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Power and religious organizations: models of relationship (on the example of Bashkir ASSR the 1960-1990th)



g. R. Fakhretdinova

POWER AND RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS: MODELS of RELATIONSHIP (on the example of BASHKIR ASSR the 1960-1990th)

Work is presented by department of history of the Fatherland and a technique of teaching history of the Sterlitamak state pedagogical academy.

The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor A.S. Vereshchagin

The policy of persecutions on the religious centers did not stop in all years of the Soviet power. From the beginning of the 1960th in their relation continued to make desperate attempts not to allow development of influence of religion in the country. Nevertheless to the middle of the 1980th it was possible to speak not about an atheism victory, and to claim about the return.

The policy of persecution of the religious centers did not stop during all the years of the Soviet power. Starting from the 1960s authorities continued making desperate attempts not to let the influence of religion develop in the country. However, by the middle of the 1980s it was already possible to speak not about the victory of atheism, but to confirm the opposite.

In August, 1960 the reference signed by V. Kuroyedov's deputy V. Furov came to Department of promotion of the Central Committee of the CPSU from Council for affairs of religions. Its full name "About Results of Reorganization of Church Management and Work on Strengthening of Control of Activity of Religious Associations". Assessment of the reform by Council was very high: "It was the largest, the most effective, useful action to the state. It is obvious that only on the basis of reform the church in a law framework was succeeded to put, to pick up it, to organize effective control over activity of clergy" [6. page 17]. Change of all directions of state and church policy in all regions of the country turned out to be consequence of this reform. Being guided by the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU "About tasks of party promotion in modern conditions", in each region of BASSR the plan of measures on antireligious promotion was developed and was carried out, during work the immoral offenses, abuses and plunders committed by priests and believers came to light.

For example, such, as in the Ishimbay district, in which during 1960-1961 established facts of barefaced speculation in a communion bread, candles and other objects of church use which was conducted in the Ishimbay house of worship. In particular, it was established that on sale of 1 kg of candles the churchmen gained income of over 400 rub, the flour pood processed on a communion bread instead of the state cost of 64 rub managed 3200-3500 rub [9, l. 115].

As a result of a Khruschev's antireligious campaign about 50% of total number of the registered churches and houses of worship were closed, 21 prayful buildings are confiscated [7, page 88]. During a post-Khruschev's era the religious question in many respects lost former sharpness and relevance, but at the same time the main strategic task of the CPSU concerning religion remained invariable. The concept of the developed socialism which replaced the concept of the developed construction of communism with its promises "became the most important component of a new political policy to live at communism" to already present generation

Soviet people. Therefore the communistic purposes were removed out of limits of the foreseeable historical horizon. Party ideologists were forced to note that process of overcoming religiousness was much more difficult, than it was expected and supposed earlier. The fact that in five (1960-65) of years the number of baptisms to total number been born in BASSR only decreased from 14.2 to 10.9%, and weddings to the total number of registered - from 3.8 to 2% can be an example of it; in Ufa of baptisms - from 36.5 to 19.9%, weddings - from 3.3 to 1.2%. In 5 years 22 churches, 12 mosques and houses of worship are closed and removed from registration, converted into schools and cultural and educational institutions of 59 invalid churches and mosques. Revenues of churches were reduced by 44%, mosques for 36% though in general income remains high [10, l. 22]. Thus, though reduction, but not in such scales in what it was planned was observed.

About reduction of quantity, frequent change, restriction of influence and activity in the republic it is specified in annual reports of the representative, reports. So, in 1960 the clergy allowed 24 cases of violation of the Soviet legislation on cults, for 1970 there were 32 various violations of the Soviet laws on religious cults. So, for example, the former imam of the Sterlitamak mosque M. Ziyaitdinov was engaged in extortion of things at relatives of the dead, hiding income from financial bodies, evaded from payment of income tax [13, l. 34].

For these violations events for restriction of influence and activity of clergy, such as staff reduction, removal from registration were held. Therefore if for 1.01.1960 - was 63, then for their 1.01.1961 became 52 together with epi-

skopaty. At the beginning of 1960 the bishop Nikon developed the new increased staff of arrivals (up to 75) and tried to fill them by the invitation from other areas. But it did not manage it. In a year 23 persons, the registered 7 people [14, l are removed from registration. 152]. Any movements of clergy were coordinated with local government.

The description of a situation in the religious organizations was one of main in reports of the representative of Council for affairs of religions which annually went to the center. Such form - uniform obligatory annual statistical reporting was entered in 1966. It included data on religious associations, on the main religious ceremonialism, on income and expenses of religious associations; about age and education of priests, the considered complaints of believers, data on a request of believers on opening of churches and mosques.

Data on religious ceremonialism on BASSR during 1960-1985 do not reveal any single trend - to reduction or to increase, and constantly change in any given party. However when comparing number of the registered and unregistered religious organizations the reduction of number of the first and increase in the second for this period is found. For example, on some of contemporary records for 1.01.1965 the quantity registered was about 20, and unregistered more than 100 groups [15, l. 122]. Besides, in each information report on activity of the religious organizations surely came to light how many offices of Baptism, weddings, burial services were made by believers. Information about making religious practices arrived in mountains (paradise) of a coma of party and the Soviet authorities at the place of residence for carrying out indi-

vidualny work. Perhaps, for this reason the residents of villages and villages went to the cities for commission of ceremonies on various pretexts; for example, under trip pretexts to relatives or in hospital [16, l. 19].

Apparently, any manifestations of religious life the population was under constant control from local Soviet and party bodies. About active promotion of atheism it was noted also in reports. For example, from the report of the secretary of regional committee of the CPSU comrade H.S. Sayranov on "Conduct Promotion in connection with Life — the Main Task of Propagandists" in 1962 it was noted: "Education of the new person is impossible without persistent, systematic fight against religious remnants. The party organizations of the republic carry out a certain work on atheistic education of workers what they testify withdrawal of many believers from church, closing in recent years of 17 churches and mosques to. But religious remnants are hardy, they is tenacious entangle some part of workers and especially youth. It is enough to tell that only in 1961 nearly 15 thousand children are christened, 1628 newlyweds" [17, l are married. 53].

A subject of atheistic promotion as well as through the whole country, after the end of a Khruschev's antireligious campaign openly did not rise up to 1971, to the resolution of the Central Committee demanding to intensify atheistic education of the population. The regional resolution "About tasks of the party organizations for implementation of the resolution of the secretariat of the Central Committee of the CPSU of August 10, 1971 "About strengthening of atheistic education of the population" was accepted. However in areas of special work did not occur, judging by reports, for example, it was claimed that in some party organizations underestimation of a role ateistiche-was observed

sky education and danger "religious remnants that was expressed in bad individual work with believers and got under influence of religion" [18, l. 12.91]. Since the end of the 1970th in the region it is possible to state sharp increase, at least on paper, a wave of the planned atheistic actions [19, l. 284]. Despite the taken measures for strengthening of atheistic education of the population, since the middle of the 1970th the religious situation in the republic was characterized as stable, its signs was increase in number of parishioners, growth church, income, the termination of frequent change of priests, rejuvenation of structure of clergy, and when closing churches is allowed administration in relation to believers [3, l. 171].

The official statistical these ceremonialisms which were traditionally considered as signs of religiousness of the population speak for themselves, for example, in 1982 13.2% of newborns were subjected to an office of Baptism, there is rather high a number of the weddings which made 0.8% of number of all weddings last year" [20, l. 163]. Cases of departure of religious practices by members of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League met that is violation of authorized requirements of Komsomol. So, in Sovetsky district of Ufa in 1982 57 members made religious practices of a baptism and a wedding, in Kalinin - 9, the cities of Sterlitamak-57, Neftekamsk - 5, Belebey - 5, Birsk -

13. Apparently, "the paper atheism" of the end of the 1970th - the first half of the 1980th fully found the reflection and in BASSR [4, l. 9-11].

In 1985-1987 the orientation of activity of the public commissions practically did not change at paradise (mountains) executive committees). In plans of their work the same actions: "identification of believers and

suppression of their influence on youth", informing municipal authorities on mass meetings of believers (conducting raids together with Departments of Internal Affairs in days of big church holidays, etc.) [21, l. 2-4]. 1985-1988 from local authorities observed some confusion and unwillingness to refuse former stereotypes behavior in the religious sphere.

But 1988 became a reference point with which real change of religious policy in the USSR including in Bashkir ASSR which leadership was forced to begin to reconsider the relation to religion carefully began. As tried to strengthen the leaders of area atheistic promotion in connection with church significant anniversary as the press approach of this event suppressed, but positive changes in religious policy and support of church anniversary by the central power, naturally, had to cause changes in this sphere and at the local level. Did not become an exception and BASSR where anniversary celebrations were celebrated at the beginning of July, 1988 and included festive church services. Celebration of anniversary became the main reason of revival of a religious situation that it was shown not only in growth of ceremonialism, but also in increase in addresses of believers with requests for registration of religious associations. In 1988 only the Muslim religious organizations it was registered 17, not to mention other faiths [22, l. 78]. Despite celebration in the field of church anniversary at the official level, the relation of local authorities to changes in the religious sphere remained dual. On the one hand, local councils of People's Deputies and public organizations, being guided by decisions XIX party konfe-

rention and provisions of a performance of M.S. Gorbachev at a meeting with members of the Synod of Russian Orthodox Church, proved positive impact on stabilization of a religious situation in the region. At the same time as the factor influencing positive changes in a religious situation the support by believers of reorganization and a contribution which they made in social and economic development of the region was allocated. On the other hand, the criticism to many departments and institutions for the fact that they underestimate sharpness of a religious situation, do not take due measures for strengthening of ideological educational work was distributed. However, such behavior was reflection of state policy on the religion in 1986-1988 consisting in providing certain freedom to Church, but at preservation of control of its activity.

Thus, finishing the analysis of implementation of religious policy of the Soviet power in Bashkiria in the mid-sixties - the end of the 1990th, it is possible to emphasize the following. Before emergence in summer of 1971 of the party resolution, the first after the end of a Khruschev's antireligious campaign, on strengthening of atheistic promotion the matters in the republic openly did not rise. At the same time local authorities actively interfered with internal affairs of church parishes, exercising the right to approve and control the structures of their executive bodies and carrying out work on restriction of influence of church activists on the population. The office of Baptism in BASSR for 1965-1986 averaged 13.4% of number of newborns. But at the same time the total number of the baptisms (not only children, but also adults) made in temples of the republic did not decrease since 1978 that was constantly noted as the negative phenomenon [5, l.1 09].

The last law on freedom of conscience and the religious organizations in Bashkortostan was adopted in June, 1991 Since then everything changed: political system, economy, system of values and attitudes. The side between church and the state was erased, there was their common ground more and more. The state began to render the feasible help to the religious organizations. Since 1994, funds from the federal budget are allocated for restoration of mosques and temples [1, page 3]. So, in 1995 in the republic 9 cult buildings were returned to them, new were under construction and under construction, madrasahs opened. In 1996 in Bashkortostan was

about 18 types of the religious organizations. "Also the structure of the public institution controlling performance of laws on the religious organizations changed. The institute authorized for religions, acting in Bashkortostan from the middle of the 1940th, is transformed to Council for affairs of religions at the Cabinet of RB" [8, page 35]. Considerably life of religious faiths became more active. If in 1990 two religious centers worked (orthodox and Muslim), then today in Bashkiria seven religious centers work, 740 religious associations and arrivals are registered [2, page 66].

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Tom Berry
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