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The Sluzhily Cossacks in Russia in the 17th century.

elena of KUSAINOVA


The Sluzhily Cossacks in the 15-17th centuries played a noticeable role in protection of borders of the Russian state. Carrying out the military duties in villages and watchmen, Cossacks bore also gorodovy and ambassadorial service, ensuring safety of the Russian envoys.

The serving Cossacks had played an appreciable role in the frontier guard of the Russian state in the 15th - 17th centuries. Doing their military duties in the stanitsas and lodges, Cossacks served as police and embassy guard, providing Russian envoys with safety.

Cossacks, service, borders, state, Tatars, village, guard, embassies, outpost, protection; Cossacks, service, borders, state, Tatars, stanitsa, guard, embassies, advanced post, frontier guard.

Appearance of the sluzhily Cossacks in the Russian state belongs to the 15th century when Moscow began to use on service of natives of different lands for own political and military goals. For strengthening of eastern and southern frontiers Vasily II and Ivan Ill pursued policy on development and fixing to Moscow of Oka "ukrayna", actively occupying this territory sluzhily Cossacks.

One of the main tasks of foreign policy of Russia in the XVI—XVII centuries was providing steady borders of the state, and an important role in it was played by government colonization, construction of the "ukrainny" and "Polish" cities and the population by their sluzhily people including sluzhily Cossacks. Paul's limits of that time are very extensive and not quite defined: besides present Central Black Earth areas a part of modern Ukraine, the earth of Nizhny Novgorod of the Don region, Central and Lower Volga area concerned Paul.

Sources for studying history of the sluzhily Cossacks are documents of the Digit order which allow to present the nature of defense of boundaries of the Russian state, degree of tension of military forces at these boundaries, participation of sluzhily Cossacks in protection "monarchic" granits1.

It is known that sluzhily people in the Moscow state were divided into two big categories — sluzhily people "on the fatherland" and sluzhily people "on the device". Boyars, okolnichy and other dumny ranks were a top of sluzhily people "on the fatherland". There were children seigniorial below. Sluzhily people "on the device" are, first of all, Sagittariuses, gunners and sluzhily Cossacks.

In the middle of the 16th century Paul's sizes are considerably reduced; the new, arising on the edge of Paul in the 50-60th of the 16th century Russian cities restrict to Paula. These cities, however, are not called "the cities in the field", they are among the "ukrainny" cities: Mikhaylov, Dedilov, Shatsk, Ryazhsk, Eagles, Dankov. Since 1571 constantly the all-Russian guard service in the field began to work, and since 1585 the cities arising in the field are called "as the cities in the field". Voronezh and Livny were the first, then — Eletsk, Kursk, Tsarev-Borisov, Old Oskol2.

At a boundary of the XVI—XVII centuries a number of decrees on set on sluzh-KUSAINOVA Elena bu to the new cities and fortresses of Sagittariuses, Cossacks, gunners was issued. Because of

Bshtorovna - to. and. N, the shortages of professional staff on service in Cossacks gathered

the associate professor, the deputy 1 Russian state archive of ancient acts (further — RGADA), t. 210. Time director on scientific the line order, op. 4, affairs of tithes.

work Uryupinsk 2 Zagorovsky, V.P. Istoriya of inclusion of the Central Black Earth in structure of Rus-

branch VOLGA the sky state in the 16th century — Voronezh: VSU publishing house, 1991, p. 8.

residents of nearby South Russian counties, including peasants. As a rule, peasants and sluzhily people went to the new city in the winter or in the spring some, without semey1. Along with set of "eager" people, to the "Polish" cities "brought together" military people from other cities and employed the Don free Cossacks.

The number of sluzhily Cossacks and their category in the "Polish" cities was fixed by the Digit order in desyatnyakh. De-syatni were formed in the military and financial interests of the state at analysis, "imposition" and distribution of a monetary salary by it. For example, "desyatnya monetary distribution to livenets, children to seigniorial, local, belomestny and regimental Cossacks, distributions of the steward and the voivode A.V. Buturlin yes the scribe Bogdan Shishelov" (1633) are called to us by 7 local Cossacks (with a salary on 9 rubles), regimental Cossacks: 7 Pentecostals (with a salary on 6 rubles), 38 foremen (with a salary on 5 rubles with half-ooze), 380 Cossacks (with a salary on 5 rubles) 2. Data of tithes allow us to define total number of sluzhily Cossacks within all the 17th century

One of main types of public service for sluzhily Cossacks was sentry and stanitsa. In the existing charter the definition of this service — "was given that to ukraina it was careful that military people in monarchic Ukraine it is unknown did not come". In guard service the main task was to watch the Tatar roads - sakma. To solve the direction of the movement of the Tatar groups, their purpose, to reveal number and in time to warn about their attack — a fundamental obligation of sluzhily Cossacks. For this purpose in the field villages went and on the most important directions were exposed "guard".

"Guard" - it is the observation post consisting of several riders who had to go on the small, in advance planned site. The quantity the watchman was variously and was defined by complexity of a situation, i.e. during mass attacks of the Tatar groups increased and, on the contrary, decreased

1 The Russian fortress at the southern boundaries. Documents on construction of Yelets, settling of the city and vicinities in 1592 — 1594 — Yelets: Yelets gosud. un-t, 2001, p. 6.
2 RGADA, t. 210. Digit order, op. Affairs of tithes, 70. Desyatnya of monetary distribution to livenets, l. 2-3.

during temporary lull. For example, in the Oskol region in the 17th century the maximum quantity the watchman — 13, minimum — 43 was noted.

The village represented the patrol mobile group leaving from the city to the steppe along the predetermined route. The head from children seigniorial also the ataman headed the village. The village, as a rule, joined 6 more ordinary goers and 2 Vozhe — only 10 people of stanichnik. The traveling village sent ahead in-zhey and in case of detection of traces or Tatars had to send data to voyevode4. There was it equally both in the afternoon, and at night. Contemporary records report that "Vesti" arrived to the voivode at any time. Besides, the village had to come into the back of the opponent and find out the number of group and its intention and if there is an opportunity, then and to take "language". Practice of capture of "language" developed long ago and was fulfilled by Cossacks: Tatars were taken prisoner on crossings or on vacation, and immediately delivered to the voivode. The voivode, receiving the message about the number of Tatars and a transit, distributed these data to the neighboring cities and to Moscow. The voivode received the same messages also from other voivodes of the nearby cities. The number the watchman, villages and vestovshchik was defined annually, and every time lists were formed and went to Moscow.

The stanitsa service was a type of continuous military activity, and stanichnik were often called goers. They were not special category as both children seigniorial could be them, and Cossacks, and sometimes put on horses and Sagittariuses. However the stanitsa service demanded professionalism, was more dangerous that allocated goers in special group, and the government determined by it a bigger allotment and a monetary salary, than instrument sluzhily lyudyam5.

In this regard the stanitsa service was very attractive to the Don Cossacks who were well guided in the field and wishing to earn from it. So, in 1625 on Valukakh for stanitsa service 24 villages, "and in the village on ata-were arranged

3 A.P. Nikulov Stary Oskol (historical research of the Oskol region). — Kursk: GUIPP Kursk, 1997, p. 111.
4 Digit books of 1598 — 1638 — M., 1974, p. 21.
5 A.P. Nikulov. Decree. soch., p. 114.

Manu yes on five people of goers, all — 144 persons" 1. 50 Don Cossacks who "a summer time on messages are sent to stiles for search over military people" 2 served in Voronezh in 1636.

At the end of March — at the beginning of April, the voivode brought together all sluzhily people, distributed villages and guard, determined terms and tasks. The digit order ordered: "to voivodes of a raspisata of noblemen and children seigniorial, and hundreds and to make Cossacks at them the heads, to choose to the stanitsa heads of goers on a skolka of people comely" 3. It was recommended to them "... to go with a great berezhenye and to be put in strong places, and guard to order to hold strong and to the heads to order to protect firmly, and most of all to order to be protected by it did not come at night that on them tatarovya and thieves Cherkasy it is unknown" 4.


Death it is also full always accompanied a stanichnik: "And if which of the heads or stanichnik is taken prisoner to Tatars, and they would tell that it would be suitable to the sovereign, and the sovereign will welcome them, orders to redeem from a polona or from languages to date to exchange immediately" 5.

Carrying out military duties in villages and watchmen, sluzhily people bore also gorodovy service. One of them — guard. Protection of the city and office buildings was carried out round the clock, according to painting. Cossacks were on guard at passable gate and on fortress towers. Besides, Cossacks were on duty on roads at entry into the city, forming thereby outposts. The main administration premises were especially protected — moving down a log hut, a cellar with gunpowder and lead, barns and sheds with a gun stock and also monetary treasury and a granary with monarchic bread. Cossacks were involved also in protection of monasteries and churches. Sagittariuses and Cossacks also accompanied treasury, captives and messengers to Moscow and other central and southern cities. So, in Belgorod 60 kaza-

1 The book pistsovy Miron Hlopov yes of the scribe Leonti Nedoveskov (1626)//Materials for history Voronezh and the neighboring provinces. Voronezh pistsovy books. T.2. — Voronezh, 1891, building 143.
2 Books digit according to official lists of it. T.2. - SPb., 1855, building 914.
3 Digit books of 1598-1638 - M., 1974, p. 268.
4 The materials for the history of colonization and life of the steppe outskirts of the Moscow state in the XVI-XVII century collected in different archives and edited by D.I. Bagaley. — Kharkiv, 1886, building 6.
5 Digit books of 1598-1638 - M., 1974, p. 270.

the k serving gorodovy service, "on-sylayuttsa for a provozhanye of the state treasury and grain stocks" 6.

The service ambassadorial was special type of. The task of the sluzhily Cossacks of all "Polish" cities included maintenance to certain point of ambassadors, envoys and messengers. The ambassadorial train always moved the South on strictly certain way — Tula, Novosil, Livny, Oskol, Wa-luyki and further to Don. Diplomatic missions followed special rules of relationship, but between Russia, the Crimea and the Nogai Horde of special trust never was. Interchange by delegations was the most preferable, for those times, and for "ambassadorial exchanges" were appointed the cities of Oskol and Valuyki. For escort of envoys according to the diploma of the sovereign military people got out, lists were formed, tasks were set and terms were defined. In "An order about forwarding of the envoys in Tsar-Gorod to the Tours Magmet-Saltan okolnichy I.I. Chirikov, the clerk P. Voznitsyn who arrived from Moscow and other from Voronezh the Don River to Azov" is specified the list of attendants: "Voronezh streletskiya the head Fyodor Borkov and with it residents of Yelets, whether-ventsev, residents of Voronezh of children seigniorial both stanichnik, and Sagittariuses, and Cossacks of 150 people" 7. Ambassadorial exchanges and maintenance by their sluzhily Cossacks are noted in documents within almost all century.

One more type of service of Cossacks — regimental. The group of each city making a special regiment had the banner, the drums and regimental guns. Each policeman a regiment was divided into 3 articles: on big, average and smaller. Big article received 25 rubles of monetary pay, average — 20 rubles, smaller — 15 rubles (Cossacks, respectively — 20, 17 and 13 rubles) 8.

In 1646 under the decree of the sovereign the so-called Belgorod category is formed. His wasps -

6 The materials for the history of colonization and life of the steppe outskirts of the Moscow state in the XVI—XVII century collected in different archives and edited by D.I. Bagaley. — Kharkiv, 1886, building 56.
7 Materials for history Voronezh and the neighboring provinces. Voronezh acts. T.1. — Voronezh, 1887, building 284.
8 I.D. Belyaev. About the Russian army in Mikhail Fyodorovich's reign and after it, before the transformations made by Peter the Great. — M, 1846, p. 21.

the novny task is a creation constantly existing in the south of large military connection. It was supposed to concentrate under command of the Belgorod voivode the mobile army made of regiments of a new system - reytarsky, dragoon, soldier's and also sluzhily people the policeman of service. End constructions of the Belgorod defensive line and presence of constant army provided by this time reliable protection of the southern borders of Russia against the Tatar attacks. Distribution of sluzhily people to hundreds with foremen and Pentecostals, placement them in a certain area allowed not only to notify and collect quickly military formation, but also strengthened military and economic relations.

By 1658 finally there was a territory of the Belgorod category which part 17 "ukrainny" cities were. From sluzhily people of the southern military outposts the Belgorod regiment in which of the "Polish" formiro-was completed

vaniye in it the period were: from Oskol — 679 sluzhily people, Yelets — 1 171, Belgorod — 1051, Kursk — 1 026, Livny — 936, Voronezh — 750. Total number of a regiment under command of the prince R.G. Ro-modanovsky was 19,252 people

With the termination in the second half of the 17th century in a number of the cities (Oskol, Yelets) of stanitsa service, sluzhily people generally began to carry out regimental service. The Belgorod regiment was involved in many military operations: in the Polish war, up to Andrusovsky truce in 1667, in chigirinsky and Crimean campaigns.

At the end of the 17th century the number of sluzhily Cossacks in the "Polish" cities constantly decreased, remained only small group bringing guard protection of the city and the traveling service which was carrying out in various forms. The regimental service entered a new phase — the transition to regular military formations finished by Peter I only in the 18th century

Frank Joseph
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