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Political investigation in Russia at the end the XIX beginning of the 20th centuries. Problem historiography

rovsky A.N. Plays. M, 1982; G.I. Uspensky. Customs of Rasteryaevaya Street. M, 1986, etc.

4. Memorable books of the Penza province on 1864, 1868, 1869, 1870, 1888, 1900, 1902, 1904, 1911-1912. Penza, 1865, 1869, 1870, 1871, 1889, 1901, 1903, 1905, 1913.
5. The first General population census of the Russian Empire 1897 SPb., 1903. Issue XXX. Penza province; K.F. Steel. The materials for geography and statistics of Russia collected by general-staff officers. Penza province. SPb., 1867. Part 1, 2.
6. A.E. Popov. Churches, prichta and arrivals of the Penza diocese. Penza province and diocese. (Short historical data). Penza, 1896.
7. Code of laws of the Russian Empire. SPb., 1853. T. IX. Section III. About city inhabitants.
8. K.F. steel. The materials for geography and statistics of Russia collected by general-staff officers. Penza province. SPb., 1867. Part 1, 2.
9. O.A. Sukhova. Features of formation of provincial business (on materials of Central Volga area)//Historical notes: Interhigher education institution. sb. nauch. works. Penza, 1998. Issue 2. Page 134-142; It. The household culture of the Penza businessmen of the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century//Study of local lore. Penza, 1997. No. 2. Page 34-42; It. Business and businessmen in the Russian Empire. Penza, 2000.
10. A.V. Tyustin. Penza provincial leaders of the nobility. Penza, 2001.
11. A.V. Tyustin. Penza merchants: Questions of history of formation//Zemstvo. Penza, 1994. No. 3. Page 47-62; It. The Penza commerce and industry business in the system of the interregional and external economic intercourses (the second half the XVSh-beginning of the 20th centuries)//Zemstvo. Penza, 1995. No. 4. Page 32-52; It. For the good of the Fatherland: from the history of business of the Penza province. M, 2004.

UDC 351.73 (09)

POLITICAL investigation in Russia at the end of H1H-NAChALE of the 20th CENTURIES. PROBLEM HISTORIOGRAPHY


Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky department of national history and technique of teaching history

Recently the question of national security is particularly acute very much. In this regard interest in studying historical experience of activity of security agencies amplifies. Attempts to investigate bodies of political investigation, their function, the main activities and methods of work are made. But before investigating, it is necessary to define degree of scientific readiness of a problem. In the submitted article the review of the works devoted to the history of political investigation in Russia at the end the H1H-beginning of the 20th centuries is given. The author allocates the main stages of development of a historiography of this problem, revealing features of every period.

The system of police officers of bodies always held a specific place in the device of public administration. Therefore during formation and existence of the Russian absolutism there was a formation and strengthening of political police. The autocracy sought to suppress in all possible ways liberation movement and not to allow development in the country of revolution. All government of a tsarism, and first of all its retaliatory bodies (army, court, police, gendarmerie), was directed on performance of this task.

Recently in a historiography interest in studying historical experience of state system of pre-revolutionary Russia, including development and interaction of security agencies of autocracy throughout the long period ensuring internal political safety of the state considerably amplifies. The research of bodies of political investigation as force counteracting revolutionary movement took place generally in the context of studying social and political life. Meanwhile the political police of the Russian Empire at the HK-beginning of the 20th centuries occupied one of the major seats in the system of public authorities.

The historiography of a problem is characterized by insignificant number of the works devoted to the history of secret police in Russia in the XIX beginnings of the 20th century and in the same

time rather frequent mention of this problem in researches about an internal political condition of Russia of this period. There are also works which pay attention some to one of activities of secret police. Characterizing a historiography of this problem, it is possible to allocate three main periods: pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern (Post-Soviet).

During the pre-revolutionary period the history of political investigation of the end of the XIX beginning of the 20th centuries was not considered as a subject of scientific research. The existing lack is partially met by official publications - collections of anniversary essays of history of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and St. Petersburg city police [1], however they analyze activity of provincial police bodies insufficiently and in general have descriptive character since not historians, but the police officers who were not setting before themselves the purposes of scientific research acted as their authors. The exception is made by only small historical and publicistic article of P.E. Shchegolev "To history of a police agency in Russia" [2], opening separate forms and methods of work of police bodies. The brochure by the former director of the department of police is of a certain interest to the studied subject

And. A. Lopukhina "From results of office experience. The present and the future of the Russian police" [3], in which yes -

characteristic of the general and political police during revolution of 1905-1907 etsyatsya and the attempt of digression to history becomes, the measures directed to improvement of forms and methods of fight against revolutionary movement for the benefit of strengthening of the mode are proposed. If the history of police was lit in pre-revolutionary literature insufficiently, then the structure and activity of the Certain building of gendarmes as body of political investigation did not find the reflection at all. It is explained by the inaccessibility of sources caused by their confidential character and also acceptable restrictions.

The commission of senator Makarov on reform of police prepared "A historical essay of education and development of police institutions in Russia" [4]. This work, as well as the brochure by Lopukhin, concerns more questions of the most police force in general and in very small degree of Department of police. Methods of activity of bodies of political investigation, formation and development of provocative receptions were considered in work of the historian B.B. Glinsky "Separate episodes of secret-service activity of Department of the police in the 80th years" which left in 1912 [5]. In it an attempt of criticism of a gendarme and police system of Russia was made.

After the February revolution of 1917 when a number of the commissions on analysis of documents of Department of police, security offices, provincial gendarme managements was created and there was an opportunity to get acquainted with materials of these institutions, there are essays and books revealing secrets of gendarmerie and police. As their authors members of these commissions often are: V.K. Agafonov, S.G. Svatikov, S.B. Chlenov, A. Volkov, etc. [6]. These works are devoted to a foreign agency, activity of security offices, a confidential agency, the analysis of methods and receptions of secret police, attention is paid to provocative activity of institutions of political investigation.

Only in Soviet period when the wide publication of documents and materials on the history of social and revolutionary movement in Russia began, domestic and foreign policy of a tsarism, the extensive layers of archive materials earlier absolutely inaccessible for researchers were lifted.

Especially the stream of the works connected with activity of political police in the 20-30th years when specialists historians began to study materials of police funds amplified: R.K. Kantor "To history of black offices", M.K. Lemke "Our foreign investigation (1881-1883)", P.E. Shchegolev "Gendarme revelations (the manager of Special department about provocation)", P.E. Shchegolev "Security guards and adventurers" [7]. In these works the first attempts of the analysis of activity of institutions of political investigation, methods of their work become. But authors, as a rule, concerned only the certain moments of activity of data of institutions, without trying to give an overall picture of the evolution undergone by them. Thus, the historiography of the 20th years includes separate researches about activity of security offices, "black offices", some confidential employees.

Literature of pre-war time concentrated attention by methods of fight of a tsarism against revolutionary movement, on exposure of reactionary essence of royal police and, first of all, a confidential agency. Later the Soviet historians specially did not address a problem of political investigation since in 40-50 years, in the conditions of a totalitarian system it was considered as "irrelevant".

Change of political system in the country and weakening of archival and publishing censorship in the second half the 50-h-beginning of the 60th of the 20th century led to resumption of researches on history of state institutions of the Russian Empire. At this particular time there are N.P. Eroshkin's works "History of Public Institutions of Pre-revolutionary Russia", his "Autocracy on the eve of crash" [8]. In work

N. P. Eroshkina "Autocracy on the eve of Crash" on big actual material reveals essence of the political system of landowner-bourgeois Russia, historical hopelessness of the political regime headed by Nicholas II.

Interesting data on the organization and activity of political police and assessment of her agents in the second half of the 19th century contain in books and S.S. Volk's articles "National war of 1879-1882", M.N. Gerneta "The history of royal prison", N.Ya. A-delmana "Herzen against autocracy", Sh.M. Levina "Social movement in Russia in the 60-70th of the 19th century", etc. [9]. But in these works interest in political police was shown only in the context of its fight against revolutionary movement.

Not only historians, but also lawyers are interested in a subject of history of secret police: S.V. Yushkov "History of state and law of the USSR", R.S. Mulukayev "Police and prison institutions of pre-revolutionary Russia", D.I. Shindzhikashvili "Detective police in tsarist Russia during an era of an imperialism" [10]. All these works give an adequate idea of the system of political institutes of a tsarism and by that help deeper understanding of a role and the place of Department of police and institutions subordinated to it with this system. It should be noted that lawyers in the works raise the questions of development of the legal framework regarding political investigation.

It should be noted D.I. Shindzhikashvili's works which represent the historical review of formation and activity of Department of police in general, including fight of retaliatory bodies not only with political, but also with criminal offenses. The author allocates different types of secret agents and lists their functional duties. It is necessary to refer lighting to number of undoubted advantages of the specified researches of the interaction mechanism in them between the Ministry of Internal Affairs and other ministries.

Within studying receptions and methods of fight of Department of police against revolutionary movement the attention to provocative activity of confidential employees and fight against them in the revolutionary organizations amplifies. B.K. Erenfeld's works "Malinovsky's Business" are devoted to these questions; it

"From the history of fight of Bolshevik Party against subversive activities of royal secret police" [11]. More widely this subject reveals in M.E. Solovyov's works "Royal provokers and business of social democratic fraction of the 2nd State Duma" [12], A. P. Koznova "Fight of Bolsheviks against a Blasting Agency of a Tsarism during Reaction (1907-1910)" and "Fight of Bolsheviks against Blasting Stocks of Royal Secret Police in 1910-1914." [13]. In B.K. Erenfeld's works and A.P. Koznov's articles the methods used by Bolsheviks for identification of provokers in detail reveal. Fight of other parties against political police did not find the reflection in these researches.

Now interest in a subject of political investigation amplifies. At a turn of the 20-21st centuries the activization of both internal, and international terrorism, serious aggravation of ethnic contradictions is observed therefore the accumulated experience at the XIX beginning of the 20th century in the sphere of safety of the state and society is of a certain value. There was a monograph in which political investigation of Russia since 16th century is investigated and finishing 1917. It is the book by F. Lurye "Police officers and provokers" [14]. Intended for laymen, it at the same time is supplied with professionally made explanatory notes. V.M. work zhukhry "The mysteries of royal secret police is intended for the mass reader: adventurers and provokers" [15] about secret fight and intrigues in ruling circles of tsarist Russia, about the highest ranks of gendarmerie, police and secret police - Sudeykin, Rach-kovsky, Plehve, Zubatov, etc., about provokers in the Russian political movement - Azef, Degayev, Malinovsky. Having taken archival documents and memoirs as a basis, the author made attempt of penetration into the history of political investigation of Russia, gave own vision of those people and events about which writes.

As the manual there was a work

B. V. Romanova "Guards the Russian monarchy. Political police of the Volga region in 1905-1907", devoted to the institutions operating in the Volga region region [16].

Treat the modern historians investigating a problem of history of political police G. Golovkov "Office of impenetrable darkness", B. Nikolayevsky "History of one traitor", Z.I. Pere-gudova "Political investigation of Russia (1880-1917)",

C. A. Vorontsov "Law enforcement agencies. Intelligence agencies. History and present" [17].

In 2006 there was I. Simbirtsev's work "On guards of a throne. Political investigation at the last Romanov. 1880-1917". In the book it is in detail and versatily told about the Russian intelligence agencies of the end of XIX - the beginnings of the XX century, their structure, development and methods of work and also such ticklish moments as terror on service of secret investigation, provokers and provocation is considered. The analysis of the reasons of large failures of the employees of political investigation who made possible Alexander II and Stolypin's murders [18] is given.

L.G. Pray-sman's research "Terrorists and revolutionaries, security guards and provokers" [19] devoted to the fighting organization of party of revolutionary socialists (Social Revolutionaries) - one of the most terrible terrorist organizations of the 20th century deserves attention. The author investigates a phenomenon of the Russian terror, reaction to it of wide population groups and the government camp. In the book the opposition of the government and terrorists, difficult relations between them are in detail described. New archival sources are widely used.

In 2002 the book "gendarmes of Russia" - collective work of professional historians and former employees of intelligence agencies was published. It included V.S. Izmozik's publications "Political search conducts the III Office", Z.I. Peregudova "Department of police and local institutions of political search", A. Fomushkina of "The page of history of filersky service of political police (1880-1917)". It is the popular scientific edition covering all history of political investigation of Russia till 1917

In the preface to the edition made

V. S. Izmoziky, was given definition of political investigation: "Political investigation (search) - the system including identification by special structures by means of secret methods of persons whose mindset and activity according to the existing legislation and traditions constitute real or imaginary danger to this political system and its official representatives, suppression of such behavior and also prevention of the similar phenomena in the future. It means that political investigation considerably is reaction to already occurred or what can occur" [20].

At the level of the Penza province specially nobody dealt with a problem of a research of history of police and therefore works on the history of local police make generally publications in periodicals of the province, areas. At the beginning of the 20th century of article N. Yezerskiy published in periodicals [21]. And at the end of the 20th century there was V. Karnishin's article interview the "gendarmerie" lighting work and the organization of a secret agency [22].

Thus, characterizing a historiography of political investigation of Russia the XIX beginning of the 20th centuries at the end, we allocated 3 main periods: pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern. The pre-revolutionary period does not differ in a variety of literature, for the objective reasons the history of political police was not subject to special consideration at this time.

In a historiography of the Soviet period the first attempts of the analysis of activity of institutions of political investigation become. But, despite this, the research which is specially devoted to the history of political investigation in Soviet period did not appear. Works of that time pay attention only to separate aspects of activity of bodies of secret police, without trying to give an overall picture of the evolution undergone by them.

For the last decade interest in problems of political investigation of tsarist Russia it is considerable

increased. Special attention began to be paid to local bodies of political police. Works which come out recently except scientific and historical publications contain the biographic essays which were not published earlier reminiscence, various documents.

The historiographic review which is carried out by us allows to draw a conclusion on the significant contribution of researchers to studying various problems of formation and development of police in Russia, but at the same time a number of questions, and including not minor, there is poorly studied, and a number of important and interesting sources - not introduced for scientific use.

Perhaps, the main gap consists in still insufficient study of the organization, structure, functions, practical activities and obshchestvennopolitichesky role of institutions of political investigation. Problems of historical development of Russia of the post-reform period at the present historiographic stage need study within new methodological approaches. In time, difficult and critical for Russia, many problems of national history require to themselves special attention from researchers for whom new opportunities open.


1. Ministry of Internal Affairs. 1802-1902. Historical essay. SPb., 1902. 68 pages; St. Petersburg capital police and gradonachalstvo. 1703-1903. SPb., 1903. 56 pages
2. P.E. Shchegolev. To history of a police agency in Russia//the Past. 1906. No. 3. Page 10-22.
3. A.A. Lopukhin. Fragments from memoirs. M - Pg.: State publishing house, 1923. 99 pages
4. A historical essay of education and development of police institutions in Russia. SPb., 1913.
5. B.B. Glinsky. Separate episodes of secret-service activity of Department of police in the 80th years//the Historical bulletin. 1912. T. 127. No. 2. Page 667-690.
6. A. Volkov. Petrograd security office. Pg., 1917. 87 pages; Red And. Mysteries of secret police. M, 1917. 56 pages; V.K. Agafonov. Foreign secret police. Pg., 1918. 312 pages; S.G. Svatikov. The Russian political investigation abroad (according to documents of the Parisian archive of a foreign agency of Department of police). Rostov-on-Don, 1918. 201 pages; The Zilina V.B. Organization and life of security office at the time of throne//the Voice of past. 1917. No. 9-10. Page 110-120; S.B. Chlenov. Moscow secret police and its confidential employees. M, 1919. 92 pages
7. Cantor R.K.K of history of black offices//Penal servitude and exile. 1927. No. 8. Page 90-99; M.K. Lemke. Our foreign investigation (1881-1883)//Red chronicle. 1923. No. 5. Page 67-84; P.E. Shchegolev. Gendarme revelations (the manager of Special department about provocation)//Penal servitude and exile. 1929. No. 54. Page 90-105; P.E. Shchegolev. Security guards and adventurers. M.: State public library of Russia, 2004. 459 pages
8. N.P. Eroshkin. History of public institutions of pre-revolutionary Russia. M.: The higher school, 1968.
368 pages; it. Autocracy on the eve of crash. M.: Education, 1975. 160 pages
9. S.S. wolf. National war of 1879-1882. M.-L.: Science, 1966. 491 pages; M.N. Gernet. History of royal prison. 1870-1900. T. III. M.: Legal publishing house of the Ministry of Justice USSR, 1948. 361 pages; Ilyinsky L.K. Herzen and the III office//Voice of past. 1918. No. 7-9. Page 79-98; Sh.M. Levin. Social movement in Russia in 60-70 of the 19th century M.: Sotsekgiz, 1958. 512 pages; I.V. Gunpowder. Chernyshevsky's process and public of Russia. Collection of documents. Chernyshevsky's business. Saratov: Book publishing house, 1968. 200 pages; Eidelman N.Ya. Herzen against autocracy. Confidential political history of Russia 18-19 centuries and Free press. M.: Thought, 1973. 367 pages
10. S.V. Yushkov. History of state and law of the USSR. M.: Yurizdat, 1950. 671 pages; R.S. Mulukayev. Police and prison institutions of pre-revolutionary Russia. M.: The higher school, 1964. 403 pages; it. Organizatsionnopravovy bases of formation of the Soviet militia (1917-1920). GL.1. M.: Ministry of Internal Affairs academy USSR, 1975. 105 pages; R. Mulukayev. With, V.I. Polubinsky. The narration about investigation//the Soviet militia. 1990. No. 1-12. Page 56-68; D.I. Shind-zhikashvili. Detective police in tsarist Russia during an imperialism era. Omsk: West Siberian book publishing house, 1973. 67 pages; it. The Ministry of Internal Affairs of tsarist Russia in the period of an imperialism. Omsk: West Siberian book publishing house, 1974. 111 pages
11. B.K. Erenfeld. Malinovsky's business//history Questions. 1965. No. 7. Page 106-116; it. From the history of fight of Bolshevik Party against subversive activities of royal secret police//Questions of history of the CPSU. 1979. No. 12. Page 84-94.
12. M.E. Solovyova. Royal provokers and business of social democratic fraction of the 2nd State Duma//history Questions. 1966. No. 8. Page 124-129;
13. A.P. Koznova. Fight of Bolsheviks against a blasting agency of a tsarism during reaction (1907-1910)//Questions of history of the CPSU. 1986. No. 12. Page 66-70; it. Fight of Bolsheviks against blasting stocks of royal secret police in 1910-1914//Questions of history of the CPSU. 1983. No. 9. Page 59-74;
14. F.M. Lurye. Police officers and provokers. Political investigation in Russia. 1649-1917 M.: Terra, 1998. 347 pages
15. Zhukhray V.M. Mysteries of royal secret police: adventurers and provokers. M.: Politizdat, 1991. 336 pages
16. V.V. Romanov. Guard the Russian monarchy. Political police of the Volga region in 1905-1907. Ulyanovsk: SVNC publishing house, 1998. 191 pages
17. G.Z. Golovkov. Office of impenetrable darkness. M.: Manuscript, 1994. 384 pages; Nikolaev B.I. Istoriya of one traitor. M.: Politizdat, 1991. 384 pages; Pere-gudova Z.I. Political investigation of Russia (1880-1917). M.: ROSSPEN, 2000. 432 pages; S.A. Vorontsov Law enforcement agencies. Intelligence agencies. History and present. Rostov-on-Don: Phoenix, 1998. 640 pages
18. I. Simbirtsev. Guard a throne. Political investigation at the last Romanov. 1880-1917. M.: CJSC Center Polygraph, 2006. 429 pages
19. L.G. Praysman. Terrorists and revolutionaries, security guards and provokers. M.: ROSSPEN, 2001. 432 pages
20. V.S. Izmozik. Gendarmes of Russia. M.: Olma-press, 2002. 640 pages
21. N. Yezerskiy criminal element of the city//Penza city bulletin. 1911. No. 8. Page 10-11; it

>. About the organization of legal aid to the people//the Bulletin of the Penza zemstvo. Penza. 1910. No. 4. Page 5.

22. V. Karnishin. Gendarmerie//Penza messages. 1994. October 22. Page 7.

UDC 374

NATIONAL READINGS AS ONE OF FORMS of OUT-OF-SCHOOL EDUCATION in Russia (the second half of XIX - the beginning of the XX century)


Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky department of national history

Article is devoted to emergence and development of one of forms of out-of-school education in Russia - to national readings. In it are shown as positive factors of the organization of national readings, their influence on moral level, education and education of the population, and the negative points connected with their activity. In article not only the independent value of national readings as forms of out-of-school education, but also their value in the general system of development of national education of this period reveals.

Out-of-school education of the described period included such forms as libraries, public lectures, sunday schools, schools of the diploma, repetitive and additional classes, etc. One of important forms of out-of-school education in Russia of the second half of the HK-beginning of the XX century should recognize the organization of national readings.

National readings arose in the second half of HK of a century in St.-Petersburg. In November, 1871 there was a resolution on establishment of the commission for discussion of conditions on which conversations and readings for the people can be allowed. In the resolution it was specified that conversations and readings can have useful influence, but they can be allowed only at emergency [2. Page 45].

In December of the same year the commission in the form of experience allowed the device of national readings. Programs and the text of readings were approved previously by the minister of national education; readings had to be read strictly in the text without additions, but not be told; the device of readings was not permitted to charities and individuals. Experience continued 3 months. For an entrance the payment in 5 kopeks was established. Total number of visitors of readings in 3 months reached 17,000. Considering that experience was successful and readings by the population were visited, the commission considered that national readings need to be continued.

On April 6, 1872 the constant commission on the device of national readings which established that readings have to be entertaining, useful and clear according to the contents to the commoner was founded, each reading has to represent itself the finished whole. The same year the commission national readings and, despite an entrance fee began to be arranged, they attracted the mass of listeners.

To the middle of the 70th years the national readings were organized only in Moscow and St. Petersburg, and for other Russia where the need for knowledge was much bigger, they were inaccessible. In country towns the organization of readings became available later when rules for the organization of readings in the provincial cities were published on December 24, 1876. These

was established by rules that national readings in the provincial cities were allowed by trustees of the educational district under its agreement with the local governor. Supervision of the course of readings belonged to the director of national schools or the replacing his face. At factories and industrial institutions of reading were not allowed. Teachers, clergy and other "reliable" faces, under the agreement of the director of national schools with the provincial administration were allowed to reading. It was possible to read only the compositions approved by scientific committee of the ministry of national education and the book of spiritual contents, approved by the Synod without any changes (it was allowed to explain by the own words). In case of violation of these rules of reading were subject to the immediate termination [2. Page 46-47].

Soon after the edition of these rules the educational societies and individuals began to organize readings in provincial and some district (on special permission) the cities. In total by the beginning of the 90th years of reading were organized in 42 provinces and 19 district cities [3. Page 199].

The first period of national readings which proceeded from the middle of the 70th to the middle of the 90th years differed in the fact that readings were organized in many places, but were available only to provincial and very not many district cities. This circumstance to some extent undermined development of national readings. Figures of visitors of national readings, number of the listeners visiting audiences of one city were not kind of considerable made only 1-2% of percent to its population, the village was in profound ignorance. The government carefully protected the village not only from political propaganda, but also from education in general. But also those readings which were conducted in the cities were usually sketchy and unsystematic. At the same time they served as the conductor of knowledge in the people and good educational means. Content of readings became more and more versatile and diverse every year. For insufficiently competent person national readings in the general system of national education besides that they it is easy

Washington Sherman
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