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Church monasteries as a sociocultural factor of association and collecting of Russian lands in the 13-14th centuries

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Savitsky (1895 - 1968), philologist N.S. Trubetskoy (1890-1938), geographer G.V. Vernadsky (1877-1973) and others.

The movement of Eurasians was continuation of search of a special way of development of Russia and marked turn from the idea of Pan-Slavism which had the South European spatial orientation and representing Russia as a monolith to the idea of the East and the idea of Russia as "mosaics".

Eurasians understand the territory of Russia as the special geographical world in which the people occupy the niche, and in general represent the uniform Eurasian nation.

In this sense the concept of Eurasians bears an ideological charge where geopolitics is applied not as science, and as a way of the proof that Russia is not field of activity of the Russian people, the Russian culture, the Russian state. Geopolitics is substituted here for a dispute on the one who such Russians.

A subject of real geopolitics is studying relationship of historical public formations, in terms of spatial characteristics that in itself and objectively, and ischislimo. The space is studied, not only as the physical environment, but, first of all, as the territory of certain states, i.e. is considered influence of space on domestic and foreign policy. The space is considered also as the field of the ideas. Spatial and historical orientation of the nation, state, culture rather constant factor. In terms of geopolitics, the ideas of eurasianism look far-fetched. In effect, this ideological justification of conditions of survival of non-russian ethnic group in the system of the Russian ethnos.

BBK 63.3 (2P) 43:86.3.

I.K. Protchenko



In the XIII-XIV centuries the church monasteries turned not only into fortresses, but also into the centers of association and collecting of the Russian population.

Monasteries are a form of the organization of the people who refused the norms of life accepted in secular society. They solved the following problems: preparation for an afterlife, creation of model farms for providing the population with agricultural products and products of craft plus social functions: contempt disabled (hospitals, nursing homes), performance of trade operations (KievoPecherskiy monastery), etc. It were also the centers of ideological life of Russia. Here lives were formed, chronicles were written, books for princely and seigniorial families and other customers of book products were rewritten. Here trained the highest church administrators - bishops whose competence of Old Russian principalities practically all questions of ideological, church, family life of the population entered.

In the 14th century in Russia there were 42 monasteries, in the 15th century - 57. The largest land owner became in the 14-15th centuries. Moscow metropolitan house. In

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1377 Trinity Monastery near the city of Radonezha was founded. At the end of the 14th century there were in the Belozersk region of Ferapontov and Kirillo-Belozersky monasteries, and in 1429 on the Solovki island in the White Sea - Solovetsky Monastery.

In them extensive land and trade grounds concentrated. From the second half of the 14th century the monastic colonization in the certain Districts of Zavolzhye and Pomorze amplified.

Monasteries existed also in the cities and near the cities, being the military and defensive centers. Not accidentally in the 14-15th centuries Moscow was surrounded with a chain of monasteries. From the South it was covered by Simonov Monastery to which the great value was attached by Dmitry Donskoy. At the basis in the seventies 14th century of Serpukhov at the request of the prince Vladimir Andreevich the foundation was laid for the Zachatyevsky monastery; Golutvin the monastery enhanced defensive value of Kolomna, etc.

Besides church farms were exempted from payment of various customs fees. Arable lands, the yards and the whole settlements and also the cities (Aleksin on Oka, Gorodovets) belonged to church. It owned salt and fisheries, did business, was engaged in usury.

Podatny and judicial privileges were important means by means of which the church attracted the population on the lands.

BBK S5.667

M.A. Dedyulina



It is possible to call the end of the 20th century an era of global problems. One of them is crisis of human spirituality. European civilization tries to find recovery from the crisis in the east with its rich cultural traditions and mentality. Poor development of an individual initiative - here, perhaps, the only national line on which the Chinese, apparently, really costs below the European. On natural evolution of the mind, the Chinese writers reached even that began to mix poetry with morals. The Chinese poet lacks no personal ideal. He as though speaks always on behalf of family or the people. All nation ("Hundred Semey") is considered kind of making one numerous family. Public duties here are the son's duties in relation to the father. The state is a same family, only big. The Chinese, less than the European, understands the moral of freedom. Here the master is considered the father and mother for the citizens. And governing bodies are created so that to establish an exact parallel between duties of the son and the citizen's duties. The moral of bogdykhan says that the emperor is guilty of all troubles which fall upon his people. About China said that as if it & #34; the premature maturity exhausted it силы" but it not so because there is no nation which would rise stronger and younger again of misfortunes which, appear, finally suppressed it.

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