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Scientific cooperation of Poland and Russia: Istoriya, present, plans for the future



m. HAIR

SCIENTIFIC COOPERATION of POLAND AND RUSSIA:

HISTORY, PRESENT,

PLANS FOR the FUTURE

In the mid-nineties when communications between scientists of the former Soviet Union, on the one hand, and the former countries of the Warsaw pact - with another, were sharply reduced or at all were lost, the Polish academy of Sciences took the important initiative of preservation of scientific and cultural ties of two countries. On July 12, 1995 in Moscow and on July 30 the same year in Warsaw the protocol on establishment of similar positions of Permanent representatives of PAN in Moscow and RAS in Warsaw was signed (Oigayegutkg of 2002: 304; Ya1ogsU 2003).

1. History

Permanent mission of PAN at RAS in Moscow - one of 6 foreign representative offices of the Polish academy of Sciences which scientific centers in Paris, Rome and Vienna, the Center of historical researches in Berlin and also Bureau of assistance to science Ro18SL in Brussels treat. Tasks of the Moscow representative office of PAN include representation of the Polish science in the Russian Federation, promoting of achievements of the Polish scientists, mediation in establishment and development of the Polish-Russian scientific cooperation, at last, initiation of scientific actions, in particular conferences, seminars, meetings and lectures. The permanent representative and his employees try to help also the Russian and Polish scientists with obtaining scientific publications and information, with the organization of trips for scientific work, at last, with obtaining visas. Except the organization of scientific contacts with the Russian Academy of Sciences, the duty to support and develop scientific communications also is assigned to the Permanent representative of PAN

History and present, No. 2, September 2008 154-167

with the Russian Academy of Medical Science and the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

The vice president of that time SIR professor Adam Urbanek, the outstanding paleontologist, the evolutionary biologist and paleozoolog, the full member of the Polish academy of Sciences and the foreign member of the Russian Academy of Sciences became the first permanent representative of the Polish academy of Sciences in Moscow (Informator... 2003: 1059). He held this position in 1997 and worked two years.

In September, 1999 PAN was appointed to the position of the permanent representative the outstanding scientist who is engaged in history of the 20th century and especially by the history of World War II, professor Eugeniush Durachinsky from Institute of history SIR in Warsaw, the doctor of honoris causa of the Russian Academy of Sciences (2003) (Polska. 2000: 220-221). He would hold this position years - till 2005. His merits in development of the Moscow representative office and consequently, and development of the Polish-Russian scientific contacts, is especially big. As a result of efforts of professor Durachinsky in 2003-2004, organizational bases of activity of representation were expanded. First of all the authorities PAN agreed to creation in Moscow of the PAN Scientific center thanks to what the structure of representation began to conform to standards of academy (decision of May 12, 2004) (Polska. 2005: 162). Despite all efforts, undertaken for several years by professor Durachinsky, and later and his successors, it was not succeeded to achieve accreditation of the PAN Scientific center in Moscow. In 2003 with the consent of the ambassador of IS in Russia (at that time professor Stefan Meller) the Center received from the Polish Embassy in Moscow the new room, having expanded with that the material resources that very fruitfully affected opportunities of its work.

The organization of Days of the Polish science in Russia (on October 13-18, 2001) which were awarded with the participation by presidents of both states Alexander Kvasnevsky and Vladimir Putin became large achievement of the Permanent representative and also a big personal merit of professor Durachinsky; this action was included into number 12 of the major international congresses and conferences which were taking place in the Russian Federation in 1997-2001. (Days. 2001-2002: 203, 208). Three years later at active learning -

stiya of the Permanent representative of PAN were organized under honourable patronage of Presidents of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Poland Days of the Russian science in Poland (on October 9-14, 2004) (Days. 2004: 170).

In 1999-2005 that is when the position of the Permanent representative of PAN was held by professor Durachinsky, a large number of scientific events was held, and first of all - in the field of the humanities, and special attention was paid to history of the Polish-Russian and Polish and Soviet relations for the 20th century. In 1999 in cooperation with Institute of the Russian history of RAS in Moscow the scientific conference on "New in Researches of the Soviet-Polish Relations in Political Conditions of Europe of the Thirtieth Years" 1 was organized. In turn in 2003. The permanent representative of PAN organized together with Embassy of IS in the Russian Federation, Institute of the Russian history of RAS and Institute of Slavic studies of RAS a scientific conference on a subject "Poland - the USSR 1945-1989. The chosen political problems, heritage of the past" on which acted 26 dokladchikov2. In 2000. The permanent mission gave financial support of the publication of the collection of the documents "Katyn Crime" prepared by N.S. Lebedeva. The organization of the Polish-Russian round table on the subject "The Warsaw Revolt from Prospect of Last 60 Years" with participation of 150 scientists from both countries which took place in 2004 became an important action. With lectures and reports to Moscow there came scientists of such rank as Ezhi Voychekh Boreysha, Ezhi Klochovsky, Andrzej B. Legotsky, Emil Nalborchik, Yadviga Sta-nishkis, Henrik Samsonovich, Henrik Shimchak (Polska. 2001: 232; 2004: 217). Also preparation and the edition in Russian of printing works, booklets and reference books about activity of the Polish academy of Sciences promoted public awareness of achievements of the Polish science in Russia. Due to the Days of the Polish science in Russia in 2001. The permanent representative prepared for the "Spravochnik Polskoy Akademii Nauk" edition (Duraczynski 2002: 305).

1 Following the results of this conference the collection was published: Soviet-Polish relations...
2001.
2 In this case also materials of a conference were published in the collection: Poland - the USSR. 2005.

From September, 2005 to November 10, 2006 the position of the Permanent representative of the Polish academy of Sciences to the Russian Academy of Sciences and at the same time the director of the PAN Scientific center in Moscow was occupied by professor Stanislav Rakusa-Sushchevsky, the outstanding biologist, the oceanologist and the founder of the Polish polar station of Henrik Arktovsky on the island of the king George in the Western Antarctic, the corresponding member PAN, the doctor of honoris causa of RAS (Informator. 2003: 836; Rakusa-Sushchevski 2006). From November, 2006 till end of July, 2007 PAN fulfilled duties of the Permanent representative doctor Zygmunt Nikodem, the employee of the PAN Scientific center in Moscow, physics thermodynamics by training.

During this period when the position of the permanent representative of PAN was held by professor Rakusa-Sushchevsky, cooperation with Lomonosov Moscow State University in biological sciences and promoting of polar researches developed. Together with the Russian partners the summer school for sea biologists working at stations of the Russian Academy of Sciences on the White Sea and in Murmansk was organized (Polska. 2007: 133). In particular, the edition of two collections in translation from Polish into Russian became a result of cooperation (Menzhutkin, Klekovski 2006: 160; Rakusa-Sushchevski 2006: 302).

Since August 1, 2007 the position of the Permanent representative of the Polish academy of Sciences to the Russian Academy of Sciences and according to the director of the PAN Scientific center in Moscow is occupied by the author of the present text, the historian by training, the expert in the field of the history of diplomacy in the XX century (the Prof. Hair. 2007; Native of Toruni. 2007; Torun scientist. 2007).

Since fall of 2007. The permanent representative of PAN began to be engaged in the organization in 2008 the next Days of the Polish science in Russia which will solemnly celebrate anniversary - 50 years from the date of signing of the Cooperation agreement between both academies of Sciences. Also representatives of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Russian Academy of Medical Science will participate in celebrations. The planned celebrations which already strongly fitted into the scientific relations between Poland and Russia will take place in Moscow, St. Petersburg

and Yekaterinburg on October 13-17, 2008. This initiative met approval from the management of the Russian Academy of Sciences and also support from the management of the Polish academy of Sciences. The exact plan of holding 16 scientific conferences, meetings and seminars for all main directions of science is made. Actions with participation of scientists will be followed by 4 exhibitions which purpose will be a promoting of achievements of the Polish science and also cooperation of the Russian and Polish scientists. The main celebrations with participation of representatives of the government and the management of both Academies of Sciences are planned for October 13-14, 2008. Signing of the protocols prolonging cooperation agreements between the Polish academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences and the Russian Academy of Medical Science and also a joint ceremonial meeting of presidiums of both academies of Sciences is planned, in particular. The first scientific meetings within Days of the Polish science took place in June, 2008. The celebration was opened by members of the commission of historians of Poland and Russia (under the chairmanship of professor Victoria Slivovskaya, and then professor Leshek Zashtovt from the Polish side and also professor Nikolay Makarov - from the Russian side) who held on June 4-5, 2008 meetings at Institute of Slavic studies of RAS within the conference "Cooperation of the Russian and Polish historians: achievements, problems, prospects (Study and publication of historical sources in Russia and Poland)". Soon after this action, June 24-25, 2008, the XVIII meeting of the Russian-Polish commission of economists who under the chairmanship of professor Ioanna Kotovich-Yavor and professor Lev Nikiforov discussed the subject "The Polish and Russian Village before Globalization Calls" took place. Other events are planned to be held in the fall of 2008 3

In November, 2007 together with Institute of Slavic studies of RAS the scientific conference on a subject "Revolutionary Russia and the Polish question was organized 1917. New sources, new views". The publication of materials of a conference is prepared. On October 16

3 The description of both mentioned conferences see on the website of the Permanent representative of PAN to RAS of www.panmoskwa.pl (as of July 29, 2008).
2007. The permanent representative on behalf of the PAN Scientific center in Moscow signed with Dmitry Bugrov, the rector of the Ural State University of A.M. Gorky, the "Memorandum of rules of cooperation" providing the wide field for development of contacts between both institutions (Polska. 2007: 152).
2. Present

The beginning of 2008 was marked by an important event which became a permanent scientific seminar on a subject "Poland and Russia: in search of mutual understanding". The initiative arose among the people connected with different institutions: The permanent representative of the Polish academy of Sciences to the Russian Academy of Sciences, Embassy of IS in the Russian Federation (minister Marek Golkovsky, the head of Department of culture and science Malgozhata Shnyak), Fund of the first President of Russia Boris Nikolaevich Yeltsin (professor Rudolf Germanovich Pikhoya). As envisioned by authors of this initiative the seminar has to become a forum for a free discussion of scientists and intellectuals on complex problems of the past and the present in the Polish and Soviet and Polish-Russian relations. Meetings take place in Fund of Yeltsin in Moscow. Already today it is possible to tell that implementation of this initiative became the embodiment of the hopes laid on it. The seminar brings together the Russian intellectuals especially erudite from such institutions as the Russian Academy of Sciences, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russian State Humanitarian University, the Moscow State Institute of International Relations, etc., but also journalists, cultural figures and teachers to whom are close and who are not left indifferent by the questions connected with Poland. In work of a seminar also representatives of Germany (The German historical institute in Moscow) and France take part (The French-Russian center of humanitarian and social sciences in Moscow). Until now three meetings of a permanent scientific seminar "Poland and Russia took place: in search of mutual understanding". In February, 2008 there took place the inaugural meeting during which participants considered the problems vza-

imny perception with each other of Russians and Poles, trying to find the answer to a question: whom are we for each other? From the Polish side the author of this text, and with Russian - professor Alexander Lipatov acted (Institute of Slavic studies PAH)4. The second meeting which took place in April of this year was devoted to the reasons of the beginning of World War II. From the Polish side doctor Slavomir Dembsky, the director of the Polish institute of the international affairs in Warsaw, and with Russian - famous and dear historian, the researcher of history of armed conflicts in the 20th century doctor Mikhail Meltyukhov acted. Two months later the regular meeting of a seminar during which the problem of the attitude of Poles to the Russian Empire and the attitude of Russians to the Polish question in the XX century was discussed took place. The Polish side was represented by doctor Henrik Glembotsky from Jagiellonian University in Krakow, and the Russian side - professor Leonid Gorizontov. It should be noted that the formula of meetings is accurately defined: at first two papers in Russian (Polish and Russian scientists) representing a scientific preamble of a discussion are read and then there is a free exchange of views. Temporary proportions most often are built in such a way that the discussion lasts at least twice longer, than initial reports. In the second half of 2008 Poland and Russia is planned to hold another meetings within the permanent scientific seminar ": in search of mutual understanding".

The permanent representative of PAN was one of organizers of the VII international academic and research conference on a subject "The Siberian village: history, the current state, the prospects of development", devoted to the 90 anniversary of the Omsk state agricultural university and the 180 anniversary of agronomical science in Western Siberia which took place on March 27-28, 2008 in Omsk. Many researchers representing various scientific centers of Poland participated in a conference. The permanent mission of PAN gave financial support for the publication of the materials of a conference which came out in the form of three enough extensive collections (The Siberian village. 2008). The trip to Omsk helped

It is possible to get acquainted with materials of the broadcast devoted to results of this meeting on the website www.ruvr.ru (as of July 29, 2008).

to come into contacts with the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the management of the local state universities at the initiative of which there took place the meetings of three round tables devoted Polish Siberian to scientific cooperation, modern problems of training at the higher school and the prospect of development of the scientific research connected with the Polish perspective in Western Siberia.

Important achievement of the Permanent representative of PAN: Katyn" (on April 14, 2008) which subject concerned especially painful problem in the Polish-Russian relations. The scientific conference took place within Days of remembrance of the victims of the Katyn crime and took place under patronage of Administration of the Smolensk region and Embassy of IS in the Russian Federation. Also Smolensk humanities university and the Memorial Katyn complex became organizers of a scientific conference. It was the first international conference devoted to a perspective of Katyn which took place in Smolensk, that is in an immediate vicinity with the place of execution of the victims of Stalinism. Not only historians, but also archeologists, the prosecutor and even the literary critic acted as speakers. It was important to organizers to present the Katyn crime on wider background of Stalin terror in Smolensk region and even to show it as a fragment of the local history interesting the local public. In the Katyn forest in mass graves twice more Soviet victims of Stalin terror, than the Polish officers shot there are based at least. Both the Polish, and Russian initiators of a conference were guided by the principle that the general pain and the general memory of the tragic past have to unite, but not divide the people. This objective managed to be achieved, and among the listeners participating in a conference prevailed university molodezh5.

By the invitation of the Permanent representative of PAN also there come with lectures scientists from Poland. Throughout the last

5 The conference attracted interest of the Russian media that found the reflection as in the local press leaving in Smolensk and in the central editions in Moscow (Krasnovsky of 2008; Nikolaev 2008; Lipsky 2008).

months Moscow visited: the sociologist professor Tomasz Shlendak whose lecture was devoted to the culture of consumption (took place at Institute of economy of RAS), the historian doctor Ivona Urbanscaja with a lecture about activity of the last ambassador of the Second Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the USSR Václav Gzhibovsky (the lecture took place in the Polish cultural center in Moscow) and also the doctor holding final authority in medical science, professor Kazimir Ostrovsky who told about a role and value of banks of fabrics (the lecture took place at faculty of fundamental medicine of Lomonosov Moscow State University).

3. Plans for the future

The major task which faces the Permanent representative in the near future is completion of work on the organization and carrying out Days of the Polish science in Russia and also the anniversary actions devoted to the 50 anniversary from the date of signing of the Cooperation agreement between the Polish academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences what it is already told above about. The permanent representative acted as the initiator and will be one of organizers of two scientific conferences within Days of science. The first of them under the name "The Munich agreement of 1938. History and the present" is beyond the Polish-Russian relations, and not only from the point of view of affected scope of scientific research, but also from the point of view of the list of future speakers, and them 25 are supposed. Except historians from Poland and Russia researchers from Germany, France, Italy, Great Britain, the Czech Republic and Slovakia will participate in a conference. The organizer from the Russian side is the Institute of general history of RAS headed by the academician Alexander Oganovich Chu-baryanom. The second of the planned conferences "Role and Value of Regional History in a Modern Russian and Polish Historiography" will pass in Yekaterinburg with participation of the Polish and Russian historians. It is represented that it is better to speak about regional history nevertheless not in the capital centers. The Russian partner and at the same time the organizer of a conference is the Institute of history and archeology of the Ural office of RAS headed by the academician Veniamin Vasilyevich Alekseev.

Even during stay in Omsk at the end of March, 2008. The permanent representative took the initiative about creation of official Polish-Russian structure in the form of the commission or committee which task will be a coordination, development and advance of scientific cooperation between Poland and Siberia. This structure could unite in itself outstanding scientists from both countries which are the leading authorities on the field of science and could make some kind of lobby initiating and supporting scientific research. The Polish-Siberian scientific contacts quite intensively develop already now what confirm as the held scientific conferences, and trips of the Polish scientists to Siberia and, in turn, scientists from scientific centers of Siberia to Poland. Search of funds for the further researches concerning not only the humanities, but also applied, exact and fundamental would become one of the main tasks of this commission or committee. It is necessary to add that the presented concept was supported and approved by the management of the Polish academy of Sciences in Var-shave6. The permanent representative who undertook a role of the intermediary in contacts between Poland and Siberia developed preparatory work on creation of above-mentioned structure. The scientific conference in Irkutsk which will be devoted to a contribution of Poles to a research of Siberia will become the next step in this direction. The conference will be connected with anniversary - the 90 anniversary of restoration of independence of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1918 and will be held with active support of Consulate general of IS in Irkutsk.

And it not the only activity of the Permanent representative aiming at creation of the strong base of scientific cooperation between the Polish and Russian scientists. One more initiative undertaken recently which, we will hope will be carried out in the future, is a preparation and signing of the agreement between the Polish academy of Sciences and the Russian fund of the humanities. A main goal of the future with -

6 The minutes of the Commission on issues of cooperation with the abroad of the Polish academy of Sciences of May 28, 2008 (the copy is available for the Permanent representative of PAN in Moscow).

the glasheniya is in achieving institutional and financial support both for Polish, and for the Russian researchers in the sphere of the humanities in broad understanding of a word, and especially for those scientists who will carry out joint research projects or to prepare for printing joint scientific works. I would like to highlight that the initiative of this question was taken by the Russian side. The permanent representative already held preliminary negotiations on signing of the agreement between the Polish academy of Sciences and the Russian fund of the humanities which director is doctor Andrey Yurasov.

Extremely necessary initiative which preparation and implementation, however, demand the long period of time is creation in Moscow of the Polish scientific library. The fact that in the capital of Russia there is no establishment of this sort can be surprising. Scientific contacts between the Polish and Russian scientists are very developed, and the number of Russians, passively and actively knowing Polish, is quite big. The fact that annually 300 scientists leave the Russian Academy of Sciences to Poland on a training, for research work or for participation in conferences best of all can demonstrate to intensity of contacts. However opening of the Polish scientific library in Moscow - business hard and difficult. It demands both material supplies (room), and financial (acquisition of books and constant replenishment of library stocks). Nevertheless it is worth undertaking this work.

4. Representative office of PAN at RAS and the magazine "History

and present"

Concrete daily activity of Representation can be illustrated on the example of emergence of the Istoriya I Sovremennost magazine. In 1997 professor Adam Urbanek who not only promoted strengthening of traditional ties but also got acquainted with the new scientific directions which arose in Russia after fall of the Soviet Union conferences "The person and the nature took part in VI international (within the CIS). Problems of sotsioyestestvenny history" in the Crimea. Then invited the organizer of a conference and the initiator scientific naprav-

Eduard Kulpin-Gubaydullin's line to Warsaw and Poznan for establishment of contacts with the Polish school of sciences of the academician Ezhi Topolsky - followers of the French historical school of "Annals" and reading a course of lectures.

After Adam Urbanek care of development of contacts was accepted by the second Representative of PAN to RAS - Eugeniush Durachinsky, then - Stanislav Rakusa-Sushchevsky. With financial support of Representation on the basis of a part of the given course of lectures at the university of A. Mickiewicz well illustrated monograph by E.S. Kulpin "Russia between the West and the East" in two languages - Russian and Polish is published. Thanks to the fine translation of professor Yaqub Voytkovyak the book becomes the manual on learning Polish on department of history of MSU and Russian - at the university in Warsaw.

Since 2000 participation of the Polish scientists in an annual conference "The person and the nature. Problems of sotsioyestestvenny history" becomes constant, and the conference on the list of the main participants becomes Russian-Polish from now on. There are first joint articles of the Polish and Russian scientists in the field of sotsioyestestvenny history. The conference is serially held in Ukraine, in Russia and Poland from now on. So, in 2007 the conference took place in the Crimea, in 2008 will be held in Russia (Tuapse), in 2009 - is planned in Poland (Murzasikhle, Krakow).

In 2003 at the XIII conference in Murzasikhle the participants discuss a possibility of reconstruction in new conditions of the magazine with traditions of "Annals". The initiative is supported by the CEO of Uchitel publishing house Doctor of Philosophy Leonid Grinin and in 2005 creates the independent scientific magazine "Istoriya I Sovremennost". In redsovt the magazine the leading Polish historians enter: Permanent representative of PAN of that time to RAS

AA. Durachinsky (nowadays in Warsaw) and also V. Vzhosek (Poznan), K. Mikulsky (Torun), Ya. Vishnevsky (Poznan), K. Petkevich (Poznan).

Conclusions

Without exaggeration it is possible to tell that, despite rather small period of the functioning, Constant

the representative of the Polish academy of Sciences to the Russian Academy of Sciences and the PAN Scientific center headed by him in Moscow already occupy now, undoubtedly, the important place on the card of mutual Polish-Russian scientific contacts. For more than ten years of existence of this establishment to which this text is devoted more attention was paid to the humanities though also other scientific directions and disciplines were not disregarded. On a question: well it or is bad? - only the future will answer. Undoubtedly, so it turned out - and on very, by the way, to the prosaic reason, - that throughout the most part of the described period humanists, to be exact - historians that ipso facto dictated a certain rhythm of work and contacts were permanent representatives. In the future it would be necessary to try to distribute accents a little differently, namely: to give preference to applied, exact and fundamental sciences.

Despite of the available shortcomings of activity of the previous period, the most important, however, is that always Permanent representatives of the Polish academy of Sciences to the Russian Academy of Sciences and all staff of Permanent mission brought and will contribute to construction of the bridges uniting two next people and from now on - that behind it it is necessary - to contribute to the development of contacts between Poland and Russia.

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