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Activities of the central and local authorities and labor unions for the organization of working supply in days of the first five-years period (on materials of Lower Volga area)



UDK 947084.6 (021)

activities of the central and local authorities and labor unions for the organization of working supply in days of the first five-years period (on materials of Lower Volga area)

N. A. SHAROSHKIN *, So-called KUZMINA ** Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky * department of national history ** department of national history and technique of teaching history

In article the activity of the central and local authorities, trade-union organizations for a solution of the problem of the organization of supply of workers of Lower Volga area in days of the first five-years period is traced, positive experience and difficulties in the solution of a food problem is analyzed. Istochnikovy base of a research are materials of archives and statistics.

Recently there are two opposite points of view of rather living standards of workers in the 20-30th years. Some researchers, being guided by documents of party, economic organizations, claim that for 1926-1932 in the USSR growth of the salary of workers and employees was observed. The real wage of workers taking into account expenses on social insurance and contributions from profits to fund of improvement of their life by 1930 was 167% in relation to pre-war level. Z.S. Bolotin wrote: & #34; In fact even in the conditions of the existing rationing system the consumption level workers of the USSR of food was much higher pre-war, and on a number above and the norms existing abroad питания" [1].

In recent years researches in which distress of workers in the 20-30th years is lit began to appear. In work as E.A. Osokina it was noted that the centralized rated distribution was a part of the general socio-economic policy. It & #34; it was designed to provide needs of industrialization, first of all to guarantee food supply industrial & #34; авангарда". The author claims that & #34; position of urban population including industrial workers, sharply worsened with establishment of the state monopoly in снабжении" & #34; in the general policy of repressions pursued in the 30th, supply played not the last role. In the conditions of monopoly of the state the centralized supply easily turned into one of levers retaliatory системы". Distress of workers in the 20-30th is shown in the works also other authors [2].

Ensuring supply of the Soviet people in 1928-1932 was carried out in the difficult way. In Lower Volga area the rapid growth of number of workers, urban population was observed. The number of urban population countrywide increased by 40.2%, including workers and employees - almost twice, retail goods turnover of the state and cooperative trade increased only by 34%. Meanwhile the accelerated rates of industrialization demanded the direction of capital investments first of all in branch of the heavy industry owing to what the industries making consumer goods, not on -

luchal of due financing, and consequently also development. Also export of bread abroad had an adverse effect on supply of the population: in 1928 it made 89.3 thousand tons, in 1930 - 4841.3 thousand, 1931 - 5177.9 and in 1932-1808 thousand tons.

Considering these circumstances, questions of supply both the cities, and toilers of the village were one of important problems of authorities, public organizations. They were constantly discussed at meetings of presidiums of party, Soviet and trade-union bodies and also the bodies knowing distribution of products and manufactured goods.

In resolutions of the first Saratov district party conference it was written down: & #34; One of the most important tasks of district Communist Party organization is strengthening of work on improvement of life of workers. For this purpose it is necessary... to take measures to expansion of supply of workers with products of agriculture, to bigger use of the market., to try to obtain. development of public catering and revival of mass work кооперации" [3]. The first Lower Volga regional congress of labor unions (on October 5-11, 1928) offered KSPS & #34; to provide the influence on work regulating and trade organizations., to achieve such situation that supply of workers with manufactured goods, especially scarce, mainly went through working cooperation for what it has to be respectively expanded cooperative and trade сеть" [4].

Food difficulties led to growth of speculation in the market and the prices. Only in 1927/28 the prices of private trade of agricultural products raised approximately by 80%. Food and commodity hunger led to introduction of card supply. For ensuring normal uninterrupted supply of the main groups of workers in the cities since January, 1929 the rated supply by cards. & #34 was entered; Introduction of a rationing system on bread and other products, - it was said in the decision of the Plenum of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) in November, 1934, - .yavlyalos for the last years by the most important condition of improvement of supply of workers. Supply of workers with bread was made on firm state ценам" [5].

The class and production principle was the basis for a rationing system of supply. At the end of 1930, lists of the cities and categories of the population were established. In total three lists and special were made

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the list including Moscow, Leningrad, Donbass, Baku and some enterprises of defensive value. Within each list the population was subdivided into working and other workers with gradation of the first on group A (industrial workers) and group B (other persons of physical work). In a number of the cities in 1929, rated sale to the population of some manufactured goods according to member books and special warrants was entered.

In Lower Volga area, as well as in other regions of the country, work on improvement of a system of preparation of agricultural products, increase in the centralized market commodity funds, research of additional resources for mitigation of commodity deficiency was carried out. The importance in a complex of these actions was played by the organization of the closed distributors (CD) serving employees of certain enterprises or groups them. Such structure of trade enterprises improved the organization of working supply. By November, 1930 in the country, about 2700 closed distributors of consumer cooperation were created [6].

At the beginning of 1930 the party and trade-union organizations of Lower Volga area took muster of working cooperation for the purpose of improvement of quality of service of workers. On December 31, 1929 Lower Volga krayprofsovt made the decision to take such muster in January, 1930, and the bureau of regional committee of party recommended to Communist Party organizations to take active part in it. The review had to promote fast carrying out the solution of party and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions on growth of the salary, improvement of working supply and quality of service; to mobilize attention of operating masses, labor unions and the cooperative public to the public sector of trade, the budget of workers. During a review new methods of work of cooperation developed (patronage, a socialist competition, etc.).

The held review and inspection of working cooperation in a number of the cities of Lower Volga area put forward a new form of public control over activity of retail chain stores - patronage of workers of trade organizations. On March 2, 1930 Lower Volga krayprofsovt made the decision on creation at kSPS and also Astrakhan, Volsk, Saratov, Stalingrad and others okrprofbyu-ro permanent crews from 15-20 workers. Krayprofsovet set the task & #34; орабочить" the cooperation device for what planned to nominate 500 workers from the machine. On April 4, 1930 activity tsrk Saratov was analyzed. Having assessed growth of a trade turnover positively, kSPS paid attention to non-performance by working cooperation of a problem of increase in the real wage, weak coverage of workers public catering, and the office of retail chain stores the best shots suggested to strengthen lack of appropriate measures for the organization of own agricultural bases, unsatisfactory quality of service, to create voluntary groups for the aid to cooperation.

some improvement of the organization of working supply was noted by the IV plenum of the Lower Volga krayispolkom, including strengthening of production and distribution base of working supply, expansion of participation of consumer cooperation in work of suburban farms, increase in store retail chain stores in working areas, state farms and collective farms. At the solution of questions of working supply with a krayispolok recommended & #34; to aspire in possible limits to the organization of public catering in such cities as Astrakhan, Volsk, Saratov, etc. & #34; The task of expansion of coverage with cooperation of hunters of fish and providing them Was set by networks and other tools of fishing.

Considering target figures of the economic plan for 1931, the presidium of the Lower Volga krayispolkom raised a question of supply of the population of the region, having noted growth of a retail turn by 39% (761 million rub). The size of capital expenditure for trade and technical construction for 1931 was defined in 30.8 million rub [7].

The positive role in improvement of work of consumer cooperation was played by decisions of the XVI congress (on June-13 26 July, 1930). In the resolution & #34; About tasks of labor unions in reconstructive период" it was emphasized that & #34; labor unions have to try to obtain decisively reorganization of work of cooperation, eradication of scandalous shortcomings of the cooperative bodies which are sharply reflected in material well-being of workers, improving its device and expelling from it bureaucracy, nominating workers and members of their families in all links of the cooperative device and organizing around cooperation work the wide worker общественность".

On August 18 the same year of SNk USSR adopted the resolution & #34; about measures for improvement of work consumer кооперации" in which expansion of own suburban farms was told about need of strengthening of fight for profitability, reduction in cost of trade. The XII extraordinary congress of the union of textile workers made the special decision on working supply in which it was said: & #34; Considering that the labor productivity raising, the immediate task of cooperation of labor unions and economic organizations depends on the correct setting of working supply and public catering of workers... improvement of work of cooperation, activity of the closed distributors, expansion of garden economy, dairy ферм" is;. On September 6 the resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee & #34 was issued; about mass working control over work потребкооперации" set the task to strengthen a role of public organizations [8].

Along with the undertaken measures for improvement of operation of the closed distributors at large enterprises the independent the closed working cooperatives (CWC) began to be created. The integrated Plenum of the Central Committee and CKK All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) (on December 17-21, 1930) highlighted need & #34; the organizations at large enterprises of the independent closed workers кооперативов". It was noted that

consumer cooperation has to & #34; to reconstruct the work towards unconditional providing first of all the most important sites of socialist construction and coordination of business of supply with implementation of production plans, increase in labor productivity, fight against labor fluidity...".

In 1931 the norms of supply were lowered. In this regard local authorities undertook measures for research of additional resources for supply of the working population. On January 15, 1931 the bureau of the Lower Volga regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) made the decision on reorganization of work of consumer cooperation in the light of decisions of the Central Committee of party (December, 1930) and obliged to create at STZ, & #34; Red Oktyabr" Stalingrad state district power plant, group of the plants & #34; Электролес" (Stalingrad), kombaynovy (Saratov) the closed working cooperatives. To Krayprofsovet, the consumer union it was offered to create special funds of manufactured goods for priority supply of workers-drummers.

On January 27, 1931 the presidium of the Lower Volga krayispolkom approved norms of supply on the first quarter 1931. According to NKsnab's resolution of the USSR for uninterrupted and primary supply of the working major industrial enterprises since February 1 the new principle of supply was entered. The first group of companies was supplied in the centralized order with all food on the norms established for them; the second group - bread, grain, sugar, tea. other food were given within the funds allocated at the expense of local resources. Other workers were allocated in the third group. For them the following monthly norm of supply with bread was established: children of workers - 400 g a day, loaders and workers of new buildings - 1 kg. [9]

The central and regional authorities turned special attention to improvement of material level of working STZ. In 1931 the Central Committee of the union of workers of cooperative and state trade was entrusted to establish check of delivery of goods for the plant from the center; The Central Committee of the union of health workers - to organize days of rest, dispensaries. In a speech of the director of STZ at the integrated conference of metalworkers of Stalingrad (on February 13, 1931) it was noted that 1931 has to be & #34; regarding working supply переломным" it was told about creation of working control on cooperation check. The Astrakhan council of labor unions (September, 1930) sent to the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions a request for creation in the Astrakhan district of suburban state farm for supply of workers with dairy products.

On April 10-14, 1931 organizational bureau of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, discussing tasks of the union of workers of agricultural mechanical engineering, highlighted that & #34; one of decisive links in a raising of real salary is кооперация". It was offered to involve workers in observation of trade and cooperation, bringing mass control to a counter, a warehouse, kitchen, the dining room It was, etc. entrusted to provide to factory committees the organization of independent cooperatives on all

the enterprises having 2000 workers to pay attention to implementation of decisions of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) & #34; about development of 300 thousand hectares under kitchen gardens by attachment to the plants of garden sites, creations of own livestock and dairy farmings, involving in it the factory public, all workers and them семьи".

In May, 1931 the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions directed crew for inspection of STZ. In April 13418 people, including 10256 workers, 631 - the younger serving personnel, 1376 employees, 1155 ITR worked here. Generally at the enterprise the youth (7415 people) worked. At the plant 2763 women were registered. The collective was multinational: along with Russians 339 people of the Ukrainian nationality, 240 - Tatar, 203 - German, 88 - Belarusian, 60 - Kalmyk, 55 Polish, 52 - Mordovian, etc. worked. However on STZ there was no differentiated mass work with separate social and national groups. The enterprise was on priority supply. By June 1 the closed working cooperative was surveyed, its work is recognized as unsatisfactory [10].

Reorganization of cooperation and working supply generally came to the end: the closed distributors, SAM system, raypo are organized, military procuring committees are brought out of the CRK system; all points with independent trade financial plans are put on a self-supporting basis. Specialized industry shops are allocated in the system of the kraypotreb-union, and public catering - in the independent organization. Due to the understating by NKsnab of quantity supplied local bodies were forced to give food not to all working. In Stalingrad, for example, for supply of drummers and working leading professions five special shops, in the others - special departments of sale of goods to leaders of production were created.

Many decisions of the party, Soviet and trade-union organizations contained the requirement to strengthen control of trade, a public catering and cooperation. It was connected also with the fact that in work of trade organizations the facts of wastes, plunders of goods were observed. The control commissions created at factory local committees from workers, employees and trade-union activists exercised daily control of work of shops, buffets, dining rooms, subsidiary farms [11].

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At the same time showed attention to creation of the branches of light industry. In Lower Volga area practically again were created kozheven-but-shoe and clothing industry. Here were under construction hosiery factory (Stalingrad), knitted (Saratov), setevyazalny (Astrakhan). Light industry gained the further development in national areas. In the ASSR 47.3% of gross industrial output textile production (13.4 million rub), knitted-2.3% (662 thousand), tanning - 2.1% (585 thousand) gave Germans of the Volga region, i.e. these three industries produced 53% of all industrial output of the republic. All this created vozmozh-

a zheniye at the Stalingrad steel works & #34; Red Oktyabr". In the made decision tasks of strengthening of the device of public catering and bodies of cooperation, involvement in them of the best workers and also reorganizations of their service were set [17].

branch narcomats issued the special orders concerning supply of workers. In particular in the order of the Tax Code of light industry it was told about appointment of the special associate director to whom the organization, control and realization of products in strict accordance with the established norms was assigned. Measures for the organization of local markets, stalls, self-preparations by use of various resources were taken. In associations and trusts assistants to the managing director on working supply and the special groups making account and observation of a state and norms of working supply at the enterprises were appointed. This order played a positive role in improvement of the organization of supply, in fight against wastes and plunders in the supplying and trading organizations.

Thus, the created network of the closed distributors, the closed working cooperatives, despite difficulties and shortcomings of work, in general played a positive role in supply of the working population, first of all working the industry and buildings. along with expansion of agricultural and industrial production, release of goods of broad demand NKsnab provided the main shots of workers. From year to year the quantity of supplied increased. Activity of local authorities, trade-union, cooperative organizations for research of additional food resources was important. a certain role in it was played by the local, small, domestic industry, the enterprises of regional submission. In days of a five-years period also subsidiary farms were created, truck farming developed, livestock and poultry-farming farms opened. Creation of food bases softened sharpness of a food problem in the conditions of limitation of resources.

Since May, 1931 sale of manufactured goods by cards stopped. Along with closed open forms of trade began to develop. Capital investments in development of trade and supply increased. however there were many shortcomings of the system of supply what the archival sources given by authors testify to. The cooperative network worked still poorly. Irregular delivery of food funds for outlets, an insufficient initiative of places of research of additional products, sluggishness of the conclusion of bilateral contracts of cooperation with collective farms did not promote full

and to regular supply of the population. Supply of workers was carried out with big interruptions, its rules were not always respected. Headed by the government for speeding up of industrialization became the reason of strengthening of the centralized rated distribution of goods.

list of sources and LITERATURE

1. The XVI congress of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks). Stenogr. report. M, 1935. Page 70; Questions of supply. M.-L., 1935. Page 52.
2. E.A. Osokina. Hierarchy of consumption. About life of people in the conditions of Stalin supply. 1928-1935. M, 1993. Page 43, 97; N.R. Korovin. Working class in the 30th years. Ivanovo, 1994; Yu.M. Ivanov. Position of workers of Russia in the 20th - the beginning of the 30th//Questions of history. No. 5. 1998.
3. Socialist construction of the USSR. To become. year-book. M, 1936. Page 390, 680.
4. Resolutions of the first Lower Volga regional congress of labor unions (on October 5-11, 1928). Saratov, 1928. Page 15.
5. Working class - the leading force in construction of socialist society. T.2. Page 238; The CPSU in resolutions... T. 6. M, 1985. Page 183.
6. Domestic trade of RSFSR for 1931-1934 of M., 1935. Page 24; Key performance indicators of consumer cooperation. M, 1932. Page 18.
7. State Archive of the Saratov Region (SASR). F.R-522. Op. 1. 159. L. 4; Op. 2. 9. L. 1, 3; F.R-626. Op. 3. 25. l. 18; F.R-633. Op. 2. 25. l. 25; F.R-667. Op. 2. 90. L. 76.
8. The CPSU in resolutions. T.5. M.,1984. Page 179; SZ. 1930. No. 43. Article 447.
9. GASO. F.R-522. Op. 1. 219. L. 75-76.
10. State Archive of the Russian Federation (SARF). T. 5451. Op. 14. 499. L. 38; 497. L. 35; Op. 15. 87. L. 20, 22; 597. L. 47-49; T. 5469. Op. 15. 123. L. 1, 2; T. 7676. Op. 7. 3. L. 28-29.
11. GARF. T. 1235. Op.109. 116. L. 374-375; V.A. Zavodchikov. Labor unions: history, people, priorities, problems. Samara, 2002. Page 101.
12. T.N. Kuzmina, N.A. Sharoshkin. Industrial development of the Volga region. 1928 - June, 1941: achievements, costs, lessons. Penza, 2005. Page 137-139.
13. Russian State Archive of Economy (RSAE). T. 7620. Op. 1. 160. L. 40; History of socialist economy of the USSR. T. 3. M, 1977. Page 453; Consumer cooperation of the USSR for 1929-1933 (key indicators). M, 1934. Page 24-25.
14. GARF. T. 7676. Op. 7. 156. L. 33; 477. L.11, 14, 42-43; T. 5469. Op. 15. 105. L. 59.
15. The CPSU in resolutions. T. 5. M, 1971. Page 17, 19.
16. T.N. Kuzmina, N.A. Sharoshkin. Industrial development of the Volga region. 1928 - June, 1941 of Page 85; E.A. Osokina. Decree. soch. Page 26.
17. RGAE. T. 7620. Op. 1. 160. L. 3, 41; GARF. T. 5451. Op. 16. 232. L. 41; T. 7676. Op. 7. 338. L. 62.
Jesse Peterson
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