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The ancient settlement the Swallow's nest 1 in the Lower Priishimye


V.A. Zaha

Materials of the multilayered ancient settlement the Swallow's nest 1 located on a high radical terrace of the Ishim River, to the southeast Ishim are considered. The platform between two ravines is limited to two couples of ditches occurring at different times and in bulk. The early system of defense presented by the wide become swollen shaft and rather deep ditch, judging by radio-carbon dates and ceramics belongs to the end of transitional time from bronze to early iron (pozdnezhuravlevsky complexes). Strengthenings in the form of a shaft with two bastions and an external ditch are connected with bakalsky ware and built, judging by adiouglerodny dates from a shaft, at the beginning of the 3rd century AD

Lower Priishimye, the ancient settlement, transitional time from bronze to iron, zhuravlevsky complexes, the early Middle Ages, bakalsky culture, the beginning of the 3rd century AD

The radical terrace of the right bank of the Ishim River practically throughout Lower Pri-ishimya represents a 35-45-meter ledge which is rather strongly cut up by the beams and ravines promoting drainage of its surface. In 0.5-1.0 km deep into from edge of the terrace put by loams the low-lying sites are boggy, are sometimes covered by a kochkarnik and a cane. In this regard in the ancient time the trained narrow part of a ledge up to 0.5 km wide was the most attractive and mastered on a right-bank terrace. Inaccessibility, and sometimes and inaccessibility of a terrace from the valley promoted a construction on the capes, sites limited to ravines, well strengthened citadels. As a rule, ancient settlements from two or three parties had a natural barrier: very abrupt, sometimes steep slopes of a terrace and ravines, and from the floor party were built strengthenings in the form of the system of ditches and shafts.

Mass emergence of the strengthened settlements and citadels in Priishimye, as well as in adjacent territories of Western Siberia, belongs to the end of an era of bronze — to the early Iron Age, and they gain broad development during a Middle Ages era when the political factor begins to play a large role — there is a set of small and large military collisions. During this period radical terraces of the West Siberian rivers accustom not really convenient for accommodation (absence a number of water). In the Lower Priishimye it is the most known strengthenings — ancient settlements Borkovskoye and Kuchum-Gora.

Also the ancient settlement the Swallow's nest 1 located on a high right radical terrace of the Ishim River in 2.6 km to the northeast from of Klepikovo, to the south of Ishim, in a point with coordinates 55 ° 58& 41.8&& of NL and 69 ° 28& 08.5&& of EL (fig. 1, 1) belongs to similar strengthenings. On a part of a terrace of the subtrapezoid form about 2000 sq.m limited from two parties to ravines from the floor party two systems of defense are traced. The first, presented by a ditch and a low shaft, is closer to edge of a terrace and treats the beginning of the early Iron Age. The second system of strengthenings consists of the ditch and a shaft which are partially going down on slopes of ravines in which center the journey is traced and two towers bastions belongs to an era of the early Middle Ages (fig. 1, 2). Visually inhabited and economic designs on the strengthened platform are not traced [Zaha, 2000].

Before researches the detailed survey of a surface of the cape for specification of the estimated by eye plan of the monument made by A.N. Panfilov and graphic reconstruction of a surface by means of the Surfer 9 program was carried out. Computer reconstruction allowed to obtain additional data on defensive systems. So, continuation of internal and external ditches on slopes of ravines is distinctly noted, and very become swollen internal shaft is traced an internal ditch (fig. 1, 2; 3, 2).

About 413 sq.m of the square of the ancient settlement are opened, the part of the protected platform, partially the first and second systems of defense are investigated. The constructions deepened to the continent are not revealed. Several holes which are poorly deepened to the continent are investigated. Punctures, most likely the centers located to the line, congestions of ceramics and other material were mainly at the level of the buried soil (fig. 2).

Fig. 1. Arrangement (1) and computer reconstruction of a modern surface of the ancient settlement the Swallow's nest 1 with the plan of an excavation (2)

On cuts of the ancient settlement are noted the turf, 0.1-0.15 m; the cultural layer and a layer of the buried soil representing uniform black loam in different parts of an excavation from 0.2 to 0.6 m, and on average — about 0.5 m. The last is divided into two layers by lenses of punctures from the centers, the burned-down designs of shafts and continental emissions from ditches. Ditches and not numerous holes are filled with dark gray and light gray loam (fig. 3, 1).



About 50,100 cm

12 "$12
130 highway 1L 1 130 P1

C - a term Y2Ch-pro*ll

ST. - continental emission: j - continental emission with 1Sh - black suglimos 5Ya - coal

- a carbonaceous layer

also sang also at gold l to them

Fig. 3. Cuts (1) and computer reconstruction of a surface (2) ancient settlements Swallow's nest 1

Finds from a monument are presented generally by ceramics fragments, bones of animals, from products are found ceramic a pryaslitsa and polished (scrapers), made of walls of vessels.

Ceramic material is presented by fragments of 473 vessels (on nimbuses) only two chronological periods that is rather important in a chronological binding, especially a complex of an era of the early Middle Ages. From the end of transitional time from bronze to iron — the beginning of the early Iron Age connected nimbuses of 126 vessels, with the early Middle Ages — 347 vessels.

The osteological material found on a monument belongs to generally large wild and domestic mammals (tab. 1).

Table 1

The list of animals on the osteological remains from the ancient settlement the Swallow's nest 11

Number of bones Quantity of individuals

Horse 106/16.6 * 9/32.1

Cattle 4/0.63 1/3.6

Elk 151/23.7 4/14.3

Roe 33/5.2 9/32.1

Saiga 3/0.5 3/10.7

Beaver 4/0.63 1/3.6

Fox 1/0.16 1/3.6

Mammal, not definable 332/52.2 —

Fish 2/0.31 —

* In numerator — quantity, in a denominator — %.

In spite of the fact that osteological material cannot almost be correlated to the certain cultural complexes investigated on a monument it is possible to assume that with the period of the end of transitional time — the beginning of the early Iron Age when the complex economy was mainly developed, connected the remains of cattle and wild types, and with the early Middle Ages — generally bones of a horse.

The ancient settlement of the end transitional from bronze to time iron — the beginnings of the early Iron Age. On a surface it is presented by the remains of strongly become swollen shaft which width reached 3.0-3.5 m, height about 0.2 m, and the ditch of shiriy 2.0*2.5 m which almost completely swam away, about 0.4 m in depth. The remains of a ditch are noted on slopes of both ravines that is well fixed on plans (fig. 3, 2).

In the course of the researches of the southern part of the ancient settlement the ditch 1.0-1.5 m wide, up to 1.1 m in depth is revealed. At its inner edge is closer to the center strongly calcinated sites and the remains of the burned-down tree (fig. 2) were traced. On the coal, most likely, from the remains of the burned-down shaft design which is selected from punctures two radio-carbon dates are received: 2890±40 l. N (COAH 4300) and 2810±40 l. N (COAH 4302).

Judging by the remains of constructions, the platform was strengthened from the floor party by a ditch which the shaft consisting of emission from a ditch and a wooden design, most likely a timbered paling adjoined. The absence in the strengthened platform of the remains of profound dwellings, perhaps, demonstrates existence of land designs, or a citadel intended for protection of the cattle during sudden attack on neighboring pastures in the valley.

Authentically it is possible to connect a hole 1 in which the ceramics and several bones of animals are found with this time. The ceramics is presented by the pro-thinned-out vessels of slightly extended form with a round or priostrenny bottom (fig. 4, 5). On nimbuses 126 vessels, at 80 (63.5%) a nimbus of rounded shape, a straight line or slightly pro-thinned out are allocated, at 46 (36.5%) the edge of a nimbus round in a form bears a strong resemblance to the leveled "molchanovsky" profile (fig. 5, 2, 3). Fragments of two dishes — censers (fig. 5, 1) are met.

Generally top third of a vessel is ornamented. Under edge of a nimbus a number of poles, sometimes in combination with a pearl is noted. Seldom at vessels there are about three rows patching

P.A. Kosintsev's definitions.

vdavleniye of round or teardrop shape. The main ornament are the pieces inclined to the right or to the left, ottisnuty smooth or edge stamps (tab. 2).

Table 2

Figuration of ware of an early complex of the ancient settlement Swallow's nest 1

Ornament Quantity of vessels %

Poles 89 70.6

Horizontal line 17 13.5

The pieces inclined to the right 77 61.1

The pieces inclined to the left 42 33.3

Pearl and tucks 33 26.2

The comb prints inclined to the right 23 18.2

The comb prints inclined to the left 6 4.8

Vertical prints of a comb 2 1.6

Fig. 4. Ceramics of the end of transitional time from a bronze age to iron (zhuravlevsky)

ancient settlements Swallow's nest 1

Except ware, most likely, ceramic scrapers, a pryaslitsa and several fragments of badly remained bone products (fig. 6) belong to this period.

The ceramic complex of the ancient settlement the Swallow's nest 1 is in many respects similar to zhuravlev-sky ware of the Borkovsky ancient settlement and settlement of Borovlyanka 2. Borkovskoye ancient settlement (Borki 1) two-areal, the internal platform of strengthening is limited to shaft with three ledges and a ditch. Between internal and external lines of strengthenings there are no signs of any constructions. The internal ditch and a shaft limit ranks zapadin from which three are investigated. About -

the remains of three single-chamber constructions of 18-56 sq.m with rectangular or under - the square ditches deepened on 0.1-0.2 m are broken. In and outside constructions the remains of the centers, Stolbov and economic holes are revealed. The ceramics of zhuravlevsky type and tips of arrows, bronze with the acting sleeve, is found At-! At centuries BC

of Fig. 5. Ceramics of the end of transitional time from a bronze age to iron (zhuravlevsky)

ancient settlements Swallow's nest 1

Ware is made of clay with impurity of sand and chamotte. These are the pro-thinned-out pots with the direct vertical, unbent necks or vessels of the closed form with a roundish or priostrenny bottom. The high percent of vessels with the simplified "molchanovsky" profiles is noted [Danchenko, 1996].

Were generally ornamented a neck, plechiko partially a trunk. As a rule, it is corbels of inclined or vertical prints of a comb, carved lines, patching vdavleniye, pearls, it is frequent in combination with poles. The ceramic complex of the Borkovsky ancient settlement allocates high percent of pearls on a neck, carved lines, prints of a smooth stamp and the low specific weight of an edge stamp.

The group of ware of zhuravlevsky type of the settlement of Borovlyanka 2 consisting of 11 vessels is found in filling of the dwelling of 1 excavation 1, the main complex of which is presented by ceramics of krasnoozersky culture. The congestion was in a southeast part of a construction and is probably not connected with it. Together with zhuravlevsky ware the puncture, fragments of a clay lyachka and bronze odnolezviyny by a straight line with a tear-shaped opening on a handle a knife are found [Panfilov, etc., 1991]. The ceramics is presented by thin-walled pots with a round bottom with slightly curved straight lines or the mouths inclined inside. The ornament is generally presented by ranks of inclined prints of a smooth stamp and notches. Under edge of a nimbus a number of pearls is put. Sometimes there are several rows of poles, pearls or notches.

Borkovsky and borovlyansky complexes are close among themselves and form the uniform chronological layer which is dated on bronze products in limits At!! - At! centuries BC

Fig. 6. Stock of the ancient settlement Swallow's nest 1:

1-6, 8, 9 — ceramics; 7 — a bone

The most essential difference of ware from the Lastochkiny Nest from considered above is simplification of an ornament and reduction of quantity of ranks from poles that, most likely, can serve as a chronological indicator. In our opinion, zhuravlevsky materials from the considered northern monuments earlier, than from the ancient settlement the Swallow's nest 1.

The main feature of zhuravlevsky complexes is their transitional shape between krasnoozersky and bogochanovsky materials. Communication of zhuravlevsky ware with the previous krasnoozersky is traced in profiling of vessels (there are copies with arcuately curved neck) and ornament elements.

In general in figuration of zhuravlevsky ware the main late bronze "native" lines, in particular suzgunsky prevail; first of all this division of ornamental zones poles or holes, a combination of corbels from vertical or inclined prints of an edge stamp. Gradually on zhuravlevsky ware the ornamental zone is reduced that as a result leads to transformation of a zhuravlevsky ceramic complex in bogochanovky which is dated E.M. Danchenko IV-!! centuries BC [1996].

In our opinion, date of bogochanovsky materials is overestimated. Being guided by baitovsky and the Biysk stage complexes with which bogochanovsky have indisputable similarity, they should be dated, most likely, no later than V! century BC

In not calibrated system a complex of the end of transitional time — the beginning of the early Iron Age of the ancient settlement the Swallow's nest 1 is dated H-! X centuries BC [Zaha, Ryabogin, 2002] that, of course, udrevnyat zhuravlevsky complexes most of which probable date — within the end of V!! century BC

Materials of an early complex of the ancient settlement confirm a trend of development of materials of transitional time from a bronze era by the early Iron Age in the wide forest-steppe and South taiga territory of Western Siberia from east slopes of the Urals to Priobye inclusive.

Deterioration in climate at the end!! — beginning! the millennium BC led to crisis of economy in societies of a late bronze era and outflow of a part of the taiga population on the South. Migrants — ware carriers with cross and struychaty figuration, moving generally on river valleys, entered the marriage relations with the native population of pozdnebronzy cultures. In the course of assimilation there was an active mixture of cultural traditions. In Priobye, Priirtyshje, Priishimye and Pritobolye is formed a number of sinkretichny cultures of transitional time from bronze to iron — zavyalovsky, krasnoozersky, gamayunsky, itkulsky. The basis of all these cultures is formed by late bronze complexes on which the culture of the migrating northern population had notable impact. At preservation of cattle breeding the role of hunting and fishery sharply increases. In figuration of ware there are elements which are going back to a neolytic era. On many settlements, stone tools — scrapers, pro-splittings and other products are met.

The funeral ceremony is reconstructed on not numerous burials, generally soil. Situation buried in a grave changes. The writhed burials are succeeded on one side by a trupopolozheniye on a back. With the dead placed ware, jewelry, tools and objects of arms in a grave.

Development of cultures of transitional time from bronze to iron went on the way of reduction of elements of culture of newcomers, otherwise, in the course of assimilation the northern migrants gradually were dissolved among descendants of the late bronze population.

Thus, at the beginning of the early Iron Age in a southern taiga part Priishimya, and more — Priirtyshje are formed bogochanovsky, in forest-steppe Priishimye peculiar baitovsky complexes are noted. The first continue development zhuravlevsky which, in turn, were created on the basis of krasnoozersky culture.

Strengthenings of an era of the early Middle Ages. Since an era of the early Middle Ages in the territory of Western Siberia, and in particular in the Lower Priishimye, ethnic groups on the basis of which subsequently gradually there are modern Ob-Ugrian, Samoyed and Turkic-speaking people are formed. Since this period the West Siberian forest-steppe and partially southern taiga are involved in the sphere of influence of east and southeast regions from where elements of others, including Turkic, cultures begin to get.

The early medieval strengthenings of the ancient settlement the Swallow's nest 1 representing the second system of defense consist of a ditch and a shaft in which center the journey, and two towers bastions is traced. Inhabited and farm buildings are absent (fig. 1, 2; 3, 2).

Width of a medieval ditch is 0.6-1.0 m, depth is up to 0.2-0.3 m. Inside there are "holes traps" up to 0.3 m in depth. At the inner edge of a ditch the puncture and the remains of the burned-down tree which were located generally at the edges of the burned soil were distinctly traced. The similar planigrafichesky and stratigraphic provision of coal demonstrates that the shaft was constructed, most likely, in the form of a felling which internal space zabutovyvatsya by continental loam (fig. 2). The basis of towers bastions also was probably formed by the wooden felling filled with continental emission from a ditch [Zaha, Ryabogin, 2002].

The centers-prokaly located in the strengthened part of the ancient settlement and the ceramics congestions lying at the level of the buried soil are connected with a medieval complex. The lack of profound dwellings and the order which is observed in arrangement of punctures (to one line), most likely, speak about existence on the medieval ancient settlement of land srubny or easy folding dwellings (fig. 2).

Ware is presented 347 (on nimbuses) by round-bottomed vessels with rather short neck, the form sometimes closed. Roundish nimbus, flat or slanted inside. Sometimes at

a flat nimbus small flows with external or inside are observed. Generally top part of a vessel is ornamented. In the place of transition of a neck to a trunk a number of the poles ottisnuty in the drawn flute, or pearls is noted. A basic element of an ornament are the grid drawn or executed by an edge stamp. There is a small amount of the vessels decorated with prints of figured stamps (fig. 7, 8; tab. 3).

Table 3

Figuration of ware of a bakalsky complex of the ancient settlement Swallow's nest 1

Ornament Quantity of vessels %

Poles 268 77.2

The drawn grid 196 56.5

The pieces inclined to the right 34 9.8

the Pieces inclined to the left 9 2.6

Geometrical and figured prints 8 2.3

B-vidye prints 2 0.6

Fillet 47 13.5

Edge lattice 17 4.9

The comb inclined to the right 3 0.9

Roller 2 0.6

Without ornament 19 5.5

Ware of an early medieval complex is in many respects close to ceramics from ancient settlements Pritobolya (Big Bakalskoye, Ust-Utyak, Ust-Tersyuk), to a medieval complex of the Krasnoyarsk ancient settlement on the Irtysh River, referred to bakalsky culture. By the radio-carbon dates received from samples of coal of a number of ancient settlements, lifetime of bakalsky complexes is defined within the 1-6th centuries AD [Botalov, etc., 2008]. It is not contradicted by the dates received on coal from an external wave of the ancient settlement the Swallow's nest 1: 1730±65 l. N (COAH 4259) and 1785±40 l. N (COAH 4301). In not calibrated system the early medieval ancient settlement is dated the 2-3rd centuries AD [Zaha, Ryabogin, 2002].

Early date of bakalsky complexes indirectly is confirmed by almost total absence (in particular, on the ancient settlement the Swallow's nest 1) the stock characteristic of the end of the early and late Middle Ages.

Under a puncture from the buried soil the palinokomplex reflect the vigorous activity outside strengthenings which is expressed in intensive deforestation in one of cuts what points the reduced amount of pollen wood and presence of pollen of weed and paskvalny plants to. During construction of the ancient settlement birch landscapes in which meadow and steppe sites with raznotravno-wormwood communities played the subordinated role were widespread. In comparison with the previous time the climatic conditions become more cool, the deficiency of moistening is noted. On a final phase of development of the territory of the settlement the landscape climatic conditions were close to modern, but as a part of the woods the birch dominated, and development pine and birch and pineries happened later. The considered paleogeografichesky conditions quite correspond to lifetime of bakalsky complexes according to radio-carbon dates [Zaha, Ryabogin, 2002].

However some researchers carry bakalsky complexes to later time [Matveeva, etc., 2007; Rafikova, 2007], generally in view of the fact that sargatsky culture stops the existence about the 5th century AD, and bakalsky culture, researchers consider, changes it in the 6th century AD

Due to the probable udrevneniye of bakalsky culture the questions of its origin and genesis demand additional researches. On the available materials it is possible to speak definitely about stay in its structure of the population which left the ceramics of a kushnarenkovsky and @-rayakupovsky circle widespread in Prikamye and Cisural area (fig. 7, 1, 4, 8; 8, 1, 3, 4, 11, 13) and also the groups connected probably with the kulaysky culture or carriers of ware of karym-sky type [Danchenko, 2008] what small karnizik on nimbuses and an ornament in the form of utochkoobrazny, S-shaped and figured stamps on ancient settlement ware the Swallow's nest of 1 (fig. 8, 10) testify to.

Fig. 7. Ceramics of bakalsky culture of the ancient settlement Swallow's nest 1

Comparison of ceramic complexes of ancient settlements Pritobolya2 and Priishimya with use of the cluster analysis (tab. 4) is carried out. As follows from the schedule (fig. 9), the ancient settlement the Swallow's nest 1 together with three monuments located on the Iset River make one cluster, but the greatest similarity is available with materials of the Krasnogorsk ancient settlement.

The area of monuments of bakalsky culture occupies generally West Siberian forest-steppe from east slopes of the Urals to the basin of the Ishim River inclusive. Generally monuments are presented by ancient settlements, settlements and soil burial grounds. The strengthened settlements were located on capes of radical terraces with steep slopes, from the floor party are protected by one or two lines of defense consisting of a wide deep ditch and a high shaft. The area of settlement complexes of bakalsky culture varies from 400 to 3 thousand sq.m.

According to T.N. Rafikova, N.P. Matveeva and S.V. Berlina.

Fig. 8. Ceramics of bakalsky culture of the ancient settlement Swallow's nest 1

The reliable remains of the dwellings deepened to the continent not it is revealed probably they were land. On all settlements explored in Pritobolye as well as on the Swallow's nest 1, the remains of the centers in the form of the lenses of the calcinated soil located ranks which, most likely, are connected with dwellings are found.

The cattle breeding, with prevalence in herd of a horse was a basis of economy of bakalsky culture. Nakhodka zernoterka on the Small Bakalsky ancient settlement allows to assume existence at the bakalsky population of agriculture though it does not have direct proofs. Along with cattle breeding a part in economy was played by hunting and fishery. Broad development was gained by house productions, such as processing of a tree, bone, skin, metal, spinning and weaving.

We cannot speak definitely so far about origin of bakalsky culture, however some researchers consider that between bakalsky and sargatsky complexes there is a certain genetic linkage. Subsequently, in the existing opinion, the population (Ugrian) of bakalsky culture underwent a tyurkization.

Table 4

Figuration of ware of a bakalsky complex of the ancient settlement Swallow's nest 1

and ancient settlements of the forest-steppe Trans-Ural region

Ornament element 1 2 3 4 5

Poles 77.2 79.7 85.3 95.3 93.0

The drawn lattice 56.5 26.6 27.3 78.5 44.1

The inclined drawn pieces 12.4 40.6 50.3 89.7 6.2

Geometrical and figured prints 2.3 12.5 11.1 — 7.6

E-vidye prints 0.6 — — — —

Fillet 13.5 1.6 0.2 — 4.6

Edge lattice 4.9 1.6 0.4 — —

The inclined edge lines 0.9 3.1 6.3 — —

Roller 0.6 — — — —

Horizontal carved "fir-tree" — 37.5 11.9 6.5 9.3

Horizontal edge "fir-tree" — 3.1 2.2 — —

The horizontal drawn line — 12.5 15.9 48.6 27.9

Number of pearls — 1.6 1.8 1.9 —

Without ornament 5.5 — — — —

All vessels 347 64 495 107 129

Note: 1 — the Swallow's nest 1; 2 — Big Bakalskoye; 3 — Kolovskoye; 4 — Borkovskoye; 5 — Krasnogorsk.

L. Gnezdo


B. Bakalskoye



20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Fig. 9. Dendrogramma of ceramic komlex of bakalsky culture Pritobolya and Priishimya

Ancient settlement materials the Swallow's nest 1 which are well dismembered on two complexes occurring at different times, in our opinion, testify to rather early chronological position of bakalsky materials which lower bound falls on 11-111 centuries AD that can change radically ideas of a periodization of medieval cultures in Tobolo-Ishimye, and in particular in Priishimye where, perhaps, they existed in the following order: bakalsky — potchevashsky — yudinsky.


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E.M. Danchenko. South taiga Priirtyshje in the middle — the second half of the I millennium BC Omsk: Publishing house of OmGPU, 1996. 212 pages

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N.P. Matveeva, T.N. Rafikov, Berlin S.V.K to a question of a chronological position of bakalsky culture (on materials of isetsky ancient settlements)//AB ORIGINE: Problems of genesis of cultures of Siberia. Tyumen: Bouck's vector, 2007. Page 76-98.

A.N. Panfilov, E.M. Zaha, Zaha of V.A. Borovlyank 2 — a monument of the Neolithic and transitional from bronze to time iron in the Lower Priishimye//Sources of ethnocultural history of Western Siberia. Tyumen, 1991. Page 25-50.

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Tyumen, IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

The work considers the materials of a multilayer fortified settlement of Lastochkino Gnezdo 1 located at the high native terrace of the Ishim river, to the South-East of Ishim. The ground between two ravines is limited by two hetero-temporal pairs of ditches and ramparts. An early system of defense represented by a broad shapeless rampart and quite a deep ditch, judging from the radiocarbon data and the pottery, refers to the end of the transition time from Bronze to early Iron (late Zhuravlevo complexes). The fortifications in the form of a rampart with two bastions and the outer ditch are associated with the Bakalovo pottery and constructed, judging from the radiocarbon data on the coal from the rampart in the early IIIrd century A.D.

of Low Ishim basin, fortified settlement, transition time from Bronze to Iron, Zhuravlevo complexes, early Mediaeval Age, Bakalovo culture, early IIIrd century A.D.

Matthew Green
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