The Science Work
History
Site is for sale: mail@thesciencework.com
Category: History

Reforms in an education system at the Siberian Tatars in the second half the XIX beginning of the 20th century.



ISTORIYA And ETHNOGRAPHY

REFORMS IN the EDUCATION SYSTEM AT the SIBERIAN TATARS IN the SECOND HALF of XIX — the BEGINNING of the 20th century

G.T. Bakiyeva

Reforms in the system of Muslim education at the Siberian Tatars in the second half of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century are considered. It is noted that the reforms proceeding from authorities badly took root at the Tatar confessional schools of Western Siberia. Jadid reform of school education among the Siberian Tatars is analyzed. The analysis demonstrates that thanks to inclusion in the program to a mekteba and madrasah of Tatar, maintaining secular objects in the native language the Muslim schools begin to gain secular lines.

The end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century was marked by series of reforms in education among the Muslim people which mentioned and the Siberian Tatars. At the same time the Russian authorities had no clear and consecutive program in carrying out school reform among Muslims.

Problems of national and school policy of autocracy in the second half of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century on the outskirts of the Russian Empire began to be developed by researchers during the pre-revolutionary period. In a historiography of this time two directions are allocated: official and democratic. Supporters of the first direction (A.E. Alektorov, M.A. Mi-ropiyev, N. Ostroumov, etc.) proved need of carrying out tough policy in relation to Muslim educational institutions. In works of these authors the thought of assimilation of Muslims by planting of Russian-language schools was carried out. Supporters of the democratic direction (R. Fakhretdinov, X. The atlas) considered the policy of the authorities as antinational. Their main idea was the requirement of observance of the right of the people living on the outskirts to conduct training at the native language [Farkhshatov, 2000. Page 8-9]. At the same time researchers, estimating government actions in the field of education of Muslims, touched generally on issues of the Tatar and Bashkir population of the Volga-Ural region.

In a modern domestic historiography the considerable experience in a research of policy of the authorities for national education of Muslims is also accumulated. However and these researches are conducted on the material covering more the Muslim people of the Volga region and the Urals.

Concerned some aspects of national education at the Siberian Tatars in the works F.T. Valeev, I.B. Garifullin, M.G. Volkhin, Yu.U. Safaraleev, etc. [Valeev, 1993; 1998; Garifullin, 2004; Volkhina, 1997; Safaraleeva, 2006].

The present article is devoted to studying transformations in the system of Muslim education at the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century at the Siberian Tatars called both by the policy of the government, and objective prerequisites.

Feature of development of national education of the Siberian Tatars was its close connection with Moslem doctrine. As well as other people of Russia practising Islam of the Sunni direction the Siberian Tatars at the end of the 18th century were carried to conducting the Orenburg Mohammedan spiritual meeting with the center in Ufa. Establishing the Orenburg meeting, the tsarist government expected that it will be a peculiar intermediary between the state and the people in the field of education. Muslim schools (mekteba and madrasah) got under jurisdiction of the Spiritual meeting though it did not receive legislative registration. It was expressed that the Spiritual meeting throughout all the XIX and the beginning of the 20th century established test, gave the teacher's ranks and defined teachers in Muslim educational institutions in all regions subordinated to it [Azamatov, 1999. Page 144].

Muslim educational institutions were two types: to a mekteba (elementary religious school) and madrasah (average educational institution). Mektebe was available practically in each Tatar village. It was at the mosque, in one of the rooms adjoining it. As

show materials, to a mekteba at the Siberian Tatars opened at "desire of society", at village assemblies, "since the device of mosques" [Patkanov, 1888. Page 335].

It is not possible to mekteba to find out exact quantity during this period. However if to use the number of the mosques which are available in the province when calculating, then the mekteba can present approximate number. As of 1904 from 157 mosques existing in the Tobolsk province to the Tobolsk County 61 mosques, in Tarskom — 38, in Tyumen — 41, Yalutorovsk — 15 and Ishim — 2 mosques [The list of the inhabited places..., were located 1904. Page 8-270]. Therefore, the mekteba can consider quantity approximately equal to this number. However it must be kept in mind that in some settlements the schools were not, and children were taught "a private order", i.e. it was talked of home schooling. As it was, for example, as of the beginning of the 20th century in the volost of Quitrent chuvalshchik of the Tobolsk County. In the official report of foreign management it was noted that "to madrasah and a mekteba in the local volost is not present, and children of foreigners study a private order at mullahs" [to GUTOGAT. T. 2. Op. 1. 182. L. 4-6, 9-11].

It is not possible to reveal exact number of pupils at schools-mektebe also. Data remained only on some counties of the Tobolsk province. In the Tobolsk County in 1897 in three Tatar volosts at 23 schools 451 boys and 213 girls studied. In 1898 in the Tyumen County at 34 schools-mektebe there were 1093 boys and 665 girls [Lysov, 1898. Page 2; GUTOGAT. T. 2. Op. 1. 10. L. 2-27]. In the Yalutorovsk County as of 1911 at 14 Muslim schools 283 boys and 206 girls studied [GUTOGAT. T. 417. Op. 1. 493. L. 46, 703].

Parish mullahs were teachers in a mekteba usually. As it was already noted above, the ranks of teachers were given by the Orenburg spiritual meeting. As the highest rank was considered mudarris — the senior teacher managing madrasah. The second in rank went mugally — the teacher. The lowest was the rank of a mugalim-sabiyan — teachers of juvenile children. The rank of a mu-darris was given only to imams, and mugallimam and mugallim-sabiyanam could become and muezzins [Azamatov, 1999. Page 144]. For example, in the Tyumen County most of ecclesiastics as of 1886 had teacher's positions — a mugallima (7 imams) and a mugallim-sabiyana (7 imams). In Mullashevsky' yurtas, Small and Kaskarinsky and Kyshtyrlinsky imams had no teacher's ranks [CGIA RB. T. I-295. Op. 3. 11485]. If the mullah did not carry out the teacher's duty, invited to this position simple "грамотеев".

Appointing the teacher to a mekteba in arrival, parishioners on a descent could define an annual salary of the teacher. Though in some areas of a certain reward to the teacher of community did not appoint, granted the right to accept gifts from pupils. As a rule, payment to teachers consisted in bread and money. For example, the mullah of yurtas Lower Ingalsky the Yalutorovsk County "for the right of the doctrine of children" acquired from parents "good and money, on them among themselves to the agreement" [GUTOGAT. T. 417. Op. 1. 493. L. 703.]. Some communities, according to S.K. Pat-kanov, provided to teachers an additional share of an arable land, a haymaking or a fishing share [1888. Page 325].

At the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century officials of the Ministry of national education, surveying Muslim schools of Russia, left the following description to a mekteba: "There is no school furniture in a mekteba: children take seats directly on a floor, having drawn in under themselves legs, in the summer on mats, in winter — on felt rugs which they in some places are obliged to bring with themselves. As an exception at some schools before pupils cost long benches which to them serve instead of a desk where there are no such benches, the book it is necessary to hold in hand; are accustomed to write, having put paper on knees or directly on a palm, holding it in the left hand. Pupils before the teacher from three parties, "rest", sometimes in several parallel rows take seats, and is closer to the teacher seniors at the rate the pupils passing one general textbook sit. The teacher sits at a wall, facing pupils, at him there is a long stick, and sometimes and several, thickness in a thumb" [A school question., 1913. Page 281].

The following description was left by Alexander Efimovich Alektorov, the director of national schools who studied position of Muslim schools at the beginning of the 20th century: "Hygienic situation to a mekteba impossible: mats and koshma by which a floor is laid and on which pupils sit during the classes and sleep at night, are dirty and spat. Owing to density and darkness, the door should be held in most cases open. Heating gives a stench and fills the room with waste. Writing the real lines had to see the mekteba where children, for the lack of the place, were located on the shelves beaten by a circle of walls in 2

floor. In such situation the boys will see off, having bent over books and notebooks, from 8 to 12 o'clock in the morning and from 2 to 5 o'clock in the evening without any changes" [1909. Page 187-188]. To a mekteba we find one more description in the year-book of the Tobolsk museum for 1895. "In the Yalutorovsk district... classes are in private houses. About suitability of these houses for schools, in terms of health requirements, it is hard to say. About their sizes, a cubic capacity, a svetoosveshcheniye of data is not present. Cool furniture. no, studies are on & #34; нарах"" [ETGM, 1895].

These notes showing unsatisfactory financial position to a mekteba demonstrated lack of the state support.

The program of training and the system of teaching at schools-mektebe remained firm within centuries. N.V. Chekhov, characterizing school of the Muslim people of Russia, wrote that it "is much more similar to church schools of the Middle Ages, than to educational institutions XIX and even the 18th age of Western Europe" [1912. Page 174].

The task to a mekteba was to teach pupils to ceremonies, prayers and rules of Moslem doctrine. The pupil was given initial education, they were trained in reading and the letter.

Reading was made aloud. Children, together with the teacher, loudly cried out the name of letters, then studied their writing, after — to folding from them of syllables and only then — words and phrases. The alphabet was learned on several letters in one lesson, then passed to warehouses. This method was called "bukvoslagatelny". This way of training in reading did not yield fast results, only the assiduity and ability of certain pupils allowed them to master the alphabet up to the end. After assimilation of the alphabet the best pupils started reading religious and didactic works of east and Tatar writers in language tyurki1: To Bud-am (the Tatar poem on advantage of service to god and ungodly acts, like non-execution of prayers and also about world miracles), "Akhyr-zaman of a kitaba" ("The book about the end of the world") S. Ba-kyrgani, "Kissa-i Yusuf ("The book about Yusuf") Galya's Stake, "Kyryk farys" ("40 precepts"), "Fa silt-blinders" ("The description of tortures for sins in the next world"), etc. [Alektorov, 1909. Page 188].

Studying these books played an important role in religious and moral education of pupils. Besides, getting acquainted with the best samples of Muslim instructive literature, pupils acquired also some data on history, geography, ethics, an esthetics that, certainly, contributed to their intellectual development.

Division into classes in a mekteba was not. Pupils differed among themselves with that who what textbook or department of the textbook studied. Usually time of stay in school depended on abilities and diligence of the pupil. There was no certain time for reception of new pupils in a mekteba as with each pupil the teacher was engaged separately also. Conscious digestion of material from pupils was not required, they learned by heart what was set by the teacher.

Speaking about the program to a mekteba in general, it is possible to note that it answered the purpose and tasks of the government. Under the provision of 1864, the purpose of national schools was "to approve in the people religious and moral concepts", and only then "to extend initial useful knowledge" [The collection of resolutions..., 1865. Stb. 1226].

The pupils who successfully completed a course in a mekteba and persons interested to get further education, sent to madrasah. Most of researchers carry madrasah to averages, and sometimes and to the highest Muslim educational institutions. M.N. Farkhshatov calls madrasah "the raised school" [1994. Page 70].

Madrasahs trained attendants of a cult, mullahs, teachers of elementary Muslim schools [RGIA. T. 821. Op. 133. 466. L. 57 about.]. In the Tobolsk province the first madrasah was formed in Tobolsk in the 17th century. It was "the first average Muslim educational institution in Siberia and one of the oldest madrasahs in Russia". Here not only children of the Tobolsk Tatars and bukharets, but also visitors from the Tyumen, Yalutorovsk and even Tarsky County of the Tobolsk province studied. The further madrasah began to appear also in other settlements where the Siberian Tatars lived, and to the second half of their 19th century already was 30 [Gary-fullin, 2004. Page 74]. Depending on on what initiative opened and on what means madrasahs contained, they were two types — private and public. Madrasahs in yurtas Kazan, Tukuzsky, Turbinsky the Tobolsk County were private; in Embayevsky' yurtas

1

Turkic peoples — the general name of regional literary Turkic languages of the 17-19th centuries: Central Asian, vostoch-but-oguzskogo, Volga region and North Caucasian. Influenced formation of the modern Turkic literary languages. Central Asian Turkic peoples in Uzbekistan is called the old Uzbek east огузский in Turkmenistan — old Turkmen, Volga region in Tataria — old Tatar. There is extensive literature. Arab graphics.

Tyumen County; in to Tara Tarskoye the madrasah at the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century was financed the merchant Abdul-Fattah Itkina, Embayevskoye — at the expense of brothers Saydukov [Valeev, 1993. Page 196]. Madrasahs in Vagaysky' yurtas, Kyzylbayevsky, Komarovsky the Tobolsk County treated public.

to

For passing of a full course of madrasah needed 6-8, and sometimes also 10-15 years. However, not all pupils shakirds finished a full course, the most part left madrasah before its termination [Farkhshatov, 1994. Page 71].

Arabic, Muslim divinity, logic, Muslim jurisprudence (Sharia), arithmetics, geometry, geography, astronomy, medicine were the main objects for study. In the 18-19th centuries these subjects were studied according to ancient Arab and Central Asian compositions.

Pupils of madrasah began with the fact that learned by heart Aval-i-gylm, i.e. the short Muslim catechism in questions and answers stated in Persian, then, already more or less thoroughly studied Arabic grammar. The following course broke up to 2 parts: "mushkilit" and "масаля". Mushkilit — a course educational, masyalya — legal. The legal course included the religious right and the civil and criminal legislation. Pupils studied mathematics in passing, when studying the law of succession, and its study came down to 4 rules of arithmetics and some provisions of geometry necessary for measurement of the earth, at the section her successors and also at purchase and sale. Books of theological, philosophical and rhetorical contents and also on mathematics were written in the Arab, Turkish and Persian languages that often complicated their understanding. Arab study guides of these objects: "фараиз" — civil laws mainly on inheritance and trade affairs; To Nyakh, Sharkhmulla, Kafiya, Kauagid, "Gaoua - is lovely", "Magzi", Badyan — Arabic grammar, etc. [Alektorov, 1909. Page 189].

Government officials highly appreciated madrasah enough and put them on one level with theological faculties of the universities, theological seminaries or academies [RGIA. T. 733. Op. 170. 263. L. 303 about.; T. 821. Op. 8. 785. L. 5 about.]. Positively the historian S.V. Bakhrushin, including it "rassadnitsy literacy" among the Tatar population of the city spoke of madrasah in Tobolsk" [1959. Page 212].

At the same time the director of national schools A.E. Alektorov considered that training "excites fanaticism and blind belief in rules of Islam in madrasah, from other party, does not meet the requirements of modern life" [1909. Page 190].

Really, despite in general religious and scholastic nature of training, the best madrasahs provided territories to the pupils level of training rather high for those times. Thanks to existence of rich libraries at madrasah some shakirds were engaged in self-education and by that expanded the volume of the gained knowledge. So, in library of Embayevsky madrasah at the end of the 19th century there were more than 2200 volumes of the hand-written and printing books which are written out or brought from Bukhara, Turkestan, Egypt, Syria, Jerusalem. Some of them were unique historical monuments [Valeev, 1993. Page 196-197].

Activity of the advanced teachers also promoted extension of the traditional curriculum of madrasah. In the 1870-1880th in Embayevsky madrasah Mulkay Yumachi-kov, the native of the Tyumen Tatars worked as the teacher. Yumachikov was the person formed for the time, knew Arab, Persian, Kazakh languages, wrote poetic works in the Tatar, Kazakh and Arab languages [Valeev, 1993. Page 193-194]. In madrasah of Tara in the mid-eighties @X! X century the native of this city Abderashit Gumerovich Ibragimov who graduated in Medina served mudarrisy. Later A. Ibragimov became the famous scientist-specialist in Islamic studies, the large social and political figure of Muslims of Russia [Valeev, 1998. Page 177-178; Kutu-mova, 1998. Page 204]. Also some teachers of the woman training girls had education level, rather high for the time. So, in madrasah of Tara in the 90th of the 19th century Bibi-Hanifa Niyazova who as wrote in the Tardzhiman newspaper, "differs in big knowledge of the Turkish and Arab writing" trained. H. Niyazova published pedagogical works in which she stated the opinion of training of Muslim Tatars [Valeev, 1993. Page 195-196].

During the post-reform period the government tries to regulate Muslim education by the organization of public schools. The basis of the organization of schools was formed by the pedagogical system of the famous scientist, missionary N.I. Ilminsky (1822-1891). The essence of a system of N.I. Ilminsky consisted in distribution among "foreigners" of Russian "for

rapprochements of numerous Muslim weight with the Russian state and Russian people" [Ostroumov, 1913. Page 303].

Ilminsky's system was used for training not only baptized "foreigners", but also in general all Muslims. Concerning the first Ilminsky's system set the purpose "to strengthen them in Orthodoxy". For them establishment of four-year schools with initial teaching "on foreign adverbs" was provided [The magazine of the Ministry of national education, 1870. Page 53]. For "foreigners" - Muslims creation of schools with the emphasis on teaching Russian though it was also allowed, especially in the first year of training, application of the native language was provided [In the same place. Page 59].

Learning the native language at schools of a system of Ilminsky caused emergence of books in "foreign" languages. The translations of both educational, and church and liturgical orthodox books began to appear. For this purpose at the initiative of Ilminsky in 1866 in Kazan the special translation commission at brotherhood St. Guria was founded. Throughout more than 30 years it translated into languages of east part of Russia the enormous number of books, brochures and leaves of tser-kovno-liturgical and religious and moral contents [Miropiyev, 1908. Page 198]. Its editions dispersed in Siberia at the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century during the missionary movement which covered the Tobolsk diocese.

N.I. Ilminsky's system was approved by the government and legalized in 1870 in the rules "About Measures to Education of Foreigners, concerning Tatar Mohammedans". Rules of 1870 set more than unambiguous purpose — russification of foreigners and "merge to the Russian people" [The magazine of the Ministry of national education, 1870. Page 53].

According to the rules "About Measures to Education of Foreigners, concerning Tatar Mohammedans", in Muslim educational institutions Russian was entered as an obligatory subject. And the Tatar societies had to on own means establish Russian classes at a mekteba and madrasah. It was claimed that "its native adverb" has to be the tool of initial training for each tribe, and "foreigners", and "besides well knowing Russian, or the Russians who are well speaking in Tatar" could be teachers of foreign schools. One more rule was established — "the attention to education of women has to be paid". It was fairly noticed that "a breeding adverb and features... remain mainly and supported by mothers" [The collection of laws., 1899. Article 1-5]. However this measure did not yield desirable results: Muslims opposed to application of these rules and in all ways evaded from training of the children in Russian. The Russian-Tatar schools in the Tobolsk province during this period did not appear. Teaching Russian was carried out only in some madrasahs of the Tobolsk province, for example in Embayevskom and Turbinsk.

At the same time the ideas of the authorities got a response among representatives of orthodox church. Efforts of the Bishop of Tobolsk and Siberian Avraamiya created on September 8, 1885 school at Ioanno-Vvedensky convent for training of children of Russians and Tatars. Originally 20 Tatar and 16 Russian pupils began to go to it. Training consisted in learning Russian, "in improvement in reading according to the book, in transfer read orally concerning the teacher; in writing off from the book and copy-books; in arithmetics there studied 4 actions with oral tasks". As it was specified in the report for 1887, "it is passed: initial letters, warehouses, folding of separate words and short offers (on Russian. — B.); on arithmetics — the continuous account to hundred, their written designation and the solution of short oral tasks, and on calligraphy learning by heart letters" [The twenty-fifth anniversary of the Tobolsk diocesan committee., 1897. Page 108].

However Tatars suspiciously apprehended in the beginning creation of joint school. As the mother superior wrote, "it was necessary to explain repeatedly mistrustful that Russians and Tatars — neighbors; that and others — citizens of one Tsar and therefore mutually have to help each other; as in everyday life they have the intercourses not with some tribespeople, but also with Russians, and the Russian diploma will bring them a lot of benefit" [The report of the Tobolsk diocesan committee., 1889. Page 11-13]. A numerous talk with Tatars, at last, began to convince them of advantage of training in the Russian diploma gradually. The monastery rendered to the poor and patients medical and financial support, and it even more attracted Tatars to the monastery. In favor of the positive decision on dedication of children in monastic school the fact that training was made free of charge at the expense of the monastery served. As children at receipt in shko-

lu did not know in Russian at all, it was necessary that teachers knew Tatar. Two novices who were appointed teachers of children Nina Lepyokhina and Ekaterina Glazkova, thanks to the diligence and the help of the local mullah learned Tatar.

Tatar parents from the very beginning vividly became interested in training of their children. As the mother superior noted, "does not pass any day that any of fathers or mothers of pets did not visit school and with attention did not listen as their young children study the Russian diploma, arithmetics and so forth... Now parents began to understand advantage of training, especially those from them which bore or bear public positions or served in Cossacks". It was noted that thanks to training at this school children of Tatars "will be more susceptible to assimilation in the life than the beginnings of the Russian civic consciousness" [The report of the Tobolsk diocesan committee., 1889. Page 11-13].

However Tatars, despite the neighbourhood, with a reluctance sent the children to the Russian schools. Archive materials demonstrate that it were isolated cases. So, for example, at the beginning of the 20th century in the village of Begishevskom of the Tobolsk County the Russian school was attended by only two boys from Tatars [TEV, 1906. Page 300]. In the village of Lugovskaya of the Tyumen County in 1897 in the Russian school only one pupil [Lysov, studied 1898. Page 11].

In general low results of actions of the authorities concerning "russification" of "foreigners" through reforming of school of Muslim Tatars forced to cancel the rules "About Measures to Education of Foreigners, concerning Tatar Mohammedans". On February 5, 1882 Alexander III orders to the educational authorities to leave Muslim educational institutions "in former situation" and to be limited only to collecting statistical information about them [Farkhshatov, 1994. Page 48].

But the authorities soon turn again the view of Muslim education. This time measures concerned Muslim clergy. On July 16, 1888 Alexander III signed the decree on introduction of educational qualification for all persons approved in a ministry. According to the decree, when determining the highest parish clergy (akhun and hatyb) it was required to show the certificate on successful examination according to the curriculum of one-great initial national school, and from candidates for a position of imams and muezzins — the certificate of district uchilishchny councils on knowledge them the Russian informal conversation and reading [Falbork, Charnolusky, 1899. Page 484].

Rules for production of tests and issue of certificates to ecclesiastics of Muslims were developed. For carrying out tests in each of the cities, as required, the special commission under the chairmanship of the director of an institution and two teachers of secular objects whom the teacher of Russian surely had to be among was created. Where there was a city school, by situation on May 31, 1872, having not less than 3 classes, the test commissions had to be created. Where there were no such schools, the commission could be created in one of educational institutions: teacher's seminary, teacher's institute, pro-gymnasium, gymnasium or real school. The period for carrying out test was determined: from September 1 to May 1. The persons which reached 21 years could be allowed to test. The persons wishing to be subjected to test at any given educational institution had to submit the application written with own hand in Russian in the established form addressed to the chief of this institution. At the application were applied: the certificate from police of the personality, a rank or a state and about age of the applicant; certificate on education [RGIA. T. 733. Op. 171. 657. L. 53-54, 84-89 about.].

Significant changes in the system of school education of the Siberian Tatars occurred at the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century as a result of the movement which covered all Muslim regions of the country, received the name "Jadidism" (from "usul dzhadid" — "a new method"). It became an alternative for the Muslim education dominating long time in a system "usul we incense", i.e. "an old method".

This movement originally extended among the Crimean Tatars, thanks to the outstanding educator and the humanist Ismail beyu to Gasprinsky (1851-1914). In 1883 in Bakhchisarai he based the Tardzhiman newspaper (Translator) on the Russian and Tatar languages which within decades played a role of the only periodic publication of the Turkic-speaking people of Russia. In it ways of development of this movement which covered all Muslim regions of the Russian state were stated.

"New schools" of Troitsk, Orenburg, Kazan at which began to teach Sharia and secular sciences more rationally became the centers of a new method.

The Jadidism included a complex of various actions. First of all, there was a replacement of a bukvoslagatelny method of training in the diploma with sound. This innovation not only facilitated training, but that is very essential, considerably reduced study term — from 6-7 to 2-3 years [Gankevich, 2001. Page 379].

The Jadidism assumed also reform of a training course of school. In them learning the native language, a number of secular objects began. According to Ismail Gasprinsky, in madrasah the reduced courses of geography, history, natural sciences, arithmetics with planimetry, pedagogics and short Russian jurisprudence have to be studied in Tatar [1993. Page 54]. What concerned introduction to a course of Muslim schools of Russian, Gasprinsky considered that it is premature, "still elementary knowledge will not extend among Muslims and will not move their brains, until then the Russian science and the speech will be inaccessible to them" [In the same place. Page 49].

Jadids brought up a question of secular education of women. At the Siberian Tatars it was realized, in particular, thanks to Khalil Khalilov's efforts (Khalil-ishan). He was born in Turbinsky' yurtas of the Tobolsk County in 1864. Having graduated from madrasah in Troitsk, Khalil-ishan comes back to the native aul and on the means opens men's, and then and women's madrasah. Undoubtedly, having got an education in Troitsk in one of the centers of the Jadid movement and having apprehended the progressive ideas, Khalil-ishan transfers them to the madrasahs. Here shakirds from Tobolsk, Tyumen, Tara study. The number of pupils sometimes reached the 300th persons. In madrasah Russian was learned. In women's madrasah the teacher Hanifa who subsequently became Khalil-ishana wife [Kutumova, was invited 1998 from Simbirsk. Page 204]. Training of women at the end of the 19th century began to be carried out also in other educational institutions — in Tara's madrasah, Tyumen, Embayevo [Valeev, 1993. Page 195; Garifullin, 2001. Page 132].

Besides, there was an ordering of the organization of educational process in a mekteba and madrasah. Firm academic year was determined, transition to a cool and fixed system was carried out, the lesson schedule, examinations were entered, application of corporal punishments was limited.

Thus, "the new method" represented not only a new way of teaching. It meant "full transformation of archaic, Muslim school to European" [A school question..., 1913. Page 287].

Essentially new educational and methodical literature was necessary for successful distribution of new methods. At the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century in Kazan, Orenburg, St. Petersburg a huge number of literature in Tatar begins to be published: it were textbooks, scientific and popular publications, fiction. Position of the central point according to the edition of new textbooks was reached by Kazan. In it, especially from 1905 to 1908, the mass of the Tatar newspapers and textbooks on different sciences was issued: a full course of general geography, history in Tatar (Shishko Lane), geometry (lane of the textbook of Davydov), physics (Malinin), arithmeticians, cosmography, hygiene, anatomy, pedagogics, divinity and philosophy [Alekto-rov, 1909. Page 182]. Books in the Volga region Tatar literary language widely extended in Siberia. The Siberian Tatars get acquainted with the Volga region language, begin to read in it books, to use textbooks. Training in madrasah of Kazan and the Tobolsk province was carried out according to the same textbooks published in Volga region Tatar at the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century. Works by scientists-educators were popular: Sh. Mardzhani, K. Nasyri, R. Fakhrutdinova, G. Ibragimova. G. Tuqay, F. Amirkhan, M. Gafuri's works were known to a wide range of readers. Books of verses of the Kazakh and Bashkir poets of Abay Kunanbayev, Miftakhetdin Akmulla were distributed in Siberia.

At the Siberian Tatars the first madrasah where new methods of training were entered, was Emba-evskoye. The famous ethnographer F.T. Valeev considers that in Embayevo the transition to Jadidism happened earlier, than in many other madrasahs of the country [1993. Page 196]. It was, is undoubted, caused by presence of progressively adjusted teachers working in Embayevo — graduates of madrasah of Ufa, Kazan, Orenburg, Troitsk. In these educational institutions the shakirds got acquainted with the ideas of Jadidism, and then, having acquired them, applied in the educational practice.

By a new method acted as active supporters of training of pupils of madrasah as public figures, teachers, and progressive representatives of Muslim clergy. So, the famous social and political figure, the scientist, the specialist in Islamic studies Gabderashit Ibragimov (1857-1944), the native of the Siberian bukharets, stood up for new methods of training in madrasah. In a note "About position of the Muslim lowest and higher schools (mekteb and a medersa) in Russia", given to the Ministry of national education, G. Ibragimov wrote about that

the authorities, first of all, gave the chance to develop to the people, to broaden horizons, and "then he will understand that it is necessary for it, and itself will seek for learning a state language and education of children in the Russian educational institutions". He considered that in a mekteba and madrasah special programs of studies have to be developed by special commissions of competent persons. In a mekteba and madrasah except sciences spiritual it is necessary to enter into number of obligatory objects also general education: arithmetics, geography, history Russian and general. All these objects have to be taught, according to G. Ibragimov, in the native language of pupils. Also the author of a note considered that for ended a course the mekteba and madrasah should establish special final examination with issue of the certificate [RGIA. T. 733. Op. 173. 102. L. 225-229].

The similar ideas were expressed also by some advanced Muslim teachers. Supporting in general reforming of school, they wanted to leave its religious basis. On January 21, 1908 in the Maalyumat magazine which began to appear in Ufa under edition of the member of the State Duma of the 2nd convocation M.S. Chasanoff, the resolution of a congress of teachers of Omsk was printed and the approximate curriculum of the reformed school [A school question..., was offered 1913. Page 293]. Let's notice that the magazine was issued with assistance of the Orenburg Mohammedan spiritual meeting.

In the preface to the program it was noted that at novometodny schools it is necessary to pay attention to secular objects (to arithmetics, geography, history, Arabic), "as having a direct bearing on objects of religious character". So, for example, "when studying department of Sharia about inheritance and about its shares and application of the law of succession in practical life — knowledge of arithmetics is necessary. The appeal to a kibla during obligatory prayers demands knowledge of geography. History of prophets, as well as Islam history, also have big communication with Moslem doctrine; knowledge of Arabic is necessary for each Muslim". The program was calculated on 5 offices. In each office (equaling to half-year) the pupils had to be held reading in the Tatar ("maternal") language, retelling read according to the books written by the Tatar authors. Also pupils had to learn to write according to the teacher from books in Tatar. Much attention in the program in all offices was paid to reading the Quran, learning by heart of prayers. Also data have to be told pupils and different useful (historical, geographical, religious, secular).

For an illustration further we will provide the program of two offices.

Program of the 1st office

Alphabet and reading. Studying the alphabet and lessons of reading of the book made in purely maternal language. Short retelling of read. In the first half of the year the training in the alphabet is conducted according to the textbook "The First Teacher" made by Hadi Maksudov, in the second half of the year the reading is conducted according to the book by Zebirov, Part 2 "The guide of children" (Kazan edition).

Heftiek. Within the first academic year children read the Quran on Heftieka and there pass suras in a consecutive order, starting with the first to the sura "Merciful" (according to the Quran the 55th head, on a heftieka of 50 pages). Thus, in the first year of training the pupils read on a hef-tiyeka of 50 pages.

Letter and dictation. Letter: pupils write off the studied articles from the book.

Dictation: at the first steps of training children write according to the teacher at first separate words which were offered pupils in clean maternal language.

Learning by heart. Learning by heart formulas: "I resort to Allah"; Yes God will pardon you; There Is no God, except Boga and Muhammad his prophet; I Demonstrate that there is no God, except God".

Suras: Fatih, 1 chapter of the Quran and "Unity the God's", Chapter 112 of the Quran. At the same lessons according to the religious teacher prayers forget.

Oral conversation (message teacher of useful data). To accustom children to modesty and courtesy, once a week rules of polite manner are told them.

Program of the 2nd office

Heftiek (Extraction from the Quran). In the first half of the year of academic year Heftiek's reading comes to an end, in the second half of the year start reading the full Quran and reach the sura of "Imran's Generation" (Moisey's father). Chapter 3 (only 293 verses).

Turkic reading. Reading the book in the native language. Objya

Daniel Boyd
Other scientific works: