The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Clergy and its participation in social activity of Russian Orthodox Church in the Kuban region (1860-1917)

UDK 271. 2 (470. 62)

Sofya Nikolaevna Rybko

senior research associate of Research center of Traditional culture of Kuban of GNTU "Kuban Cossack Choir", graduate student of department

pre-revolutionary national history of the Kuban State University of


Rybko Sofiya Nikolaevna

senior researcher of Research Center of Kuban traditional culture of Kuban Cossack Choir, post-graduate student of the chair of prerevolutionary national history, Kuban State University



In article the author discloses some aspects of activity of the Kuban clergy in the field of education, charity, missionary work, spiritual and moral and military patriotic spheres of public life.

clergy, social functions, activity of Church.

The summary:

The author reveals some aspects of the Kuban clergy in the field of education, charity, missionary activities, moral and military and patriotic aspects of social life.

clergy, social function, activities of the Church.

The clergy of the Kuban region, carrying out the service in the territory of the Kuban Cossack army, certainly had the features. Despite this, it was a successor of traditions of the clergy of the Russian Empire. From the moment of the basis Russian Orthodox Church and its pastors were called for social service. In this work the main activities of sacred clergymen of the Kuban region at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century will be considered

The main function of priests was commission of church services and trebo-corrections. However during the different periods of time, they at the call of Church and its arch-flamens carried out that activity which was the most relevant for society. They knew local statistics, kept credit and debit, metric, confessionary, obyskny books, klirovy sheets, parish chronicles.

The clergy of Kuban during wars on an equal basis with others was involved in fighting. In archivings there are many applications of priests addressed to the chief of the Kuban region M.P. Babycha about their transfer in field army. The priest Pavel Gladkov writes that he wishes to go together with the Russian victorious troops for protection of the rights of its Imperial Majesty, our Great Sovereign, Vera orthodox and the Fatherland. "I as the Cossack priest, have especially strong desire to serve in ranks of army Russian against enemies" [1]. The commander of the 1st Labinsk Cossack regiment, petitioning for rewarding of the regimental priest Fedor Tatarinov with a kalimavkion, writes: "The priest Tatarinov in a fighting and camp life of a regiment always jealously fulfills pastoral responsibilities, acquainting the Saint Tainam wounded and addressing them the presence and vicarial suggestions. Supports spirit of cheerfulness and bravery of Cossacks" [2, page 314]. Sons of priests, psalm readers in 1916 along with others served in field armies [3].

Those priests who could not be involved personally in military operations carried out the charity directed to maintenance of families of soldiers. They organized on arrivals of guardianship and, acting as their chairmen, were engaged in delivery of state rations, sums of money, transfer of gifts to soldiers. Cared for the correct sowing of the fields mobilized, the maintenance of shelters for orphans of soldiers, infirmaries for wounded, etc. [4, page 64] & Participating personally in this work, they held a round of families of soldiers, revealing their spiritual and material needs, collected donations for army, and also in favor of families of soldiers and various charitable committees. So, island of German

Chistyakov from the station Korenovskoy together with three parishioners picked wheat, clothes on arrival to advantage of soldiers. "On the money gained from sale of bread of cloth arshins for footcloths, 30 pieces of jerseys, 10 pieces of bobrikovy trousers and 1 sheepskin short fur coat were bought b0" [5, page 84-98]. Some members of the served families imposed ridiculous and illegal requirements to them and from priesthood the patience and a step was required. In many arrivals the number of the mobilized Cossacks and soldiers reached up to 1,000 and more. Let's call only some villages and villages where there were similar guardianship: Korenovsky, Tikhoretsk, Rodnikovsky, Glad-kovsky, Ivanovo, Mingrelian, Petrovsky, Poltava, Slavic, Troitsk, villages of Ternovsk, Greek, Mikhaylovsk.

Wives of priests did not stand aside, they were engaged in the organization of shelters for orphans. So, mother of the prior of the temple of St. Was Belorechensk the trustee of one of such shelters which accomodated 40 children. Having addressed all wives of priests of the Stavropol diocese, she received for needs of a shelter considerable donations [6, page 60]. In church of St. Peter and Paul a day nursery for children of the mobilized soldiers where found to themselves a shelter to 30 souls of children of different age [7] was arranged in parish school.

On business of the help to wounded in 1914 the congress of deputies of clergy released the sum of 10 thousand rubles. It intended for the equipment of hospital in the building of Ekaterinodarsky spiritual school. Diocesan department gratuitously provided under hospital: the hostel for pupils of theological seminary on Gimnazicheskaya St. on 270 beds and the hospital opened at the expense of Mariye-Magdalinovsky convent for wounded on 25 beds. From the monasteries of the diocese located in the Kuban region money was offered: The Mikhaylo-Athos desert - 5 thousand rubles, Mariye-Magdalinsky convent, besides hospital, - 3 thousand rubles, from Ekaterino-Lebyazhyego men's - 3 thousand rubles, the Pokrovsk convent - 500 rub [8, page 134]. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral of Mr. Ekaterinodar collected in 1914 1,062 rub 71 kopek, in 1915 - 2 787 rub 35 kopeks, in 1916 - 2,253 rub 68 kopeks [9, page 24]

Sacred clergymen showed also personal charity. In the years of war from personal funds of clergy for needs of wounded in diocesan committee-1,000 rub and to local committee of Society of the Red Cross - 200 rub were offered by Preosvyashchenny vicars, were equipped by bishops Ioann and Mikhail on the means on 4 beds. Charity of the archbishop Agafador is demonstrative in this regard. He spent the funds for setting of missionary matter in the diocese. In 1894 opened and founded diocesan church and archaeological society. Consisted the honorary member of all spiritual academies in Russia and many educational charity organizations of Kuban. It founded grants in spiritual academies of St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kazan and Kiev. About 15 thousand a year were allocated to the poor and orphans of a ministry. In 1906 the gift in the sum of 10 thousand rubles went into the disposal of guardianship from His Most Reverend Eminence. The charitable help of the bishop in 1914 made about 86 thousand [10, page 103]. On the offered Ego Preosvyashchenstvom capital in the sum of 50 thousand rubles "for assistance to clergy in keeping of children in diocesan dukhovnouchebny institutions" it was founded 30 of "grants of a name of the archbishop Agafador". The capital was stored inviolably, and percent from it were given to 30 poorest children of clergy studying in 5 spiritual educational institutions of the diocese. The right of election of scholars, from the statement of His Most Reverend Eminence, belonged to Boards and Councils of these educational institutions [11]. Among the famous public figures of clergy of Kuban it is necessary to call - the Army archpriest Mikhail Petrovich Voskresensky, the famous missionary prot. Simeon Nikolsky. In the Labinsk department, thanks to works and gratuitous donations prot. Alexy Ivlev Trinity Church in the station of Voznesenskaya (1906) and Spaso-Preobrazhensky was constructed on x. Ere-minsky. Among educators the name of the priest Nikolay Rozov is known. In Ekaterinodare the missionary circle and a bookstall which widely developed trade in books were open for them, extending them across all Kuban. He made antialcoholic sermons in Ekaterinodare, Temryuk and Armavir, villages Tikhoretsk, Caucasian [12, page 104].

The clergy made a big contribution to business of development of local history science, in particular church study of local lore. Among priesthood there were sincere fans and admirers of history. Many of them were not only collectors of the most ancient finds (pottery, silver and copper coins, ancient prayer books), but also authors of historical chronicles of the arrival [13] / Not each priest could write the chronicle of the arrival, the large role was played here by love for history, including local and desire to study it. Priests, most famous for the publications, chroniclers, collectors of history: island of Evfi-my Timofeevsky, lake Alexander A., lake Ioann I., lake Nikolay Mikhaylov [14].

Parsons cared for maintaining health of parishioners, for increase in level of their agriculture, a family life, giving it practical necessary advice

in any given area. In case of a bread crop failure, parishioners used church grain bread, using it both in food, and on crops. Medications and the practical help in treatment were offered patients [15, page 101-104].

The education level acquired at spiritual schools gave the chance to priests at the professional level to understand scientific knowledge. Many of them consisted members of the philosophical, Geographical, ethnographic Societies.

Since 1864 at the request of the nakazny ataman of the Kuban Cossack army the priests began to nurture prisoners of the Ekaterinodarsky army jail spiritually. The Ekaterinodarsky spiritual board reported that it from city priests responded only two Ioann Erastov and Ioann Kushch who fulfilled the duties before appointment of one constant priest as the Diocesan administration" [16]: At the beginning of the 20th century, prison committees were responsible for a construction of churches at prisons. They also cared for that prisoners observed all church posts. Priests saw off in prisons of a church service, confessed prisoners, admonished to regret deeds. The information on was provided to the administration whether there was a prisoner on a confession. In some prisons, libraries with books of spiritual and moral contents were created. In the Kuban region such libraries were available in Ekateri-nodarsky and Yeysk prisons [17, page 668].

Priests urging flock to respect the rules religious and moral behavior, combated alcoholism, gambling, foul language. So, the priest of the station Vareni-kovskoy, addressing the ataman of the Temryuk military department in 1899, reminded of observance of the circular order of the district chief Mr. Kaleri about closing on festive and to Sundays, before the end of a church service and during the religious processions, local trade institutions. Asked the ataman to make the order about the address of strict attention to closing in the village of benches and furthermore taverns in time specified by the law the Parsons also watched that in houses of their flock there were no pictures of religious contents and obrazk of the foreign edition which are not approved by the Russian censorship which did not answer spirit of Orthodoxy as they influenced distribution of a sektanstvo to areas [18, page 279].

One of the most widespread activities of priests was enlightenment. The Stavropol Spiritual consistory wrote: "Teaching the Law God's at schools both ministerial, and parish is an indispensable duty of the priest who has no right to evade from this duty under the pretext of execution of church occasional offices and other duties" [19]. They were religious teachers not only church schools, but also local initial city, rural, stanitsa, aulny schools of department of the Ministry of national education. Many of them were recommended for decorations "for excellent diligent service on national education" [20].

the Clergy, especially rural, experienced considerable household and moral difficulties, teaching at schools of the Ministry of national education. So, the father Fedor Gorlinkov wrote that according to the instruction for national teachers of the Kuban region, the religious teacher is obliged to attend school 2 times a week and to be engaged for 3 hours, and with changes on 3 hours and a half. But such mode is very inconvenient for its activity as its arrival dragged on for 24 versts and he during classes should christen the baby or to give communion to the patient who lives in 6 versts from school. Also constrained lack of the room for rest where he could carry out changes between lessons [21].

At the beginning of the 20th century from managers of ministerial schools complaints concerning frequent admissions priests of lessons of the God's Law began to arise. The new staff list according to which the priest who had arrival could not be the regular religious teacher, and the regular teacher including the religious teacher, had to have not less than 12 lessons [22] was soon accepted.

From 80th of the 19th century when the Church was once again called for education of the people, and the Sacred Synod approved Rules for parish schools, many fathers for the means began to open church schools and to teach children. The priest Pyotr Semyonov, for example, constructed school in St. Suzdal with the permission of the diocesan administration from construction materials of an old house of worship which was demolished previously. The father began to build, proceeding from a small stock of funds of 300 rub which were allocated by the Stavropol Diocesan uchilishchny council [23].

By 1907 in the Kuban region the number of schools of the Ministry of national education was 706, from them 150 was two-cool, the others one-cool [24, page 30]. At these schools the average content of the religious teacher in 5 years from 1881 to 1906 increased from 62 up to 104 rub [25, page 22]. The number of church schools in the area in the same time equaled 400 [26, page 74]. From 707 religious teachers, only 76 were paid, the others edified children to the God's Law gratuitously [27, page 156]

During manner of houses with a prayer before holidays of Christmas and Easter the priests paid also much attention to children. They checked their initial knowledge in the field of belief, in the presence of parents and all family. Urged children to go more often to church, did edification to seniors. Such visits of parishioners were of great importance as promoted establishment of trusting relationship between priests and flock.

Pastors also conducted catechetical lectures and extra liturgical interviews which number increased after 1890 when there was a decree of the Holy Synod on their obligatory carrying out in all arrivals of the diocese. In case of a disease or departure of the priest the deacon or the psalm reader who ended a seminar course replaced. Interviews were conducted surely everyone Sunday and holiday after the vespers [28, page 11]. Pupils studied the Scripture, the ceremonial party of belief, the history of Church. Also stories from spiritual periodicals "Voskresny Den", "Kormchy" were read. The clergy acquainted all with the general church singing as to one of means of studying prayers and church chants and support of attention praying [29].

In 1901 for a raising of religious and moral education of troops by the management it was decided to organize in troops extra liturgical interviews in each battalion and not less than one hour once a week. The protopresbyter of military and sea clergy developed the program for the God's Law. Also other rules promoting religious education of the lower ranks which were approved by the emperor were adopted and distributed on all regiments of the Kuban Cossack army [30].

- the beginnings of the 20th century parsons begin to conduct with the end of XIX actively missionary activity among the Muslim population of Batalpashinsky, Maykop, Ekaterinodarsko-go of departments. It was expressed in strengthening of evangelical activity, in opening of extra liturgical interviews, distribution of books and brochures of religious and moral contents, establishment of reading rooms, opening of schools of the diploma on farms and settlements. Priests also inspired the parishioners to serve business of a mission. Cossack of St. Passing Fedor Yakovlevich Ivakhnin served to business of a mission as a knigonosha, having received previously characteristic from the parson as "person of the respectable orthodox Christian" [31]. In the Maykop department of the Kuban region of the settlement of Natyrbovo at Church of the Intercession by the priest Timofey Demyanov it was opened on the basis of the parish missionary circle which was engaged in fight against Baptism Governed. It consisted of 10 people. Very often missionary circles connected to local sobriety societies [32]. In the station Kurgannoy at the call of the priest of local Kazanskaya Church Nikolay Mikhaylov it was formed at church sobriety society for fight against alcoholism and also against a sektanstvo. For this purpose "the circle of adherents of the Word God's for studying the Scripture in the spirit of Sacred orthodox Church" was made of nondrinkers [33].

Owing to liberalization of religious policy of the Russian state in 1907-1916 in the Kuban region growth of number of sectarians and Old Believers became more active. By 1906 in the diocese there were about 17,000 sectarians and up to 25,000 dissenters [34, page 20]. It was decided to strengthen activity of a mission, having involved the bigger number of parsons in work. The methods used by missionaries were ineffective. Treated them: "The sympathizing attitude of clergy towards flock, attentive and devout commission on a sign of the cross, reverential commission of public church services and private church services and occasional offices on houses, the device of conversations and readings, extra liturgical and instructive for the simple people, for explanation of the truth of Christian belief and rules of moral life, establishment of parish schools and schools of the diploma, distribution in the people of books, brochures with short, but reasonable disclosure of delusions of dissenters and sectarians, the choice by priests from the circle of parishioners of assistants for an interview with dissenters and sectarians, an interview with stray in the spirit of vicarial mildness and love" [35, page 20].

Activization of missionary and educational activity after 1905 actually did not lead to increase in quality indicators. Clergy, understanding futility of the actions in the conditions of global falling of the general level of spirituality, even in own environment, wrote: "Reforms which would be inhaled in the tormented and scolded organism of domestic church "life-giving spirit" are urgently necessary" [36, page 294-295].

Thus, activity of Church and its sacred clergymen during the considered period in the field of education, charity, missionary work and other areas of social life was directed to maintenance of the liberal policy of the government in the Russian Empire. At the same time, serving the state, it kept traditional firm standards of behavior in society which were a reference point for all social groups of the population of the Kuban region.


1. State archive of Krasnodar Krai (GAKK.) Fund (F.) 396. Inventory (Op.) 1. Business 10746. L. 5.
2. Orthodox Church in Kuban (a game. XVIII - the head of the 20th century). Collection of documents. Krasnodar, 2001.
3. GAKK. T. 492. Op. 1. 288. L. 5, 10, 11.
4. Magazine Stavropol diocesan sheets (SOWING.), 1916. No. 2.
5. SOWING. 1916. No. 3.
6. SOWING. 1916. No. 2.
7. State archive of Stavropol Krai (GASK.) T. 135. Op. 74. 981. L. 9-14.
8. Orthodox Church in Kuban...
9. Kuban Cossack bulletin. 1917. No. 2-3.
10. L.E. Ospishcheva. The history of charity organizations in Kuban (a game. XIX - the head of the 20th century): experience of study. Maykop, 2003.
11. GAKK. T. 492. Op.1. 235. L.3.
12. L.E. Ospishcheva. Decree. slave.
13. S.N. Rybko Istoriya stanitsa arrival in Kuban in publications of pre-revolutionary authors//Results of field folklore and ethnographic researches in Kuban: past and present. Krasnodar, 2005. Page 90-99.
14. I. I. Household lines of clergy of old Chernomoriya (1818-1843). According to archive of Dmitriyevsky church of Mr. Ekaterinodar//OLIKO News. Issue 6. Ekaterinodar, 1913; A. A. Torzhestvo laying of the new Uspensky temple and illumination of a temporary house of worship in the station Uspenskoy Kubanskoy of area//SOWING. 1908. No. 39. Page 1266-1280; N.T. Mikhaylov. Reference book on the Stavropol diocese (review of the cities, villages, villages and farms of the Stavropol province and Kuban region). Stavropol, 1910.
15. Orthodox Church in Kuban...
16. GAKK. T. 252. Op. 2. D. 913. L. 1-6.
17. Essays of history of law enforcement agencies of Kuban (1793-1917) / under the editorship of the prof. V.N. Ratushnyak. Krasnodar, 2002.
18. Orthodox Church in Kuban...
19. GAKK. T. 418. Op. 1. D. 565. L. 1-1 about.
20. GAKK. T. 470. Op. 2. D. 1133. L. 2-2 about.
21. GAKK. T. 470. Op. 2. D. 1070. L. 13-21.
22. GAKK. T. 470. Op. 2. 1784. L. 4; GAKK. T. 470.

Op. 2. 2188. L. 3-4.

23. Mikhail Ratmirov, priest. A celebration of consecration and opening of parish school in St. Suzdal Kuban region//SOWING. 1900. No. 21. Page 1241-1243.
24. P. Zazhayev. The past and the present of the Kuban elementary school. Ekaterinodar, 1907.
25. In the same place.
26. N.T. Mikhaylov. Reference book on the Stavropol diocese (review of the cities, villages, villages and farms of the Stavropol province and Kuban region). Stavropol, 1910.
27. Gideon, metropolitan. Christianity history in the North Caucasus before accession it to Russia. Moscow-Pyatigorsk, 1992. Page 156.
28. SOWING. 1891. No. 1.
29. Russian State Historical archive (RGIA.) T. 796. Op. 442. 1475. L. 28-28ob.
30. GAKK. T. 396. Op. 1. 7973. L. 6.
31. GASK. T. 439. Op.1. 66. L. 4.
32. In the same place. 54. L. 1 - 4.
33. In the same place. 21. L. 6.
34. Data on a condition of a mission in the Stavropol diocese in 1907 Stavropol, 1908.
35. In the same place.
36. Orthodox Church in Kuban...

References (transliterated):

1. Gosudarstvennyy arhiv Krasnodarskogo kraya (GAKK.) Fond (F.) 396. Opis& (Op.) 1. Delo (D.) 10746. L. 5.
2. Pravoslavnaya Tserkov& na Kubani (kon. XVIII - nach. XX v.). Sbornik dokumentov. Krasnodar, 2001.
3. GAKK. F. 492. Op. 1. D. 288. L. 5, 10, 11.
4. Zhurnal Stavropol&skie eparhial&ne vedomosti (SEV.), 1916. No. 2.
5. SEV. 1916. No. 3.
6. SEV. 1916. No. 2.
7. Gosudarstvennyy arhiv Stavropol&skogo kraya (GASK.) F. 135. Op. 74. D. 981. L. 9-14.
8. Pravoslavnaya Tserkov& na Kubani...
9. Kubanskiy kazachiy vestnik. 1917. No. 2-3.
10. Ospischeva L.E. Istoriya blagotvoritel&nyh organizatsiy na Kubani (kon. XIX - nach. XX v.): opyt izucheniya. Maykop, 2003.
11. GAKK. F. 492. Op.1. D. 235. L.3.
12. Ospischeva L. E. Op. cit.
13. Rybko S.N. Istoriya stanichnogo prihoda na Kubani v publikatsiyah dorevolyutsionnyh avtorov//Itogi po-levyh fol&klorno-etnograficheskih issledovaniy na Ku-bani: proshloe i sovremennost&. Krasnodar, 2005. P. 90-99.
14. Maksimov I. Bytove cherty duhovenstva staroy Cher-nomorii (1818-1843 gg.). Po dannym arhiva Dmi-trievskoy tserkvi g. Ekaterinodara//Izvestiya OLI-KO.Issue 6. Ekaterinodar, 1913; Sadovskiy A. Torz-hestvo zakladki novogo Uspenskogo hrama i osve-schenie vremennogo molitvennogo doma v st. Us-penskoy Kubanskoy oblasti//SEV. 1908. No. 39. P. 1266-1280; Mihaylov N.T. Spravochnik po Stavro-pol&skoy eparhii (obzor gorodov, sel, stanits i hutorov Stavropol&skoy gubernii i Kubanskoy oblasti). Stavropol&, 1910.
15. Pravoslavnaya Tserkov& na Kubani...
16. GAKK. F. 252. Op. 2. D. 913. L. 1-6.
17. Ocherki istorii organov vnutrennih del Kubani (17931917) gg. / ed. prof. V.N. Ratushnyak. Krasnodar, 2002.
18. Pravoslavnaya Tserkov& na Kubani...
19. GAKK. F. 418. Op. 1. D. 565. L. 1-1 ob.
20. GAKK. F. 470. Op. 2. D. 1133. L. 2-2 ob.
21. GAKK. F. 470. Op. 2. D. 1070. L. 13-21.
22. GAKK. F. 470. Op. 2. D. 1784. L. 4; GAKK. F. 470. Op. 2. D. 2188. L. 3-4.
23. Ratmirov Mihail, svyaschennik. Torzhestvo osvya-scheniya i otkrytiya tserkovno-prihodskoy shkoly v st. Suzdal&skoy Kubanskoy oblasti//SEV. 1900. No. 21. P. 1241-1243.
24. Zazhaev P. Proshloe i nastoyaschee Kubanskoy na-chal&noy shkoly. Ekaterinodar, 1907.
25. Ibid.
26. Mihaylov N.T. Spravochnik po Stavropol&skoy eparhii (obzor gorodov, sel, stanits i hutorov Stavropol&skoy gubernii i Kubanskoy oblasti). Stavropol&, 1910.
27. Gedeon, mitropolit. Istoriya hristianstva na Severnom Kavkaze do i posle prisoedineniya ego k Rossii. Moskva-Pyatigorsk, 1992. P.156.
28. SEV. 1891. No. 1.
29. Rossiyskiy Gosudarstvennyy Istoricheskiy arhiv (RGIA.) F. 796. Op. 442. D. 1475. L. 28-28ob.
30. GAKK. F. 396. Op. 1. D. 7973. L. 6.
31. GASK. F. 439. Op.1. D. 66. L. 4.
32. Ibid. D. 54. L. 1 - 4.
33. Ibid. D. 21. L. 6.
34. Svedeniya o sostoyanii missii v Stavropol&skoy eparhii v 1907 g. Stavropol&, 1908.
35. Ibid.
36. Pravoslavnaya Tserkov& na Kubani...
Jean Flores
Other scientific works: