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Category: History

According to old gertsenovets...



r. Sh. Ganelin,

the chief researcher of Institute of history of the Russian Academy of Sciences according to OLD GERTSENOVTSEV...

My father, Sh.I. Ganelin, worked almost all the adult life at institute of Herzen. I addressed it in the vospominaniyakh1 twice. However there is some general information, with the father's life, maybe, and not connected, remembered according to his and his friends. He was engaged in the history of institute also in the research plan: under its edition the author of undoubted literary endowments B.I. Shabalin (he possesses the known works about the Red Triangle plant) prepared for the 30 anniversary of institute in 1948 the book about its stories. It opened a greeting of the first secretary of the Leningrad regional committee and a city town committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) P.S. Popkov. But "the Leningrad business" burst, and just appeared book was withdrawn.

Both the father, and his colleagues were infinitely betrayed to institute and all considered connected with its activity important and instructive for the environment. I will try to retell something from slyshanny from them and to reproduce their own opinions about it. The systematicity should not wait from my statement, it will suffer from fragmentation, but as nearly the brightest of professors of Gertsenovsky institute who continued and completed the activity in Sorbonne, E.G. Etkind claimed, history consists of what is called "istoriyka" 2. Possibly, most often my reasonings will come down to definition of that on whom exactly of influential Soviet and party persons the Gertsenovsky institute relied at different stages of the existence. This story, maybe, also does not seem quite respectable from strictly academic point of view, but got for many years not only everyday value.

The role of the Petrograd pedagogical academy preceding Gertsenovsky institute deserves a special research. Its curriculum as it is represented, is not deprived of interest and still. Among the objects studied there were a pedagogical psychology, the organization and history of national education, political economy, pedagogical graphics, general history, logic, psychology, sociology, bases, problems and practice of the higher education, history and practice of club business, people's houses and houses of education, lecture business, work with teenagers, schools of literacy, theatrical matter, a technique of general history and the history of liberation movement in Russia, hygiene, art of the speech, out-of-school work with children, consulting information bureau concerning out-of-school education and the school term paper among adults. Certainly, it in many respects did not coincide with classical forms and the maintenance of university arts education, however quite could be considered as compatible to it. A.P. Pinkevich (see recently published monograph by V.S. Volkov about him) was the rector of pedagogical academy, A.E. Kudryavtsev managed sociohistorical office. Both of them were organizers of institute of Herzen. And communications with "tops" went through V.A. Desnitsky and G.I. Levin. I see a reason to consider that it proceeded over the years. Both of them since pre-revolutionary times were close familiar with Lenin, but left party in protest at red terror.

In this regard I remember the father's conversation with V.A. Desnitsky relating to 1947. Then it was offered to father to enter a party together with the famous scientists of institute the biologist B.E. Raykov and the visual impairment specialist B.I. Kovalenko. All three were included into Academy of pedagogical sciences of RSFSR. Persuading everyone, referred to the consent of two others which is already allegedly received. They, however, phoned and defined true position of business. One deaf, second blind person, the father argued for whom take me? (B. E. badly heard, and B.I. grew blind). The father was especially confused by that circumstance that his pupil N.N. Petukhov heading then Communist Party committee of institute with whom close friends they remained until the end of the father's life offered it the recommendation. For council the father addressed Desnitsky. In reply that told, how in 1920, having arrived in

* Shalom Izrailevich Ganelin (01.12.1894-20.12.1974) is a doctor of pedagogical sciences, professor, the corresponding member of NPA of the USSR. Worked at department of pedagogics of LGPI of A.I. Herzen from 1924 to 1972

Moscow and having stopped "at Ulyanov", received from them the offer to return to party, and N.K. Krupskaya promised Lenin's recommendation. According to Desnitsky, L.B. Krasin insisted then on his evasion from return, despite the offered recommendation. V.A. Desnitsky told the father that he knew the apartment on Goncharnaya St. which was ordinary visited by Krasin in Petrograd. Having gone there, it very strictly punished to whether inhabitants, whether visitors of this apartment that they informed him on arrival of the guest. When the phone call sounded, Krasin called Desnitsky on Potter's where he stayed in ladies' society. Having learned about the proposal made Desnitsky he declared the place of their meeting obviously preferable before where VA. invited to return Ulyanov. "And you are afraid to offend Petukhov" — concluded VA. the speech. The father, having made sure in such a way that N.N. Petukhov, having received his refusal, will appear in very not bad company, resisted, as well as both other candidates.

In 30 years when Ulyanov and Krasin were not alive any more, as well as A.M. Gorky especially close to V.A. Desnitsky of the person, he had to resort to the help to M.F. Andreyeva which influence stretched far away from the Moscow House of scientists which she headed. In 1951 (it seems, date exact) V.A. Desnitsky knew that in the next volume of compositions of Stalin something has to appear for it adverse. Situation was aggravated with what the celebration of anniversary of Desnitsky in 1949, in one year with Stalin, caused (I was reported about it nowadays by B.F. Egorov) displeasure of the leader. Before a trip for the help to M.F. Andreyeva V.A. Desnitsky told about it to my father. The address to her took effect: to Leningrad it was let know that Desnitsky was not touched.

G.I. Levin married to the father's sister M.A. Levina knew Lenin of the Swiss emigration still from time to time. His sister Z.I. Lilina (mind. in 1928), the people's commissar of education of Northern communes, was married to G.E. Zinovyev, but their marriage broke up. G.I. Levin playing at institute in the 1920th an administrative and organizational role, undoubtedly resorted to its help. And he for the 1930th was preserved against arrest by K.E. Voroshilov, his colleague and the pupil on party work in pre-revolutionary Donetsk. As soon as Voroshilov recognized situation menacing, professors of department of pedagogics (his memories of the St. Petersburg committee of Bolsheviks and the thesis about discipline at pre-revolutionary school are known to me) caused to Moscow, and there he disappeared in Voroshilov's apartment, going outside only accompanied by his security guards. At the same time Voroshilov showed the communications with the old companion. Revolutionary "epigones" gathered for a populous memorial service for G.I. Levin at the beginning of June, 1941, and Voroshilov sent to institute "the highest governmental" the telegram of a condolence.

But the relations of institute with "tops" from the very beginning of its existence were far not only idyllic. I think that business was in aspiration of outstanding representatives of institute professorate to preservation and use at construction of new school of experience of a gymnasium. They attached it outstanding significance, being not only experts and researchers in the branches of science, but also figures of common cultural process of prerevolutionary time. It concerned the mathematician G.M. Fikhtengoltsu, the physicist P.A. Znamensky, the chemist V.N. Verkhov-skomu, biologists B.E. Raykov, P.I. Borovitsky, the geologist A.S. Ginzberg. Ya. Depman heading department of a technique of teaching mathematics was one of prominent professional researchers of the Estonian literature.

Simultaneous development of fundamental sciences and a technique of their teaching — the basis of activity of institute — answered an ideal of obligatory connection of science with enlightenment (in field of knowledge close to me V.N. Bernadsky, the deep researcher and the unsurpassed erudite managing department of a technique of history was a brilliant example of such combination). Preservation of experience of the pre-revolutionary gymnasium which was comprehensively training pupils for receiving the higher education was for them a vital task. Undoubtedly, under their influence my father, itself ended a gymnasium, became her historian. Meanwhile Narkompros's guide acting through A.V. Lunacharsky and N.K. Krupskaya in the construction plans of new school considered gymnasia experience alien. B.E. Raykov, having learned about my existence, invited me to himself to tell about it to the professional historian. Now about a campaign against biologists-methodologists and the biological research station existing in Leningrad, V.S. wrote to fight against "raykovshchina" Volkov3. To its detailed work the reader can be also sent. B.E. Raykov in a conversation with me directly connected the arrest in 1930 with a 10-year sentence with a position of Narkompros's heads called above, and return to Leningrad with the favorable interest in a gymnasium shown by Stalin and the people's commissar of education V.P. Potemkin in 1943 B.E. Raykov lived then in a small stone lodge on the institute yard in which he was lodged according to Potemkin's order as it lost former housing in Leningrad and before return to Leningrad worked if I am not mistaken, in Arkhangelsk. By the way, Potemkin who was to Narkompros the Deputy Foreign Commissar at the organization in Leningrad after war of institute of evening schools,

PEOPLE. YEARS. LIFE

working in cooperation with institute of Herzen, placed it in the former building of the French Embassy on Kutuzovskaya Embankment. I do not exclude a possibility of assistance of B.F. Podtse-roba, the assistant V.M. Molotov at one time managing affairs of department of foreign affairs with the secretary general title (about it there was a sharpness about two secretaries general Stalin and Podtserobe). I was told about it by his school teacher N.S. Polyakhin working at a biological research station of gertsenovsky institute in Vyritsa maintaining the relations with it. Then, in 1946, I did not understand the meaning of a mention of Podtserobe. But now, having read V.S. Volkov and N.V. articles Andreevoy4, thought whether support was necessary for the Vyritsky biological research station created under the leadership of P.I. Borovitsky. As V.S. Volkov writes, her creators "were afraid even of a mention of names of the predecessors" 5.

In pre-war and first post-war years at institute in combination worked hard professors of the university. I remember the meeting with the school students showing interest in history, organized with department of a technique of history with participation to the academician V.V. Struva, the prof. N.P. Poletika, etc. After return to Leningrad from the reference in 1932 the course on the history of colonial policy of the Western European states at institute read to the academician E.V. Tarle. As the prof. P.V. Gurevich spoke to me, the dean of geographical faculty of that time, Tarle read at geographical faculty when historical, opened in 1934, did not exist yet. It was made according to the high instruction of Moscow, though under supervision. Contrary to the usage it used the prepared text which was presented by M.K. Greenwald, arrested, as well as it, on the so-called "academic business". In the 1960th this text was published by the separate book under V.I. Rutenburg edition.

But the most significant and difficult explainable the literary meeting in institute club with I.G. Orenburg which took place shortly before June 22, 1941, day of attack of Germany on the USSR is represented. The club headed by A.A. Akhayan was then, as well as after return of his manager from war, the important center of public life of institute. Meetings with "interesting people" (so it was called) were in club neredkimi6. However emergence of Orenburg in it hardly was another successful action.

Having remained in Paris after September 1, 1939, he was declared some Moscow ill-wishers the defector. To one of authors of this title, his neighbor in the writer's settlement in Peredelkino, the litfondovsky giving relying Orenburg passed. He returned to Moscow together with the Soviet diplomats after falling of Paris and wrote the novel about this event. And though it was clear that places of its stay were not business of its own choice, in Moscow glanced at it cautiously. Vs. Vishnevsky, the editor of the Znamya magazine, took the first and second parts of "Falling of Paris". Censorship did not pass the second part, strictly demanding respect in relation to Germans. To observe it, speaking about them as invaders, in the third part it was impossible.

But on April 24, 1941 Stalin who read, as it turned out, in the manuscript the first and second parts which it found interesting called Orenburg by phone. He asked whether the author is going to represent in the novel by the German fascists. That answered that it will be a subject of the third part, but he is afraid whether will forbid also it as the second. Stalin answered, wrote later Orenburg in the memoirs, a joke: "And you write, we will try to push also the third part".

Orenburg reported about a Stalin call in the performance at institute of Herzen. I cannot tell with an accuracy now whether there was it during the meeting with it in the club or on the reception in his honor given by the deputy director S.L. Rubenstein with participation of professors on which there was a father. In his statement the final words of Stalin about censorship sounded so: "We somehow will try to persuade them".

The next morning after a call from Stalin Orenburg was most, being expressed by the modern style demanded in Moscow by the person. It is absolutely undoubted that Stalin aimed to let know about a possibility of war, it is confirmed also by his speech on reception of graduates of military academies on May 5, and the room in the Bolshevik magazine of his letter to the Politburo remaining several years in a samizdat against Article F. Ongelsa about foreign policy of the Russian tsarism. But participation in this campaign of Orenburg, his performances anywhere by biographers of the writer is noted.

There are, apparently, no bases to connect a demarche of Orenburg with a position of V.P. Potemkin who came to Narkompros in 1940 from a post of a zamnarkomindel, imprinted in all newspaper photos of meetings and I. von Ribbentrop's wires in Moscow. However similar erenburgov-sky prevention was made also in other Leningrad teacher's college bearing before merge to gertsenovsky a name of the leader of the Soviet historians M.N. Pokrovsky who was exposed to the criticism strengthened, weakening (one of my friends called the second Leningrad teacher training University: institute of the former mistakes of Pokrovsky).

My schoolmate A.D. Yurov after diplomatic service teaching economic geography at institute of Herzen was a son of the deputy director of institute of Pokrovsky

D.G. Yurov who advised us (we terminated then the 7th class) to come to institute of Pokrovsky to a lecture on world situation on June 17, 1941. Lectures such (contemporaries have no idea of them any more) were the form of the circulation of the party guide to the population which to some extent if was not replacing, then supplementing the press castrated by censorship. Lecturers dared to tell about what their listeners had no other ways to learn. At institute of Pokrovsky one of the brightest lecturers of a city town committee of L.N. Dobrzhinsky party acted that time. He made the prevention without references to Stalin, but in the sustained verbal form which is very defined partiyno, having declared a possibility of attack on the USSR of imperialistic forces which can make it having united. Thus, both Leningrad teacher's colleges were not in an official, but semi-official way are informed of the approaching accident.

The events which reached me and remembered and lines of institute life of post-war years have much less drama character.

Literary life of post-war Leningrad A.G. Dementiev and V.P. Druzin were at the helm. Both of them performing party management of writers and publishers were professional literary critics and, doing the part, well understood its character. A.G. Dementiev taught the Russian literature at the university, and V.P. Druzin received department at Herzen's institute. Alexander I. Hvatov, Arkady Elyashevich, the writer Yu. Konstantinov (Yu.K. Berdichevsky) were his pupils. Words from the epigram "Now There Was Druzin Vsesoyuzen" expressed a measure of its administrative greatness. As the editor of the Zvezda magazine appointed to this post personally by Stalin it was included into Committee on Stalin awards on literature and art and sat at it under the chairmanship of Stalin. That from goodwill to the editor of "Star" allocated to edition the car, having forgotten that he already made it.

As spoke in Druzin's environment, at one of meetings with Stalin Druzin suddenly with horror caught himself that he did not vote together with A.A. Fadeyev and K.M. Simonov, solidary with which others voted. One of those authors who were appreciated moral substance, but not artistry stood. Druzin even explained the fluctuations with esthetic reasons: he meant to vote for an award not of the first, but lower degree. And suddenly it was found out that also Stalin did not vote. "There were we in minority, companion Druzin — he allegedly said. — Long ago I was not in minority. But will of the majority — the law for minority. You can be free, companions, I ask to me, companion Druzin". Such is there was a cathedral version.

But the same K.M. Simonov, apparently, the episode stated in the memoirs differently. Stalin, according to him, suggested to award the work by two authors found him in the old magazine, one of whom was a writer B. Chetverikov arrested by then. All were silent. Druzin, in a whisper having consulted to Simonov, told about it aloud, hoping — so he explained the act subsequently — that Chetverikov will be let out. Stalin kept silent.

Anyway, Stalin remembered Druzin and the ambassador of the XIX congress of the CPSU made him the member of the Central audit commission as representative of the intellectuals. In several years after Stalin's death both Dementiev, and Druzin moved to Moscow, it was inconvenient to remain it in Leningrad. Dementiev became the right hand of A.T. Tvardovsky in "The new world". Druzin held posts of the deputy editor of "The literary newspaper", one of heads of the Writers' Union of RSFSR, taught at Literary institute. All this costed, of course, the left department in Gertsenovskom, but from literary life it disappeared...

1. R.Sh. Ganelin 1) Memories of my father Sh.I. Ganelin//Figures of the Russian science of X1X-XX of centuries SPb., 2000. Issue 2. Page 247-260; 2) Fight against cosmopolitism in pedagogics on pages of "The teacher's newspaper"//the St. Petersburg historical school: Almanac. Prilozh. to zhurn. for scientists of Clio. SPb.: Nestor, 2005. The fourth year of release: A.Ya. Leykin's memories. Page 244-249.
2. About its destiny see: E.G. Etkind. Not conspirator's notes. Barcelonian prose. SPb., 2001. Though for some time before its exile from Herzen's Institute my father on institute council opposed the assessment given them by one of theses, having called this assessment satirical, the rector A.D. Boborykin and G.I. Schukina managing department of pedagogics provided absence of the father and E.Ya. Golant at a meeting, fatal for Etkind.
3. V.S. Volkov. On a thorny road of natural science education: from the history of biological stations//the Bulletin of the Gertsenovsky university. 2008. No. 9 (59). Page 70-80.
4. N.V. Andreyeva. The first biological station in the system of pedagogical education of Russia//the Bulletin of the Gertsenovsky university. 2007. No. 5 (43). Page 48-50.
5. V.S. Volkov. Decree. soch. Page 79.
6. See: Andranik Asaturovich Akhayan. To the 100 anniversary since birth. From "Notes of old ger-tsenovets" / Podg. E.M. Kolosova//Messenger of the Gertsenovsky university. 2007. No. 9 (59). Page 61-65.
James Thompson
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