929 of the Kazymsky commission of the Ural committee of the North at the choice of the place for construction of cultural base made by V. Pinzhakovym3 it is noted that the Zyrians wandering near Numto did tundra business [NA TGIAMZ. 259. L. 26].

According to materials on check and studying work of the Kazymsky tuzsovet, in its territory in 1932 the wandering Komi-Zyrians were united in 16 farms, from them 7 farm-labourer's and 9 kulak, in total there were 70 people: 36 men and 34 women [GUTO GASPITO. T. 107. Op. 1. 9. L. 205; Ernykhova, 2003, page 39]. In 1934 there were already 78 people in 13 farms [GUTO GASPITO. T. 107. Op. 1. 210. L. 23]. In the second half of the 1920th of the Komi are settled also near the village. He is plump. In materials of a census of 1926-1927 of the Komi in Polnovat it was not recorded. And in 1934 in the territory of Polnovatsky council 1632 people, including ostyak 890 people, Zyrians 38 people, the Russian 609 people were registered [GUTO GASPITO. T. 107. Op. 1.


The surname is written according to the signature left at the end of the text "The report of the Kazymsky commission of the Ural committee of the North at the choice of the place for construction of cultural base" [NA TGIAMZ. 259. L. 51]. In the "Report on work of an expedition on the Kazymskoy organization of cultural base" which is stored in Berezovsky regional archive the surname Pinzhakov is given [Farnosova, 2003, page 117-118, 250].

165. L. 33]. For January 1, 1935 in the national structure of the population Prikazymya 116 people of the Komi (11% of all population) were presented [NA TGIAMZ. 255. L. 6]. In 1936 in the territory of the Kazymsky tuzsovet 18 farms of the Komi (84 people), including in the cultural base settlement — 27 people were noted [NA TGIAMZ. 207. L. 3].

On the basis of nationalization of deer of immigrants of the Komi during collectivization to Ka-zyme there was a formation of krupnostadny reindeer breeding [Kozmin, 2003, page 85]. According to the materials of check and studying work of the Kazymsky tuzsovet which were carried out in August

1932 representatives of regional, district, regional district executive committees and committees of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), the Komi in 7 farm-labourer's farms had 640 heads, in 9 kulak — 5500 heads, i.e. on one farm-labourer's economy 91 deer, fell on one kulak — 622 deer [GUTO GASPITO. T. 107. Op. 1 9. L. 205; Ernykhova, 2003, page 40]. Not to get under "elimination", the Komi reindeer breeders in 1931 at once organized the first in the Kazymsky region the "collective farm of Skachko" which according to documents was registered as "kulak" [Ernykhova, NA TGIAMZ. 207. L. 3] — "There were many deer, they were handed over in collective farm that to make the crew" [A.A. Kanev, 1935]. Officially the collective farm was registered and began the activity only in 1933, after an exception of its structure of most visible "fists" the collective farm was registered [Ernykhova, 2003, page 43]. In
1933 wandering in top of the Kazyma River and around the Lake Numto of 13 Zyrian farms (104 people) were united in collective farm [GUTO GASPITO. T. 107. Op. 1. 210. L. 26]. Later the structure of this collective farm which originally was considered as Komi-Zyrian increased due to accession of five Khanty farms, and in 1934 after suppression of the Kazymsky revolt the livestock which is available in collective farm was increased at the expense of the Khanty and Nenets of deer confiscated from a prosperous part [Ernykhova, 2003, page 44].

Average security with deer of one economy in collective farm of Skachko reached 200 heads, (for comparison: in poor man's economy on average there were 15 heads, in serednyatsky — 35.6, in kulak (after the dispossession of kulaks) — 35). The marketability of collective-farm herd in 1934 reached 38,243 rub, state-farm — 5242 rub, individualists Khanty — 1435 rub, the Nenets living in the Region of Numto — 896 rub [NA TGIAMZ. 255. L. 10].

In 1935 it was received monetary income on one economy in collective farm of Skachko from sale of products of reindeer breeding — 2696 rub, from an okhotpromysl — 205 rub, from a rybopromysl and other crafts of income was not [NA TGIAMZ. 207. L. 3]. In 1935 350 people were engaged in reindeer breeding, deer there were 10,938 heads, including more than one third (3412 heads) — in collective farm of Skachko [NA TGIAMZ. 255. L. 9-10].

Reindeer breeding was considered as the major industry Prikazymya as the welfare of the main part of the population was based on it, and rational "statement of an exploa-tation of cervine herds for the purpose of industrial and trade use of products of reindeer breeding — skins, cervine meat, wool" among Zyrians was the key to development of industrial reindeer breeding in the region [NA TGIAMZ. 253. L. 3]. Since 1936 in collective farm the new direction — cultivation of breeding young growth a vazhenok for sale to yurtovy associations for the purpose of replenishment of a livestock of deer at them appeared [NA TGIAMZ. 207. L. 13]. The Kazymsky deer (an average and headwaters of Kazym) was considered as the largest in the Tobolsk North that locals explained with "great nutritiousness of yagelny grounds of Kazym" [GUTO GAT. T. 690. Op. 1. 123. L. 12]. The cost of one head of the deer going for sale, a face and the tribe averaged 80 rub [NA TGIAMZ. 207. L. 14].

In the item the Kazy Komi began to be settled since the beginning of the 1930th, with construction of cultural base and emergence of the Russian-Zyrian school. In 1935 the building of the Russian-Zyrian school was built and besides the nomadic Komi-Zyrian school is open [In the same place. L. 3]. In 1935-1936 academic year 25 people (100%) were captured by study of children of Zyrians [In the same place. L. 10]. At school there was no boarding school, and to boarding school for "native" children of Zyrians did not admit therefore it was necessary to build or buy houses in the settlement [E.E. Kanev, 1937]. The first houses of the Komi built on the island formed by the lake (Staritsa) and the Kazym River. The island was big, many houses — Rochev, Popov, Kanev were located there, etc. the collective-farm kitchen garden was broken [A.A. Kanev, 1935]. But waterlogged the island in a high water, the coast was washed away, and to the middle of the 20th century of the Komi moved to the so-called "Zyrian region" [L.M. Kaneva, 1937].

Thus, field researches of 2010 showed that kazymsky Komi have a high level of the historical memory connected with the initial stage of formation of group in the 19201930th. Modern inhabitants, especially representatives of the senior generation and local historians, room -

nit names of the first settlers, their former habitat, routes of movements, the importance of the Komi of reindeer breeding in economic development of edge in the 1930th, time of emergence and location of stationary dwellings in the village.



GUTO GASPITO. T. 107. Op. 1 9. Materials (reports, extracts from minutes of meetings of bureau, the resolution, data, the report) about Berezovsky's work, Kondinsky of district committees of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks). 1931

GUTO GASPITO. T. 107. Op. 1. 1b5. Minutes of meetings of the cell commission on cleaning of party of the Polnovatsky cell of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks).

GUTO GASPITO. T. 210. Op. 1 210. Materials (reports, reports, correspondence, references, reports) about reindeer breeding development, rybo- and pushnozagotovka in the district, statements of members of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) for the state of affairs in areas, employment, departure out of borders of the district.

GUTO GASPITO. T. 107. Op. 1. 457. Annual report on work of Kazymsky cultural base.

GUTO GAT. T. 690. Op. 1. 122, 123. V.M. Novitsky. Hand-written work from Society of studying edge and native department of the state museum. The Kazymsky native area as the main center of the Soviet culture in the native Tobolsk North. Otd. 1-2.

NA TGIAMZ. 207. Beglov. The development plan for economy and culture Prikazymya for the III five-years period of 1938-42

NA TGIAMZ. 253. Reindeer breeding of the Tobolsk North, its current state and prospects of development.

NA TGIAMZ. Inventory No. 255. Economic cultural bases. Description of natural-historical, climatic, soil conditions of areas

NA TGIAMZ. Inventory No. 257. Reports and plans of different cultural bases.

NA TGIAMZ. Inventory No. 259. Pinzhakov. The report of the Kazymsky commission of the Ural committee of the North at the choice of the place for construction of cultural base.


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Tyumen, IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science lovanda@berezovo.

Basing on analysis of field data obtained from archive sources, article considers the initial stage in the development of Kazym Komi in the 1920s-1930s, including dynamics of their number, social composition, establishment of a collective farm, and marketabilty of reindeer-breeding household.

Komi, Komi-Izhemtsyi, Kazym, collective farm named after Skachko, Kazym recreation center.

James Baker
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