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Kolovsky 4th settlement



KOLOVSKOYE 4 SELIShchE1

I.Yu. Chikunova

Results of excavation of Kolovsky 4 settlements which materials demonstrate his seasonal use by the population of sargatsky culture are covered. The statistical analysis of a ceramic collection, characteristic of stock and inhabited constructions are submitted.

Four settlements surrounding Kolovskoye ancient settlement (Isetsky district of the Tyumen Region) are open during the period from 1982 to 1994 for N.P. Matveeva [Archaeological heritage..., 1995. Page 29] (fig. 1). For various reasons degree of their study extremely uneven. Kolovskiye 1 and 2 settlements were explored recognostsirovochno in 1989-1990 by V.V. Gorelov [1991], the Kolovsky 3rd settlement — in 2001 and 2005 N.P. Matveeva [2002, 2006]. Researches showed the different safety of archaeological material and saturation to them a cultural layer testifying to duration of dwelling of settlements; various receptions in the equipment of a domostroitelstvo were revealed.

Fig. 1. The plan of location of the Kolovsky ancient settlement and settlements (according to the aerial photograph)

1

Work is performed with assistance of the program of Presidium of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science "Adaptation of the people and cultures to changes of the environment, social and technogenic transformations".

In 2003 the author undertook Kolovsky's research 4 settlements [Chikunova, 2004] who is in 130 m to YuYuV from the third line of defense of the Kolovsky ancient settlement in 800 m to SSZ from. Log (fig. 1, 2). It is located on a radical right-bank terrace of the Iset River. Terrace height over water is 11 m. Its area is 120*90 m today. On the remained part are located 27 zapadin various sizes. In a southeast part the settlement is cut by the log 70 m long, depth and 10 m wide. A part zapadin is damaged by this log; several more objects which are on the edge of a terrace are threatened by full or partial collapse.

Fig. 2. Kolovsky 4th settlement. Plan of a monument

On the part of a monument collapsing the log the excavation of 171 sq.m was put. In the course of excavation it became clear that a monument single-layer, the cultural remains belong to the population of sargatsky culture. In this regard both the stratigraphy and a planigrafiya are rather simple and readable (fig. 3).

Kolovsky 4th settlement 4& 3 '2' 1’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Excavation stratigraphy:

1. 10-20 cm cespitose and humus layer
2. Dark gray sandy loam with power from 5 to 30 cm — lay under a cespitose layer practically on all area of an excavation, the exception makes the site over the central camera of the dwelling 3.
3. The 2-15 cm gray-brown sandy loam — lay lenses under dark gray sandy loam. This layer generally probably, after throwing the settlement is formed.
4. Henna-red sandy loam lenses with power up to 20 cm — sometimes interrupted a layer of gray-brown sandy loam or lay under it. Generally connected with large congestions of bones of pets.
5. The 8-25 cm gray ashen sandy loam — lay generally over the survived part of the dwelling 2.
6. Black sandy loam with red (ochazhny) impregnations with power from 10 to 45 cm — was located over the dwelling 3 and was filling of some holes.
7. Dark gray sandy loam with carbonaceous impregnations with power up to 20 cm — lay generally on interhousing space.
8. Black sandy loam with power up to 40 cm — lay on interhousing space, being located generally between a northern wall of the dwelling 1 and a southeast part of the dwelling 3.
9. Light gray sandy loam with power from 15 to 25 cm — lies under a layer of gray ashen sandy loam. Was generally filling of the dwelling 2.
10. Puncture with power up to 15 cm. It is presented by lenses of the caked calcinated loam of bright orange color.
11. Light brown sandy loam with power from 5 to 20 cm — was located on interhousing space to Z from the dwelling 3, on the place of the cespitose layer which is cut off in the ancient time.
12. Dark brown sandy loam with power from 5 to 25 cm — was filling of some holes, flutes and parts of housing ditches.
13. Black carbonaceous sandy loam with power from 10 to 20 cm — filled flutes from wall designs and priochazhny flutes and poles of the dwelling 3.
14. Gray-brown ashen sandy loam with power from 10 to 25 cm — was a component of filling of the dwelling 2.
15. Brown sandy loam with power up to 15 cm — filled generally holes on interhousing space.
16. The continent — dense yellow loam.

At the level of-60 cm from conditional zero contours of three dwellings were accurately traced. The destroyed dwelling 1 was allocated with the filling — a light gray sandy layer against the background of black sandy loam. The remains of the dwelling 2 also began to be shown against the background of the continent and black sandy loam in the form of subrectangular outlines of a construction with gray ashen sandy filling. To SZ from it on the continent traces of the ditches filled with black sandy loam were cleared away.

Filling of the camera of 1 dwelling 3 is presented by layers and spots of dark brown, black carbonaceous and brown sandy loam. Filling of the camera 2 dwellings 3 is presented by black sandy loam with red ochazhny impregnations. A northern part of a ditch of the dwelling 3, probably less profound, was filled with dark brown sandy loam. In the central part of the dwelling the lens of a puncture of bright orange color surrounded with a spot of a horseshoe form with black carbonaceous sandy filling is revealed.

the Interhousing space between dwellings 1 and 2 on an edge of steep is filled with black sandy loam — the ancient buried soil. The northwest site of interhousing space sharply raised, forming a step 15 cm high. Distribution of mass finds on a mark of-70 cm shows that the bulk of fragments of ceramics comes from filling of dwellings. Two more congestions on interhousing space in which together with ceramics there were bones of animals are fixed.

Dwelling 1. Was in east part of an excavation. Its most part was destroyed by the log therefore to establish even the approximate sizes and a configuration it is not possible. The remained part represents trapezoid deepening. Depth of a ditch is 20-25 cm. On a section of the southern wall the layer of black sandy loam is well noticeable by line D in quarter 10-12. According to the soil scientist of Doctor of Biological Science G.I. Makhonina, it is a buried cespitose layer of an era of early iron. The light layer over it can be interpreted as the layer formed as a result of activity of the ancient population [Valdai, etc., 2005].

On internal perimeter of a ditch of the dwelling at northern and southwest walls flutes 15-20 cm wide as which filling served black sandy loam are cleared away. They are deepened in a floor on 10-15 cm. Three poles filled with black sandy loam are found in a northwest wall. In flutes there were two stolbovy poles from rod posts of wall designs. Walls of the dwelling, judging by poles and flutes, were built, most likely, in the equipment a patch.

On equal day of a ditch of a construction — continental loam — any fragment of ceramics, only bones of animals was not revealed. The ceramics and stock lay in the top layers and in filling of a ditch. In total about 100 fragments of ceramics are found in filling. All fragments, except three not ornamented walls of gorokhovsky vessels, belong to sargatsky ware. The dating things are not revealed. Individual finds are presented by two pryaslitsa, disorder of a tiny sosudik and preparation of a bone tip of an arrow (fig. 4, 6; 5, 10).

Fig. 4. Kolovsky 4th settlement. Stock (bone):

1 — a zoomorfny figure; 2 — an arrow tip fragment; 3 — psaliya;
4, 5 — an amulet from bird's stones; 6 — preparation of a tip of an arrow; 7 — the deadlock from a jaw of a cow

Dwelling 2. Located in the southern part of an excavation. Its most part is also destroyed by the log. By the remained part it is possible to assume that its width was about 9 m. This subsquare construction with smoothly rounded off corners. In the center of a northwest wall the subrectangular ledge of 3.5*2 m in size playing, probably, an entrance role with steps was observed. On a floor at an entrance the poles and flutes demonstrating existence of the design supporting a roof over an exit are tracked. The ditch of the dwelling is profound to the continent on 35-40 cm. To SZ from a wall with an exit the continent is profound on only 10 cm in comparison with other interhousing space. This deepening has subrectangular outlines. Its northern corner is marked by Stolbova a pole from which on perimeter of deepening perpendicular flutes about 1 m long, width and 15 cm in depth depart. Possibly, deepening played a role of a court yard or the small shelter for the cattle.

In the center of the remained part of the dwelling there were two quite wide flutes, 28-32 cm wide at the bottom of which two stolbovy holes are found. They, as well as a flute at an entrance, were, most likely, the flooring remains on a floor and traces of designs of walls.

In filling and on half of the dwelling fragments of mainly sargatsky ceramics, on a floor are found in an exit — a large fragment of a kulaysky vessel (fig. 8, 1). A half of the small not ornamented sargatsky sosudik was close found, in it two pieces of mutton ribs (fig. 6, 7) remained. From stock at the bottom of a ditch of the dwelling it is revealed to a pryaslitsa. Grinding stones, two pryasliyets, a fragment of a bone product are found in filling of the dwelling. The find of a fragment of a thick-walled censer (fig. 5, 1) is interesting. Besides, it should be noted a half of a semi-oval clay plate thickness in the central part of 2.5 cm (fig. 5, 11). On the one side of its surface of an oshlakovan. Fragments of a similar plate were obnaruzhe-

ny on the sargatsky Rafaylovsky settlement [Matveeva, 1993] and in a medieval layer of the Duvansky 1 ancient settlement [Morozov, 1982]. It is interpreted as the subject used in metallurgical production. Considering primary filling presented by gray ashen sandy loam it is possible to assume that the ashes received at combustion of a large amount of fuel (a tree, bones?) for metal melting, was thrown out on a dwelling roof.

Fig. 5. Kolovsky 4th settlement. Stock (clay):

1 — a censer; 2, 6, 8 — fragments of pryaslitsa; 3, 4, 9, 10 — tiny sosudik; 5, 13 — a pryaslitsa;
7 — preparation for pryasliyets; 11 — a fragment of a ceramic oshlakovanny plate;
12 — a pryaslitsa with a print of a wattled product; 14 — hexagonal polished a fragment

The dwelling 3 was located in 3 m to With from the dwelling 2 and at the same distance to SZ from the dwelling 1. It occupied practically all northern part of an excavation and it is investigated almost completely. The dwelling 3 had the total area about 56 sq.m, accurate outlines with right angles. Depth from the level of the continent is small: from 10 to 25 cm. The southern outlines of the dwelling 3 were for the first time shown at the level of-55 cm in the form of a layer of black sandy loam with red ochazhny impregnations. At the levels of fixing-70 and-85 of cm the contours of the dwelling became more accurate, with rather difficult configuration. The dwelling was focused by an exit in the area of SZ-YuV. The direct corridor limited to holes from columns 1.5 m long, had the niches separated from the main part of the central camera by partitions on each side. Possibly, they were used for storage of house utensils. In the center of the camera there was a round center in the form of a lens of the calcinated sandy loam of bright orange color with power up to 15 cm. From the northwest party of the center on the edge of a flute two stolbovy poles and a flute between them were fixed. About the center, on its central axis, the poles from columns which were probably the remains of a nadochazhny design are cleared away. The center was surrounded with the P-shaped ditch filled with black carbonaceous sandy loam. In its filling small fragments of ceramics, the calcinated stones, the tiny calcinated clay pieces met. At the bottom of this ditch which had width of 0.5 m and deepened to the continent on 20-25 cm four more poles, probably, from some auxiliary design are found.

In close proximity to the center, at distance it is less than 1 m, along a priochazhny ditch, from the northwest party from it, there was a continental eminence of 2.3*1.25 m in size. Most likely, it was a berth.

Fig. 6. Kolovsky 4th settlement. Ceramics

Cleaning on the continent showed that from the main, central camera, 5.3*5.0 m in size, recorded on flutes and poles from columns, rectangular ledges — compartments departed. The northeast ledge deepened to the continent on only 5-7 cm had, most likely, land character, in it on a floor no traces of wooden designs were traced. The following compartment of the central camera located at a northeast wall had the sizes of 5.0*1.5 m. From the center of the camera it was separated by a partition which role was played probably by rod posts of a roof. This room performed, most likely, economic function as in its center there was an oval hole of 1.1*0.6 m in size filled with brown sandy loam. To YuV from a berth one more compartment, 1.0*1.5 m in size is noted. Its floor was 10-15 cm higher than the level of a floor of the central part of the camera. To the continent it was profound on only 5 cm. On a floor it traces of designs were not fixed. To SZ from a stove bench there was one more compartment, 1.5*1.5 m on which internal perimeter there were flutes from wall designs.

The southwest wall was adjoined by camera 2, 2.5*4.5 m in size. It is connected to the central camera a corridor 1.5 m wide. At the level of-70 cm from conditional zero served as its filling black sandy loam with red impregnations and dark brown sandy loam. Closer to the continent there was only a layer of black sandy loam with red ochazhny impregnations. It is interesting that on a floor of this camera traces of designs were not fixed. It is necessary to assume that this camera was built shortly before the dwelling was left. At the bottom of camera 2 the crushed skull of the person without the lower jaw, two large fragments of sargatsky vessels which are broken off and the burned bone tip of an arrow (fig. 4, 2) are found. About a skull the small congestion of bones including bones of pets and a phalanx of a finger of a brush of the person was cleared away.

The dwelling 3 had frame stolbovuyu a design, walls and partitions are built in the equipment a patch. The roof was probably covered with the turf removed from the territory around the dwelling as a layer of the black buried soil observed between dwellings 1 and 2 around the dwelling 3 it was not fixed.

Material from the dwelling 3 is presented by fragments of generally sargatsky vessels (fig. 6-9). Finds at the bottom of a ditch of the dwelling of two tiny vessels are interesting. One more small sosudik is found in a hole of the sector located to Z from an entrance (fig. 5, 3, 4, 9). Also at the bottom of a ditch three pryasliyets are found, polished from a vessel wall, grinding stones, the processed stone. The find of one of four fragments of a thick-walled censer which three other fragments were found in filling of the dwelling 2 and on interhousing space deserves attention. All stock was found in east corner of the dwelling higher than the level of a floor - it is three pryasliyets and ceramic polished two. In the camera 2 dwellings 3 in the top layers of filling (on a roof?) were found the deadlock from a jaw of a cow (fig. 4, 7) and a pryaslitsa.

The interhousing space, owing to, probably, rather short-term dwelling of the population on the area of a monument, is practically not broken by holes. The exception is made by three round economic holes located to V and Z from the dwelling 3, filled with brown sandy loam. Between dwellings 2 and 3 the system of the holes and flutes filled with black sandy loam is cleared away. Width of flutes was from 20 to 30 cm, depth of 8-15 cm. Some system in arrangement of flutes allows to assume that it is the remains of the land construction existing and destroyed to the termination of use of the dwelling 2. Such conclusion is drawn on the basis of consideration of a planigrafiya and cuts: the layer of gray ashen sandy loam from the area of the dwelling 2 blocks these flutes.

On interhousing space very many pieces of stock are found. It should be noted that practically all of them, except one pryasliyets, lay down higher than the level of the continent. In other words, all of them were thrown out or lost during existing of the settlement. These are ceramic polished, modelled and fine-molded pryasliyets from which one modelled kept a print of a wattled product (mats?) (fig. 5, 12), censer fragments, fragment bone psaliya (fig. 4, 3). In congestions of the bones recorded on interhousing space except food remains, copies which on the basis of traces of processing can be interpreted as preparation of any products are met. Here fragments of bird's bones with sverleny holes are found (an amulet?) (fig. 4, 4, 5).

The ceramics on interhousing space was in the basic in the top layers of filling. At the level of-85 cm on which contours of dwellings were revealed two congestions of ceramics are revealed. As they contained also numerous bones of animals, the conclusion is drawn on the local nature of garbage heaps. Mostly the ceramics fragments found on interhousing space were fragments of sargatsky vessels, only about 70 not ornamented fragments of walls belonged to vessels of gorokhovsky culture.

Ceramic complex. The ceramics collection made 2376 fragments of an excavation. Its most part — not ornamented walls of vessels (1966 units), further on mass character go nimbuses (246 units, 191 ornamented and 55 not ornamented). The ornamented walls there are 144 units, fragments of the bottoms of vessels — 16 units

Large fragments of nimbuses and disorders allowed to reconstruct some vessels (fig. 6-9) graphically.

The unconditional majority of fragments is made by sargatsky ceramics, 87 fragments, including 9 nimbuses, belong to gorokhovsky vessels. Besides, in a collection are available

single fragments of easel Central Asian ware (2 not ornamented walls and 1 nimbus) and 1 large crock from a kulaysky vessel from filling of the dwelling 2.

Fig. 7. Kolovsky 4th settlement. Ceramics

by

For the statistical analysis selected 183 large fragments of nimbuses (tab). The ceramics is rather rough, color, mainly gray with various shades, with impurity of chamotte, sand and organic chemistry. Crocks with addition of talc or mica come across that is probably sign of influence of gorokhovsky culture on the production technology of ceramics at sargatsky tribes. The surface of vessels as from within, and is outside processed mainly by spill or the edge stamp which left furrows. Occasionally vessels which surface is smoothed accurately down meet.

Category of signs Sign Quantity %

Nimbus Roundish 50 27.3

It is slanted inside 21 11.5

Direct 49 26.5

Priostrenny 63 34.4

Neck Direct 124 68

Unbent 19 10

Concave 40 22

Element ornamen-tation Vdavleniya 51 39

Poles 2 1.5

Horizontal zigzag 15 11.5

Vertical zigzag 8 6.1

Horizontal lines 4 3

Columns 36 27.7

Horizontal fir-tree 5 3.8

Vertical fir-tree 4 3.0

Inclined lines 44 33.8

Scallops 1 0.7

Lattice 6 4.6

Equipment ornamen-tation Edge stamp 19 14.6

Smooth stamp 52 40.0

Figured stamp 4 3

Carved 52 40

Drawn 11 8.5

A zone ornamen-tation Not ornamented 53 29

Nimbus 86 66.1

Neck 74 57.0

Transitional zone 2 1.5

Plechiko 29 22.3

Trunk 4 3.0

Impurity Chamotte 158 85.0

Sand 60 33.0

Deposit 51 28

Processing of a surface Edge stamp 31 17.0

Spill 57 31.0

Smoothed down 73 40.0

Other ways 22 12.0

Only 183

On features of profiling of a neck it is possible to allocate three types of vessels. Vessels with a vertical neck and sharp transition to a plechik concern the first. Vessels of such form prevail (68%). It is much less than vessels from bent (22%) and unbent (10%) a neck. Vessels with a priostrenny nimbus made 34%, with roundish — 27%, with direct — 26.5%, with mown inside — 11.5%.

The ornament on vessels is executed by generally smooth stamp (40%), in the carved equipment (40%), sometimes an edge stamp (14.6%). Seldom the figured stamp (3%) meets. The decor is applied traditionally on the top part of a vessel — a nimbus (66%), a neck (57%), a transitional zone less often on plechiko (22.3%). Figuration of a trunk meets very seldom (3%). In figuration of ceramics the vdavleniye (39%), inclined lines (33%), columns (27.7%), a horizontal zigzag (11.5%) prevail. On 15 vessels the pattern on a neck consists of a multirow horizontal zigzag. Also the vertical zigzag (6.1%), a lattice (3.4%), generally from within on a nimbus horizontal lines (3%), a vertical fir-tree (3%) are noted. Seldom poles (1.1%) and scallops (1.7%) meet.

Thus, the ceramic complex for 98% is presented by the sargatsky ware having the forms and figuration, traditional for this culture. Insignificant impurity sostavlya-

yut fragments of ware of gorokhovsky culture, and on one crock it is met from a vessel of kulaysky culture and sargatsky, similar in an ornament to the ware made by sargatets on Central Irtysh that can demonstrate any communications of inhabitants of the considered settlement with east tribes of sargatsky culture (fig. 8, 3).

Fig. 8. Kolovsky 4th settlement. Ceramics

Stock. A set of individual objects of Kolovsky's excavation 4 settlements is quite various. In total there are 54 finds, and the most part from them comes from interhousing space and from secondary filling of dwellings.

Pryaslitsa (18 copies). Are subdivided into modelled (5 copies) and fine-molded (13 copies). Among modelled pryaslitsa in a form differ 2 flattened, 1 spherical, 1 cylindrical and 1 oval in section. On one of modelled pryaslitsa the print of a wattled product remained. Fine-molded a pryaslitsa are made of walls and necks of vessels.

Preparations of pryaslitsa (2 copies). Are made of walls of sargatsky vessels.

Polished (7 copies). All are made of walls and necks of sargatsky vessels. Were applied to a sgonka of wool and processing shkur2. Practically all perimeter of fragments was used.

Censer (1 copy, 4 fragments). Its diameter is 9 cm, height is 6 cm, wall thickness is 2 cm. In walls traces of round through openings, probably, for suspension remained. It is made of the rough test with addition of dry clay, has gray color. The outer surface is decorated with a carved ornament in the form of a horizontal zigzag on the upper edge and the scallops separated from a zigzag by a horizontal line. The cut of a nimbus is also decorated with a horizontal zigzag.

Deadlock (1 copy). Made of a jaw of a cow. Length is 18 cm. From a jaw teeth were extracted. The inner edge zaloshchen, at it working traces in the form of thin scratches and fillets are traced.

Bone psaliya (1 copy, fragment). In length was probably about 10 cm. Ends round with a diameter of 0.6 cm. Cross section subrectangular 1.0*0.7 cm. There are traces of two openings — round and rectangular.

Tip bone (1 copy, fragment). Length is 3.5 cm, width in the bottom of 1.0 cm. Subtriangular in a section. Burned, color gray-blue.

Preparation of a tip (1 copy). Rhombic form, 3.6*1.5 cm

Amulet (2 copies). Made of bones of the lower extremities of a bird, with sverleny openings.

Clay plate (1 copy). The fragment of a semi-oval form, a cut is flattened. Product oshlakovano on the one hand. Appointment is not defined. Perhaps, it was used in metallurgical production.

Tiny sosudik (4 copies). Differ on quality of production, color, a form. Diameter and height do not exceed 6 cm

Among other individual finds there are 2 copies of clay products of not clear appointment, bone pro-splitting, the bone figure (fig. 4, 1) representing probably some animal; three more fragments of a bone bear on themselves traces of the cutting tool, perhaps, these are preparations; 2 fragments of stones with processing traces.

Paleozoologichesky material. In total on a monument the collection from 2593 bone fragments (definitions are executed by A.S. Poklontsev), which on the area of an excavation at the different levels lay unevenly was collected. At the different levels separate congestions are allocated to Planigraficheski. At the level of 0-40 cm the tafonokomplex was localized almost in the center between all housing zapadina and contained bone residues generally of pets (fig. 3). Together with bones, fragments of sargatsky ware are met and ceramic polished.

Cleaning at the level of the continent on interhousing space and on a bottom of ditches of dwellings showed dispersion in distribution of bone residues. The exception makes a congestion of bones in the western corner of the camera 2 dwellings 3. Practically there are no bones in filling and at the bottom of a ditch of the dwelling 2.

Characterizing material, it is possible to note that practically all bone residues are strongly shattered and many fragments are burned.

the Most mass bone fragments belong to a horse — 222 fragments (40.22%), then the remains of bones of small cattle — 151 fragments (27.36%), on the third place a cow — 147 fragments (26.63%) are most numerous. From wild animals the elk — 16 fragments (2.9%), then a beaver — 8 fragments (0.31%), by one fragment of a hare, a roe and a predator (dog or a wolf) dominates. Besides, there are finds of bone residues of a bird — 2 fragments and fishes — 3 fragments. On the minimum quantity of individuals dominate a horse and small cattle — on 23.33%, then cattle — 16.66%, wild animals follows: an elk — 10% and a hare, a beaver and a roe — on 3.34%. The share of fishes and birds made 3.34 and 6.66% respectively.

Considering distribution of bone fragments on skeleton elements, we will note that the maximum quantity of fragments of bone residues comes from distal parts of extremities, then bones of an axial skeleton and belts of extremities, bones of a skull and jaws (with teeth) and on the last place proximal parts of extremities prevail.

A large number of the bone residues found in tafonokomplex on the Kolovsky 4th settlement can speak the following. Bones were stored for the purpose of their further use

S.N. Skochina's definition.

in food — many pastoral people storing and using bones till spring when there came hunger acted this way. Besides, bones of animals from congestions could serve as fuel when melting metal. One more explanation — congestions of bones could be formed as a result of use in food of carcasses of the fallen animals during the cataclysms of various character [Galkin, 1996. Page 60].

One of the main results of work on the Kolovsky 4th settlement is a conclusion about various technology of housing construction. In the course of excavation it is noticed that, most likely, the cespitose layer was removed from the platform chosen for construction for the purpose of its subsequent use in advance. It can be told concerning the dwelling 3 around which the cespitose layer was removed. However around a ditch of the dwelling 1, judging by a stratigraphy, the layer of the buried soil remained.

Probably, the dwelling 2 on the Kolovsky 4th settlement stayed longer than the neighboring dwellings as the layer of gray-brown sandy loam on interhousing space is blocked by an ashen gray layer of its secondary filling. The lens of gray-brown ashen sandy loam localized at a northwest wall of the dwelling can also demonstrate conducting some works with fire owing to what in the dwelling there was a large amount of ashes. There are no bases to say that the dwelling burned down as there are neither traces of the burned wooden designs, nor pieces of coal, nor the calcinated soil. Ash-content of secondary filling can speak ejection of ashes on a dwelling roof.

In general it is possible to conclude that the Kolovsky 4th settlement belonged to the sargatsky population. According to planigrafichesky and stratigraphic data it is possible to draw a conclusion that the explored dwellings existed not for long as there are no traces of reorganizations. The settlement was, most likely, seasonal. It was left probably purposely, in connection with some circumstances.

The analysis of paleozoologichesky material allows to speak with a big share of confidence about the making nature of economy of the sargatsky population living on the Kolovsky 4th settlement.

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Valdai V.V., N.P. Matveev, G.I. Makhonin, etc. A research of anthropogenically broken soils of the Kolovsky ancient settlement and Kolovsky 4 settlements//VAAE. Tyumen: IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 2005. No. 6. Page 286-291.

L.L. Galkin. About a role of ecological factors in the history of the population of the Volga-Ural Entre Rios during a bronze era//Questions of archeology of the Western Kazakhstan. Samara: Dialogue, 1996. Page 56-82.

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Matveeva N.P. Sargatskaya culture on Central Tobol. Novosibirsk: Science, 1993. 175 pages

N.P. Matveeva. The report on field archaeological researches in Isetsky and Nizhnyaya Tavda districts of the Tyumen region in 2001 Tyumen, 2002//LA IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science Archive. No. 3/22.

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I.Yu. Chikunova. Report on field researches of 2003. Security excavation of Kolovsky 4 settlements and prospecting works in Isetsky district of the Tyumen region. Tyumen, 2004//LA IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science Archive. No. 7/5.

Tyumen, IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

The article presents excavation results with Kolovo 4 settlement which specimens testify to a seasonal use thereof by the Sargatka population. The author gives a statistical analysis of a pottery collection, as well as a description of an inventory and dwelling constructions.

Esposito Giuliana Corinna
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