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Category: History

Ravitiye of the industry and professionalnotekhnichesky education in mountain Altai during the post-war period (1946-1965)




Mikhail Viktorovich Shilovsky —

the doctor of historical sciences, professor managing the sector of Institute of history of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, the head of the department of national history of NSU, Novosibirsk.



Nikolay Semyonovich Modorov —

the doctor of historical sciences, professor of the Gorno-Altaysk State University, the head of the laboratory on studying the people of Southern Siberia, the academician of RAGN, Gorno-Altaysk



Mikhail Italyevich Paklin —

candidate of historical sciences, associate professor of history of Russia of the Gorno-Altaysk State University, Gorno-Altaysk

UDC 902

N.G. Arykova, graduate student EIDER, Gerno-Altaysk


In article on the basis of the published and archive materials the development of the industry and vocational training in Mountain Altai during the post-war period (1946-1965) is analyzed.

Having victoriously ended the Great Patriotic War, the Soviet people directed all the efforts to as soon as possible to restore everything, destroyed by war. And to restore was that. According to sources, in ruins 1710 cities of our country lay, over 700 thousand villages and villages were destroyed and burned by fascists, nearly 32 thousand plants and factories, 65 thousand kilometers of railway tracks are destroyed, 1135 mines are flooded and blown up, 427 museums and 43 thousand libraries are plundered. The direct material damage caused by war was nearly a third of a national wealth of the country [1, page 420].

Mountain Altai, as we know, was far from the battlefield. However it did not save also it from "losses". For years of military hard times in the area (if to take only its industry in attention), floor spaces and capacities were considerably reduced, war for many years delayed also process of hardware of the industrial enterprises, tore off the considerable number of the qualified labor from production. All this combined also led to significant decrease (in 1945 for 18.4%, in comparison with 1940) the volume of gross output of the industry of area. Decreased for years of war — almost by 30% — average development on one worker [2, l. 1].

Owing to all this, restoration and further expansion proizvodstven-

became the main task of workers of Mountain Altai in the first post-war five-years period

ny areas, technical reconstruction of the enterprises and also rise in labor productivity. At the expense of it it was planned to surpass the level of 1940 in release of gross output of the industry on the state enterprises twice, and on the enterprises of producers' cooperation almost by one and a half times [2, l. 1].

These, without exaggeration, difficult tasks of social and economic development of Mountain Altai for 1946-1950 were discussed at the XVI session of regional council of deputies of workers. By results of its work the developed resolution ("About tasks of Councils of the Oyrotsky autonomous region of implementation of the law on the five-year plan of restoration and development of the national economy of the USSR for 1946-1950") was accepted in which ways of performance of the first post-war five-years period were defined. In this regard, the session urged local councils to strengthen even more economic work, to delve deeper to them into production activity of the enterprises, is timely and effective to support the creative initiative of workers, to actively develop different types and forms of a socialist competition [3, l. 46-51].

Having assumed so high obligations which were entirely corresponding to the allied "Law on the five-year plan of restoration and development of the national economy for 1946-1950", workers of Mountain Altai directed all the forces to their performance. Thanks to it, in the first post-war year they achieved quite good results, in particular, total production (valo-

Wai products of the industry) pre-war level for more than 2 percent surpassed in 1946 [4; page 3]. However the condition of the industry in general, especially in a section of its separate industries, continued to remain unsatisfactory. Situation in the forest and syrodelatelny industry was the most unsuccessful. In them (and in others too) the acute shortage in labor (60% to the plan), vehicles was felt (35% to requirement) that significantly constrained increase in productivity of work in the industries. And as the result of it is there was a universal decrease in production. For example, in logging enterprises it was reduced in general (in comparison with the level of 1940) by 8 times [4, page 3]. Not better the situation and in the cheese-making industry where because of low hardware of the enterprises of this industry the plan for main types of products was not implemented was, the labor productivity is reduced by 8.9%, and product cost is increased in 1946 (by 16%, against planned) [4, page 3].

Similar situation was also in some other industries of a system of an oblmestprom, a regional-food industry, a kraylegprom, etc. The level of mechanization of work of workers was especially low. So, in the system of an oblmestprom there were only 2 lathes [5, l. 10]. Owing to lack of the technical equipment (and such situation was characteristic not only to the enterprises of metal working, but also an obozostroyeniye, brick, felting and to other productions), the majority of works at the enterprises was performed manually [5, l. 10].

It is known that (to this day remains) production of goods per capita was one of the main indicators of the level of development of the industry. If to take consumer goods in which production the industry of Mountain Altai specialized then it should be noted that in the first post-war year the level of their production remained very low. Therefore elementary needs of the population of the area were satisfied entirely due to import of these goods from other areas.

The considerable negativism in industry work substantially depended on the fact that its enterprises (and even the industries) used imported raw materials that almost excluded a possibility of use of local resources by them. However the concept of this "problem", did not mean its realization in practice yet. Therefore separate industries, for example, production of building materials on the place, instead of natural expansion, on the contrary, began "to be curtailed" and reduce production. And as the result of it is a share of imported raw materials in the total amount of industrial production of area began to increase. In particular, in 1946 it reached nearly 55% [6, page 410].

Unsatisfactory work of the industry substantially was result also of lack of necessary floor spaces and also uses by the enterprises of the outdated equipment, machines and machines. However in the first years of the fourth five-years period it was not succeeded to solve these problems. It, to a certain extent, was made only in 1949 when capital investments in the industry were increased: they reached then 7.5 million rubles that allowed area to put into operation 2 creameries capable to process 600 tons of milk a year, 3 frame timber mills, 7 pikhtovarenny installations, the smoloskipidarny and brick plants, preparatory shops in promartel "Textile worker", hydroelectric power stations in promartel "Bolshevik" and sapogovalyalny factory. Then, in 1949, in work of the state logging enterprises of area skidding tractors, winches, motor- and power saws for the first time began to be used [6, page 411].

The specified innovations, certainly, promoted rise in labor productivity in the industry, to increase in quantity and quality of the made products in general. And, nevertheless, the question, still, did not descend from the agenda topical (not only for Mountain Altai, but for the country in general): training of qualified personnel both for industrial, and for agricultural production.

Considering relevance of the given problem in a country section, the government undertakes measures to its decision. In this regard, it should be noted that it undertook those also during the pre-war period. In particular, on October 2, 1940 the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR adopted the decree "About the State Manpower Reserves" which obliged power and economic structures of all levels to force (in the conditions of the approaching military danger) preparation of working mass professions in all regions of the country, especially in east [7, page 14]. Mountain Altai also was carried to number of those.

As always it was found at that time, the party and Soviet and economic organizations zealously undertook implementation of the above-mentioned decree. At all levels it was constantly declared about need of carrying out systematic and systematic work on preparation of the qualified labor shots. Unfortunately, further declarations, business did not go. It was directly said about it in the Decree of the Government of the USSR and the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), issued in December, 1940. Noting separate progress in training of skilled workers for the industry, it paid the main attention to the fact that it was not executed and planned, in this regard, measures for elimination noted in work on places of shortcomings [8, page 185-191].

However the war imposed to the Soviet Union by the German fascism prevented to realize them. And having only victoriously completed it, the country returned to the solution of the aforesaid problem, however, not so actively as during the pre-war period as then to the forefront there was a problem of the fastest elimination of all that was destroyed by war. Together with the whole country also workers of Mountain Altai started its decision. Remembering that performance planned in many respects depends on providing the national economy with shots, the party and Soviet and economic organizations of area defined for themselves training of personnel as a task not only paramount, but also state importance. However in days of the fourth five-years period, it was not solved. Its plan targets were performed, mainly, by "number", but not "technical perfection of the performer" and also labor enthusiasm of masses which skillfully was supported and went the ideology dominating then in the country. Thanks to all this, the gross output of the industry of area managed to surpass by the end of a five-years period pre-war level almost for 11% [9, page 9].

However more careful analysis of economic activity of the industry of area in days of the fourth five-years period showed that in its development there were also serious shortcomings. The most important of them (characteristic of development of its separate industries, in particular, forest, cheese-making, meat and the enterprises of producers' cooperation) was the absence in them complex mechanization, good technological designs, schemes and cards of productions that, eventually, did not allow them to work is more productive. The absence of skilled workers of shots who could operate such technological process with skill was accompanying "moment" of existing of the specified shortcomings of their work also.

About these and other shortcomings interfering it is productive to work the industries, about "high-quality replenishment of working class, by creation

with indispensable accounting of requirements and specifics of the branches of the national economy", it was openly told networks of educational institutions of manpower reserves in February, 1951 at the special session of regional council of deputies of workers. Having discussed the questions which are brought up at it, it adopted the developed resolution directed to elimination of noted shortcomings [6, page 410].

However its correct and the "technically justified decisions" directed to "progress of industry on the new level of development" remained as more than once already it happened, only on paper again, and this branch of the national economy of area continued to work "in the old manner". This circumstance became a subject of discussion at another regional forum — a meeting of a regional party and Soviet asset of the local and cooperative industry in July, 1951. Comparing materials of that and other meeting, it is possible to claim, as on the first, and on the second same "bottlenecks" which both in February, and in July it was recommended "to eliminate in the nearest future" [10, l appeared in the section "shortcomings". 42-205]. To told, it is necessary to add that these "defects" were already eliminated in days of the fourth five-years period (1946-1950), and nowadays (in days of the fifth five-years period) they "were revealed again" and once again "urged to liquidate them".

But, speaking about this "negative", it should be noted, to be fair, that it was generated not by unwillingness of local party and Soviet and economic organizations to work in the specified direction, and the practice of financing of any given regions which developed in the country. The main criterion in determination of their "importance" for the center consisted in one: whether it was "industrial" edge (area) which priority place in development was taken by the heavy industry (which was considered as "a basis of development of the national economy and growth of material well-being and cultural level of the Soviet people") or it was the agrarian area. As Mountain Altai was among agrarian, and its financing was carried out on corresponding "grid". In justice of the drawn conclusion, entirely convince "Directives by the fifth five-year development plan for the USSR for 1951-1955". In them, as before, need of further and primary development of the heavy industry as most important condition of development of all national economy and growth of material well-being and cultural level of the population of the USSR [6, was emphasized with page 415;].

Proceeding from this dilemma, in Western Siberia the further development of metallurgy, power, the coal industry and the construction industry was provided. Nothing it in Mountain Altai was, and therefore to count on serious capital investments, it was not necessary to it. Capital construction remained the only hope in this plan in the area — under its development the center provided additional resources. It became, again, in response to the petition of local party and Soviet bodies. That, for example, the resolution was accepted Council of ministers of RSFSR in January, 1953. According to it, to our autonomy it was allocated — in addition — for "capital construction of new houses, schools, boarding schools, for improvement of Gorno-Altaysk and villages of area over 3.5 million rubles [6, page 415].

Insufficient financing of the industry of Mountain Altai and also not always rational development of those investments which were allocated to edge with the center inevitably resulted in negative result: to slow growth of production capacities and improvement of technological process. Owing to this fact, neither the enterprises of an oblmestprom, nor producers' cooperation had no by the end of 1953 "more or less

the mechanized production". Essential if not the main role in unsatisfactory development of the industry of area was played "dispersion of production", and, above all — absence of "necessary qualified personnel", and in "work with available, the enterprises allowed serious defects". Besides many of them and also the workers serving them not always had accurately expressed "production profile, and therefore they quite often switched to production (to the detriment of the basic and contrary to plan targets) products not peculiar to them, spending for its production "planned raw materials" [6, page 420].

Vicious practice of work of the industrial enterprises "by orders of wholesale consumers" was characteristic not only to factories, the plants and promartel of Mountain Altai, but also other regions of the country. Therefore the leadership of the USSR, having discussed the situation, urged the party and Soviet and economic organizations of all levels to change "radically" industry work, to strengthen technical progress in it. In other words, the July plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU (1955) demanded immediate replacement of the outdated equipment at the industrial enterprises, increases in level of mechanization and automation, introduction of scientific offers and inventions in production. He paid special attention to specialization and cooperation of the industry, improvement of organization of labor and the system of payment, improvement of quality of products and decrease in its prime cost [6, page 421].

Implementation of decisions of a plenum of the Central Committee began in the area with "improvement of organizational structure of the industry: trade artels were liquidated, and their promfonda were transferred to the local industry of regional and regional submission. On the basis of them 15 large and specialized enterprises were created. For example, the promartel "Textile worker" was reorganized into weaving mill, a promartel Elektrometall (Rosobozpromsoyuz) — into the obozostroitelny plant of republican submission, the sapogovalyalny enterprise — into gardinno-tulle factory of regional submission, etc. [6, page 421]. Unfortunately, restructurings are farther work "on rise" to the industry of area, increase in technological level of production, providing it with qualified personnel did not go. As well as in last years, the end result of work of each enterprise was achieved not on the basis of technical progress, and on enthusiasm, "a moral and strong-willed spirit of the worker" and a constant socialist competition, to the devoted one, other memorable or anniversary event in the history of party and our state. Those as we know, there was much. In the considered time the foundation for a broad socialist competition was laid by the 10 anniversary of a victory of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War, then there was the XX congress of the CPSU, the 200 anniversary of voluntary entry of the Altai people into structure of Russia, the 40 anniversary of Great October, etc.

The new moral and ideological surge in "labor enthusiasm" workers of Mountain Altai was connected at first with "a worthy meeting the" of the XXI congress of the CPSU stating socialism victory to the USSR and the entry of the country in the period of the developed communism. These high declarations were entirely reflected by the seven-year plan of social and economic development of the USSR (1959-1965). The important place in it was allocated (once again) for development of eastern regions of the country. According to it, the industry of the Gorno-Altaysk autonomous region had to take an essential step in the development (to increase, for example, labor productivity, in comparison, since 1958 by 56.2%) [11, page 19]. And, it is necessary to tell, it was made: by the end of the seven-year-old in the area worked 49 (on real

to a stvo newly created) factories and plants. Separate of them gave to the country products which were not made any more anywhere, in particular, it is possible to carry a jacquard and gardinno-mesh cloth, mercury to that, etc. At the same time, the area, as before, continued to import for the needs oil products from Bashkiria, coal — from Kuzbass and Cheremkhovo, machines and the equipment and other industrial regions. Despite separate negatives, the industry of area continued to fulfill the undertaken obligations: increased production of cotton and half-woolen fabric, a gardinno-tulle cloth, garments, leather footwear, furniture, a brick, timber, etc. from year to year [11, page 19]. But in this increase in industrial output the labor enthusiasm of the "builders of communism" who were directly participating in different forms of a socialist competition, and to a lesser extent — nauchnotekhnichesky progress and qualified (through the system of vocational training) shots was more "guilty".

But time prevailed. Led fast rates of development of new technologies to the end of the 60th of the 20th century. To emergence in the country of a wide range of professions which basis was formed by not mechanical combination of several professions, and a certain system of the educational, polytechnical and special preparation connected with calculation functions, production control, use of a complex of cars, adjustment and repair of the equipment. All this combined significantly increased the need of the national economy of the USSR for qualified specialists and workers. Increase in its requirements to educational, polytechnical and vocational training of experts caused, first of all, and emergence of new technical schools which began to be created everywhere according to the resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR "About the Organization of Proizvodstvennotekhnichesky Training of the Youth Which Graduated From High Schools for Work on Production" [12, page 29].

According to the requirements to the expert put in it, the resolution established also training terms in the existing and again formed technical training colleges — from 1 to 2 years.

Carrying out it, local authorities, including and Mountain Altai, opened at themselves new schools and other educational institutions, the called messages training of specialists of an average link, and, above all — qualified personnel of workers for which the local industry, agriculture, trade and consumer services of area felt severe need. Noting the achieved success in this direction, the local management did not cease, at the same time, "to sound the alarm" concerning shortage in the region of "experts of an average link and skilled workers" [13, page 6]. The main reason of this "shortage" consisted in a shortcoming on places of educational institutions of the specified profile. Other reason of "shortage" of experts of an average link consisted that the youth did not go to the available educational institutions of vocational training as they did not give it the general secondary education [13, page 7]. And, it is necessary to tell, it, really, there was a good reason which was in due time realized by the country leaders. Therefore to attract youth in the system of vocational training, it goes for necessary "increase" in the status of data of educational institutions. However in Mountain Altai of such institutions — the industrial profile — in the considered time was not. Owing to this fact, shots necessary for the industrial enterprises, mainly, skilled workers were preparing at home, through various short-term courses and "training of cadets" at the advanced enterprises of the industry, etc. Systematic and purposeful preparation of professional shots (through the system of specialized educational institutions) will begin in Mountain Altai only at the beginning of the 70th of last century, but it is already a subject of another story.


1. V.I. Moryakov, V.A. Fedorov, Yu.A. Shchetinov. History of Russia. — M, 2001.
2. State Archive of Altai Republic (SAAR). T. 58. Op. 2. 68.
3. GARA. F.33. Op. 20. 7.
4. Planning commission. Results of work of the industry of area for 1946
5. GARA. F.59. Op. 5a. 2.
6. Essays on the history of the Gorno-Altaysk autonomous region. — Gorno-Altaysk, 1973.
7. P.K. Karmanov. Vocational training in Eastern Siberia (1940-2000). Avtoref. yew.dokt. east. sciences. — Krasnoyarsk, 2004.
8. The CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences, Plenums of the Central Committee. T. 7. — M.,1985.
9. N.M. Kiselyov. About some features of development of economy of Mountain Altai during the post-war period (1946-1963). — Gorno-Altaysk, 1964.
10. GARA. T. 33. Op. 29. 37.
11. The national economy of the Gorno-Altaysk autonomous region in 50 years of the Soviet power. — Gorno-Altaysk, 1967.
12. Professional education in the region: main directions and quality of training of experts. — Barnaul, 2000.
13. N.G. Arykova. Development of professional education in Mountain Altai in the second half of the 20th century: directions and forms//TGU Bulletin. Bulletin of operational scientific information. — No. 122. "History and culture of Western Siberia". — Tomsk, 2006.

Article came to edition 18.02.08

UDC 902

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