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Cultural anthropology of Siberia and Tobolsk of the end of the XVI beginning of the 18th centuries



l. V. Dmitriyeva

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY of SIBERIA AND TOBOLSK of the END of XVI — the BEGINNINGS of the 18th CENTURIES

Article considers kolonizatsionny processes in Siberia of the end the beginnings of the 18th centuries as special option of historical development are XVI and reveals regularities of formation of the Siberian society and the city culture of Tobolsk through the analysis of the ethnoconfessional environment of the city.

There is a point of view according to which at the heart of expansion of a coverage of processes of a civilization and an urbanization the phenomenon of an invasion, arrival to any given areas of the new population introducing with itself new traditions of the organization zhiznedeyatelnosti1 lies. One of the bases of this process is colonization. The accompanying colonizations and to development of new territories about -

tsessa of migration generate special sociocultural sredu2. The specifics of formation of colonial society can be also revealed through the maintenance of one of the basic concepts of culture genesis — the acculturation understood as process of interaction of cultures during which there is their change, assimilation of new elements by them, education as a result of mixture various

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cultural traditions of essentially new cultural synthesis. Considering the Russian civilization in Siberia as special option of historical and cultural development, the present article represents attempt of reconstruction of sociocultural shape of the Siberian settler standing at the origins of city culture of Tobolsk — the new temporary capital of the region, historically significant, in many respects the center, "sign" for the Russian culture.

Each typological stage of development of the country has the prevailing form of class and class structure. Sluzhily people were one of the most peculiar categories of the population of the Russian centralized state. "Monarchic sluzhily people" were the main city-forming mass of the population of Tobolsk, as well as the other first Russian cities beyond the Urals. The end of the XVI and first half of the 17th century, according to the first historian-local historian P. Slovtsov, carries out Tobolsk "on guards and in a fighting order". Military function was primary and key at the initial stage of existence of the city. During the same period beyond the Urals there was "army" as a special sociocultural organism and the initial stage of formation of the Siberian Cossacks was completed.

Cossacks in the 16-17th centuries made the main part of the sluzhily population of the Siberian cities. Though Siberia is obliged by the accession to free Cossacks of Yermak, the Siberian Cossacks of the 17-19th centuries were sluzhily, completed under the royal decree and including in the list of exiled, prisoners and also "idle people" and peasants. In the 16th and 17th ages of the word "Cossack" and "sluzhily person" in language and in concepts of that time were sinonimami3. The district center in Siberia of the 17-18th centuries was inconceivable without garrison which number varied more than from several dozen to two thousand (in Tobolsk) the person. In total in it

time in Siberia was more than 10 thousand sluzhily people. Since 1590 Tobolsk is the main town of Siberia which created the largest garrison beyond the Urals, and submit to the Tobolsk voivodes all being beyond the Urals voyska4.

The Cossacks problem in the history of the Russian and Siberian culture is interesting and difficult first of all at education of this subethnic group the picture of multiethnic mixture and interaction of cultures is obvious. The official theory dominating in the Soviet historiography according to which ancestors of the Cossacks were freedom-loving Russian people mainly the peasants running from feudal and serf oppression cannot apply for completeness and completeness of expression. So, supporters of the "brodnichesky" theory consider that the word term "Cossack" in its numerous values and semantic shades appeared earlier, than Cossacks history on an east Slavic basis began actually. According to version Yu. A. Shilova, the most ancient cavalry has Aryan sources and goes back to Gandharva's (Centaur) image. Besides myths of India and Greece, the tradition of this miforitual formed the basis of the Cossacks of east Slavs. This archetype is looked through also in epic athletes of Ancient Russia, for example, in tradition of the Oryol Cossacks of a message the sort from Ilya by Muromtsa5. The word "Cossack" existed in languages of the different people and had various contents. However prevailing is a version about Turkic roots: in Mongolian by him designated the military guard on border or the free soldier living obosoblenno6.

Historically developed multiethnic basis of the Cossacks, as well as its social openness, a possibility of replenishment by natives of various class groups defined specifics of a "embryonic" basis of the Tobolsk city culture. Developed at the end

XVI \the beginning of the 17th century the kernel of the Siberian Cossacks represented complex multiethnic alloy: "The list of the Siberian sluzhily people, one may say, was crowded with any foreigners to "францужан" inclusive" 7. Ermakova the Cossacks who put Tyumen and Tobolsk came to Stroganovym from Yaik and Volga. Further the Siberian troops were replenished, first of all, with inhabitants of the Russian North and natives of Central Volga area. Among the first settlers of Siberia there were many representatives of the most various people including from the states, adjacent with Russia. Tobolsk as the main Siberian town had any greatest number of foreigners.

Sluzhily overseas people were divided into Cossacks of the "Lithuanian" and "Circassian" lists. All former citizens of the Polish-Lithuanian state were a part of the "Lithuanian" list: Poles, Belarusians, Lithuanians, partially Ukrainians. "The Cherkesky one hundred" was made by natives of Ukraine, Zaporizhia Sechi, the North Caucasus, Moldova and even Turkey. In the ethnic plan the only nationality from the people of Western Europe which is not found in documents are British. The number of Cossacks of the "overseas" list reached 40% of the total number of urban population. A certain share of the serving Siberian garrisons was occupied by "novokreshchena" — representatives of indigenous people of Siberia, christened and poverstanny in service. Among "novokreshchen" there could be representatives of the different people, but Tatars prevailed. Inflow of foreigners to Siberia amplified eventually. At the time of "Distemper" of the beginning of the 17th century after final defeat of the Polish-Lithuanian interventionists Mikhail Romanov's government sends prisoners to Siberia for replenishment of garrisons. The subsequent influxes of foreigners to the Siberian cities were connected with wars of Russia with Sweden and the Speech

Pospolita (Smolenskoy 1632-1634, for Ukraine 1654-1662, Russian-Swedish 1656-1658). Events of "distemper" gave many captured Poles among whom there are various social groups of Rechi Pospo-litoy (the shlyakht, "chelyadnik") and also Germans from among mercenaries.

The rare city of the central part of Russia of the 17th century was in such unique ethnic combination. The archpriest Habakkuk who was not accidentally living in Siberian exile, meaning the number of foreigners, called Siberia "the barbaric country". This trend remained also for the next centuries. A. Humboldt traveling in 1828 around Siberia was constantly surrounded everywhere by the meeting German compatriots: ministers, officials, druggists, doctors, workers. In Tobolsk one of the colleagues accompanying the scientist noted: "It is far from the homeland we almost forgot that we are in Si-

take" 8.

It is necessary to consider also the fact that "foreigners" in Tobolsk represented of the 17th century complex conglomerate of persons not only different nationality and various social status, but also that is important, different religion. Undoubtedly, in resettlement society the sociocultural role of religion is much higher, than in old societies. Transplantirovanny in the new social environment, the religion becomes the keeper of moral and ethical values and elements of the introduced culture, being an integrated part of the formed national consciousness and performing function of psychological support. Historically, being culturally and ethnically mixed, the Cossacks could not create own religion, certainly, prefer any one with its tough regulations of a ceremony. In the Cossack environment all world religions faced and interacted, it is not accidental among components of the Cossack subculture

usually call steady toleration.

In kolonizatsionny process of Siberia the Slavic-and-Russian ethnocultural kernel dominated. Speaking about a confessional basis of the Tobolsk culture, first of all we will note Orthodoxy. Almost along with foundation of the city in the mouth of the Tobol River the monks of Solovetsky Monastery put Zosima and Sav-vatiya's Siberia's first Christian monastery, having laid the foundation for the status of Tobolsk as spiritual center of Siberia and Russia. In 1621 in Tobolsk the archiepiscopal department with the Sofia house transformed subsequently to a metropolitanate is established. Since 1703 in the city the hierarchal school opened by the metropolitan Filofey Leshchinsky, and since 1748 — theological seminary functions.

Considerable specific weight among Orthodox Christians of Tobolsk and Siberia was made by Old Believers. The movement of Old Believers dissenters widely extended in counties of the Tobolsk province from the second half of the 17th century that was promoted by activity of the archpriest Habakkuk who had own arrival in Tobolske10.

The Catholic branch in Tobolsk was formed owing to injection in the Cossack teams of Poles, Ukrainians, Lithuanians. After the Poltava fight in Tobolsk there were about one thousand Swedish officers. Germans brought Protestantism in its various directions. To the middle of the 19th century the Catholic communities in Omsk, Tomsk and Tobolsk included up to 400 believers; more than one hundred parishioners contained the Lutheran communities; in Tobolsk there were 137 Jews chelovek11. In 1900-1907 at the expense of exiled of Poles the church of the Blessed Trinity in neogothic style which was located at the bottom of the Orthodox Christian of the Kremlin is constructed. The church restored in 2000 which arrival totals about 300 people, in infusion -

a neck time serves not only the Tobolsk Catholics, but also diaspora in the territory of Western Siberia.

The Christianity in three of its versions closely adjoined in Tobolsk to Islam. In the city, Russians and Tatars perfectly got on though the close neighbourhood of Orthodox Christians and Muslims very much disturbed church. "During the religious processions the Tatars stood on streets in caps and with laughter observed a show, unusual to them... Shouts muezzins from the minarets close to churches, broke a rank of a Christian church service. Only in 1757 when the Tatar settlement burned down, it was decided to move Tatars for the Monastyrka River, but it was authorized to them to build houses on the Russian sample later and to lodge in any place of the city" 12.

Considering inquiries of citizens of not orthodox religion, the administration of Western Siberia promoted construction of temples of these faiths. By 1900 in the territory of the modern Tyumen region 137 mosques and 63 madrasahs functioned. In 1910 in Tobolsk 27 orthodox churches, a church, Lutheran church, the mosque, si-worked

nagoga13.

The steady religious toleration at an unconditional prevalence of Orthodoxy was combined with the high culture of loan leaning on a forumnost, integration of various ethnocultural types at different levels of interpersonal communication. Historically the Cossacks easily acquired and perceived the best ethnocultural traditions of "enemies neighbors", remaining at the same time independent community, not losing ethnocultural identity. This line allowed to call the Cossacks the "ozone layer" of the Russian civilization perceiving cultural experience of the adjacent people and keeping at the same time Russian-Christian (is wider — slavyano-Christian) cultural

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historical type.

The accumulation of historical experience of joint activity happening in the conditions of free loan of cultural elements at direct contact and interference of the contacting cultures accelerated and facilitated cultural adaptation of "foreigners" to new sociocultural realities. In confirmation of our thesis we will give several historic facts of city culture of Tobolsk of the 17th century.

In the Russian state of the 17th century various categories of sluzhily people sought for resettlement by settlements. The slobodoobrazovaniye trend was also outlined in the Siberian cities during an initial stage of the Russian colonization, but did not gain development, a bright example for what is Tobolsk. According to the first Patrol book, in Tobolsk beginning of the 17th century there were about 350 yards which were placed on 23 streets. The persons designated as "litvina" or "foreigners" possessed about 40 Tobolsk yards which were scattered on all city most often mixed up with the yards of other categories naseleniya15.

Experience of direct interaction of various interethnic cultural configurations accumulated also in tradition of corporate unity of Siberian sluzhily "world", the "wordly" self-government which is going back to ancient all-Russian sources. The democratic orders remaining in the Cossack environment going from customs of the "free" Cossacks and ermakovy team were most stoutly shown in tradition of the Cossack circle — the supreme body of self-government where anything was granted the right of free opinion and a resolute voice. The ataman chosen by a circle and Cossack captains were only performers of radical customs and resolutions of a circle. In G.N. Potanin's memories of the Ural Cossacks the Cossack community is called "an archaic monument to antiquity": "In one Russian community you

you will not meet such solidarity of the population as here. Age, social standing, ranks — everything is integrated here. The colonel, as well as the ordinary fisher, feels that he grew together with all fibers of the body with the organization in which he was born" 16. Traditions of the Cossack self-government remained in Siberia till the 18th century when the Cossack community was subordinated to military board.

The Cossack standards of relationship with each other and the government were attractive to the Siberian service class people owing to existence of a number of the factors equalizing ethnic streams in so motley national urban environment. First of all it is necessary to distinguish personally free state and identical burdens of monarchic service before which all were equal from these factors. The abundance in Siberia of that any time of extraordinary situations, the general situation in the Tobolsk garrison of the 17th century seriously complicated consolidation of exiled on the basis of only one "inozemst-v". They first of all had to feel as a part of sluzhily "world" of all city, and in it were united by a circle of the vital interests first of all "with the brotherhood" — sluzhily the division. So "through distinctions of remarks" arose and forced the way through "spirit whole".

Irrespective of ethnic origin, Cossacks carried out the same duties, solved some problems. "Military people of horse service — and & #34; литва" and & #34; новокрещены" and & #34; horse казаки" — quite often "heads", likewise united in Tobolsk under supervision of the general as military people of pedestrian service got to maintaining one "Cossack and streletsky the heads". In such situation the division of garrison on ethnic signs could not but recede before it & #34; чиновным" (on the nature of service) division" 17. The formed young city society Si-

take, involved in development of the commodity-money relations, with mobile and to some extent an open class framework, successfully mixed various nationalities. In this plan Tobolsk, as well as any Siberian city of the 17th century, was related Western European with its principle: "City air does free!".

These and other facts of the Tobolsk history recreating realities of the "pioneer" period of life of the Siberian city, obviously formed the basis of the conclusion approved in the Siberian regionalistika formulated by N.I. Nikitin, and behind it and N.A. Minenko, about end by the end of the 17th age of process of "gradual assimilation and russification of sluzhily foreigners" 18. However, proceeding from assimilation understanding as process, "as a result of which in group of individuals initial culture is completely forced out by other culture" 19, we will notice that the thesis designated above is not exact. Cases of full assimilation meet extremely seldom; it is more appropriate to speak about any given extent of transformation of traditional culture of minority under the influence of the culture of the dominating ethnic group, and, it is necessary to consider also the return impact which had by the cultures of minorities on the dominating culture.

In the context of a research of interethnic cultural contact and sociocultural adaptation the use of the term acculturation is more justified, in our opinion. The concept of acculturation is more capable to capture those phenomena which result from occurrence of groups of the individuals having different cultures into the continuous, direct contact causing subsequent changes in initial cultural patterns of both groups. Moreover, acculturation considers these phenomena as interaction of cultures, emphasizing dvusto-

early nature of the majority of situations of contact (transkulturation) 20.

Proceeding from these theoretical installations, we will note that cultural adaptation of Tobolsk "foreigners" in the urban environment passed through acculturation, but did not lead to full assimilation what the facts of variety of confessional traditions which are already allocated above which, as we know, form the basis of a cultural originality of the people demonstrate to. Speaking about specifics of the Tobolsk processes of cultural adaptation, allocation of two vectors of interethnic interaction which we will designate as acculturation "internal" and "external" is lawful. We will understand adaptation in the urban environment of "foreigners" of which "the sluzhily person" as the conductor of public policy on new lands was result as a "internal" vector. The new cultural community which developed as a result a "internal" vector of transformation acted, in turn, donoroty in relation to acculturation "external" which was shown as the colonial policy directed in relation to the autochthonic Siberian population. The peaceful character of the last and lack of rigid assimilation are demonstrated already by the existence fact in cultural half of modern Tobolsk of bilingualism and steady Tatar subculture in which the ethnic identity remains and cultural traditions are alive.

Of course, the meeting of the Russian late feudal city coming to a new temporary Western European civilization with the world of Asia could not be frictionless — the cultural level of the people was too various. But the important difference of the Russian city in Northern Asia from settlements of colonists in North America was that the "white" American city arose on lands of native Americans —

Indians, forcing out the last, and it is frequent — by violent assimilation. It is lawful to consider colonial policy of the Moscow state which problems were solved by the Russian city in polietnichny Siberia as a special form of cultural interaction — regional dialogue of cultures.

Revealing typological lines of dialogue of cultures, Yu.M. Lotman suggests to understand the last not only as attempt "a conversation as equals" two equal civilization systems, but emphasizes and discloses basic asymmetry of the relations of dialogical partnership. This position, as well as Lotman's thesis that "in broad historical prospect the interaction of cultures always dialogichno" 21, allows to speak about the principle of dialogicity as fundamental when forming regional cultures.

The complexity of the adaptation processes caused by existence of two vectors of distribution of cultural influences and also synchronism of their manifestations allow to correlate processes of acculturation in Siberia of the end XVI — the beginning of the 17th century to the theory of "a melting crucible" taking place in the context of studying incorporation of the Indian tribes of the USA in the dominating culture of the white population. From these positions the formed Siberian society was huge "creative laboratory" where various cultural traditions mix up and melted into certain synthetic whole. "In direct labor communication the mutual community was born, new alloy of social and household culture" 22 was born.

This new "synthetic whole" it is necessary to consider emergence of the young Siberian society more uniform and adapted to the environment what also emergence of new ethnocultural designation of inhabitants of the region — Siberians testifies to (options: to the sibirena, sibirets). Concerning an essence

the arisen term very thinly noticed E.Yu. Petri: "Just as the Englishman in the North American United States changed in the Yankee, the Slav in Siberia, on the one hand, under the influence of the changed environment, and together and the changed way of life, and with another — under the influence of mixture with foreigners underwent great transformation into the Siberian" 23.

Characterizing the Siberian as special psychological type, first of all we will note the high element of passionarity remaining from traditions of the free Cossacks. Extreme living conditions, on the one hand, and its social attractiveness — with another, brought into ranks of the first Siberian settlers many strong, courageous and free people. Thereby the unique ethnic gene pool and special spiritual community was created. When there was an education of the Cossacks, it "was constantly fed" with the uneasy people who are leaving a habitual way of life, leaving economy and property, going to look for happiness and good luck. The passional psychological type of the personality acted as a basic element of this process. The multiethnic Cossacks incorporated in the ranks super activists of various regions that caused formation of a superpassional psychological warehouse of character and development of ability of these people to "supertension" ("athletes", "robbers", "idle people").

In attempt to designate a generalized character of the Siberian visually, to create his typological portrait, interpretation of a monument by G. Osipov to Alexander III — to P. Trubetskoy's peacekeeper is interesting. The historical place of a monument — the Moskovsky railway station — the beginning of "the big diagonal" St. Petersburg — Vladivostok. "Trans-Siberian Railway" was thought as a part of the trans-Eurasian highway from Le Havre to Vladivostok (today it is possible to tell — from London to Tokyo). In a praote-chesky number of the Great Siberian way

there was also Tobolsk founded in the most convenient hydrographic knot in the transport relation and which lost the capital status together with replacement of a priority of a navigable system of communications by the railroads. The initial inscription on Alexander III's pedestal said: To "Majestic founder of the Great Siberian way". In the context of a first-born inscription there are partly clear monument stylistics: the mighty athlete on mightier bityug: "Only such "kind молодец" on such powerful horse could be torn, give way through the Stone Belt, the Siberian taiga and the Siberian off road terrain to the Great Ocean" 24.

The all-Siberian mental characteristics cannot remain neutral in relation to local Tobolsk culture. Fixing to designation of the subject of the city of the word "resident of Tobolsk" demonstrates to it. According to the slovoupotrebitelny standards of Russian derivative of a toponym Tobolsk, it would be more logical to consider a word-formation chain tobolyanin

— a tobolyanka — the tobolena. In this case obvious phonetic analogy takes place: the Siberian — the resident of Tobolsk (the Siberian

— the resident of Tobolsk, Siberians are residents of Tobolsk). Of course, the concept "Siberian" is not the privilege only of residents of Tobolsk, its full carriers — all inhabitants of the region. But our analogy is not accidental as also transfer of semantic emphasis on the capital in the slovooborot "The Tobolsk hail and Siberia" taking place in XVII — the beginning of the 18th century is not accidental at designation of the trans-Ural region. The mentality of the Siberian was formed, including, and in Tobolsk, having received the full expression here.

Not differentiation, the widest range of official duties, deficiency of human resources during the solution of the most difficult tasks of colonization of edge did conventional special

Stew of the Siberian such quality as universality. In the 16-17th centuries the duties of sluzhily people were not regulated at all, being limited only to tradition and physical capacities of performers. Sluzhily people of the Siberian capital were familiar with all types of the "services" which are carried out beyond the Urals. Tobolsk dispatched the people across all Siberia, and they had to carry out the most various instructions "in a row" with representatives of local garrisons: "To all countries a letyachy arrow — the resident of Tobolsk driving" — so neatly characterized life of fellow countrymen S. of Remezov25. As well as in all cities, the Tobolsk Cossacks collected yasak, stood on guard, accompanied state cargoes, transported under guard exiled, performed police functions. Besides, Cossacks were used as labor everywhere: sluzhily people had to catch fish "on the sovereign", to unload vessels, "to carry the wood" for "the policeman of business", to build vessels, to put jails, fortifications, office buildings and to do other "monarchic izde-lya", without leaving at the same time especially military affairs. The garrison of the main town of Siberia had also specific duties. To residents of Tobolsk more often than representatives of other cities, were charged with honourable and responsible "services", and first of all — ambassadorial.

Being until the end of the 17th century the most numerous category of the population, sluzhily people had to undertake problems of economic development of the region. By the beginning of the 18th century the Cossack families prevailed among local plowmen and made a considerable part of the agricultural population of the Tobolsk County. As a result not only the cities, but also a set of rural settlements are founded in Siberia by sluzhily people.

By the beginning of the 18th century the Tobolsk Cossacks made vast majority of local handicraftsmen. At this time in Tobolsk it is known already 60 craft

specialties, and the Siberian cities in general caught up and surpassed the level of the Old Russian cities. The brightest indicator of the last — Tobolsk where the craft population since 1623-1700 increased by 15 times, and by the number of handicraftsmen it outgrew such cities as Rostov, Tula, Suzdal, Velikiy Ustyug, Uglich. On development of craft the residents of Tobolsk won first place in Siberia, and only at the end of the 18th century, after the fire of 1788, conceded to Tyumeni26.

Trade which blossoming is natural for an era of initial development of the colonized lands was means and a consequence of development of agriculture, crafts and crafts. In the spring, right after opening of the rivers, in Tobolsk there arrived merchants with the Russian and European goods; in the summer — caravans from Central Asia; there were barques with the Siberian and Chinese goods in the fall. In 1750 through the Tobolsk customs there passed 208 merchants from 33 cities of Dews-sii27. For nonresident and overseas merchants on the lower and top posads two Gostiny Dvor were built. The Russian merchants made a considerable contribution to formation of superpassionarity of the Cossacks. Occupation merchant activity in the conditions of formation of commercial relations, long and dangerous travel, risk property and life demanded existence of special psychological qualities of the personality — enterprise and passionarity that corresponded also to a psychological warehouse of the Siberian, leading to organic merge of that and others.

Accession to the Russian state of Siberia and its social and economic development was not the only result of activity of sluzhily people. Over century the most advanced European science got data on Northern Asia almost only from those materials that managed to be received from "formal replies", "drawings", "question speeches" of the Siberian Cossacks. By efforts

sluzhily people of the 17th century the foundation for all subsequent knowledge of Siberia was laid.

Historical experience of Tobolsk testifies to inexhaustibility of regional cultures as source and soil for the birth of the most interesting cultural phenomena, formation of creative persons. The perspective viability and historical and cultural specifics of the Russian city in Siberia as the materialized result of kolonizatsionny policy of the Moscow state of the 16-17th centuries decides by historical interaction on cultural and political formations of the people, the states, cities of adjacent regions. The quintessence of the Ugrian and Turkic ethnocultural beginnings lying in foundation of the historical base of Tobolsk was supplemented and extended during formation and development of the city by the European and Asian ethnocultural forms, as well as actually Russian national traditions in their regional variety. This continuous process finds continuation in the real history of the city and region. The ethnocultural space of the modern Tyumen region is presented by 120 nationalities (from 150 living in Russia) among which — indigenous people of the North and 400 thousand Muslims. Tobolsk remains the regional spiritual center of two faiths — orthodox and Muslim. The Coordination council of national and cultural associations works in the area, in 1999 for the first time at the regional level the concept national politiki28 is developed.

the Regional originality of the Tobolsk culture consists not only in unique synthesis of lines and forms of various origin, cross-cultural interaction as the main condition of formation of culture of the city, but, first of all, in common goals and the interests of the people who formed the basis poly-

an etnichny Siberian civilization of Modern times and created within a historical and cultural zone of Tobolsk new sociocultural obshch-

a nost in its regional (Siberian) and local (resident of Tobolsk) self-determination in cultural and historical coordinates of the place and time.

1 See: E.V. roll. The most ancient city. Nature and genesis. Middle East. The IV-II millennium BC of M., 1996. Page 149.
2 See: L.P. Savelyeva. New Zealand colonist and Siberian settler: Experience of sociocultural comparison//East. 1995. No. 4. Page 71-78.

G.E. Katanayev. The West Siberian Cossacks and its role in inspection and employment

3

Russians of Siberia and Central Asia. SPb., 1908. Issue 1. Page 115.

N.I. Nikitin. The beginning of the Cossacks in Siberia. M, 1996. Page 94.

Shilov Yu.A. Praistoriya of Russia//Began civilizations. Yekaterinburg; M, 1999. Page 217301; Katanayev G.E. Tsitir. prod. Page 115.

6 See: G.F. Blagova. Historical interaction of the words "Cossack" and "Kazakh"//Ethnonyms: Collection of articles. M, 1970. Page 140-146; A.I. Kozlov. From where went also who such Cossacks//Problems of history of the Cossacks. Volgograd, 1995. Page 163-182; N.A. Minenko. Problems of studying history of the Cossacks of east regions of Russia at the present stage//Cossacks of the Urals and Siberia in the 17-20th centuries / Under the editorship of N.A. Minenko. Yekaterinburg, 1993. Page 3-16.
7 Katanayev G.E. Tsitir. prod. Page 3.
8 Safonov V. Alexander Humboldt. M, 1959. Page 130.
9 See: Kaltakhchyana. C. Cossacks in Russia, their religious and cultural traditions//Religions of modern Russia: Dictionary / Entrance of an edition of M.P. Mchedlov. M.,1999. Page 151-155; Roman S.V. Kazachestvo, religion, tolerance//International life. 1992. No. 7. Page 89-93.
10 Borozdin A.K. Protopop Habakkuk. SPb., 1898. Page 172; V.S. Rumyantseva. "Life" of the archpriest Habakkuk as historical source: Avtoref. yew... used up the Dr. sciences. M, 1971. Page 34.
11 A.I. Kupriyanov. The Russian city in perv. floor. 19th century: Public life and culture of citizens of Western Siberia. M, 1995. Page 39.
12 Kupriyanov A.I. Tsitir. prod. Page 43.
13 D.A. Alisov. The welfare image of "the provincial capital" (Tobolsk at the end of XIX — the head of the 20th centuries)//Cultural heritage of Asian Russia: Materials I of the Sibiro-Uralsky historical congress (Tobolsk, November 25-27, 1997). Tobolsk, 1997. Page 4244; A.A. Nurullayev. Islam and culture//Religions of modern Russia: The dictionary / Under the editorship of M.P. Mchedlov. M, 1999. Page 126-129.
14 Ivonin A.R. Gorodovoye the Cossacks of Western Siberia in XVIII — perv. chetv. The 19th centuries Barnaul, 1996. Page 226.
15 N.I. Nikitin. Tobolsk Lithuania in the 17th century//City and citizens in Russia in XVII — perv. floor. The 19th centuries of M., 1991. Page 47-72.
16 N.G. Potanin. Memoirs//Literary inheritance of Siberia. Novosibirsk, 1983. T. 6. Page 71.
17 N.I. Nikitin. Tobolsk Lithuania in the 17th century//City and citizens in Russia in XVII — perv. floor. The 19th centuries of M.,1991. Page 47-72.
18 Nikitin N.I. Sluzhilye people in Western Siberia 17th century Novosibirsk, 1988. Page 41; N.A. Minenko. Problems of studying history of the Cossacks of east regions of Russia at the present stage//Cossacks of the Urals and Siberia in the 17-20th centuries / Under the editorship of N.A. Minenko. Yekaterinburg, 1993. Page 3-16; N.I. Nikitin. Tobolsk Lithuania in the 17th century//City and citizens in Russia in XVII — perv. floor. The 19th centuries of M., 1991. Page 6.
19 Bilza. Acculturation//Anthology of researches of culture. SPb., 1997. Page 352.
20 In the same place.
21 Yu.M. Lotman. Problems of the Byzantine influence on the Russian culture in typological lighting//Byzantium and Russia / Under the editorship of G.K. Wagner. M, 1989. Page 229.
22 D.Ya. Rezun. Chronicle of the Siberian cities. Novosibirsk, 1989. Page 69.
23 Tsit. on: L.P. Savelyeva. New Zealand colonist and Siberian settler: experience of sociocultural comparison//East. 1995. No. 4. Page 72.
24 G. Osipov. A spine of the Russian bear (A great Siberian way in the context of history and geopolitics)//Modern times. 1996. No. 12. Page 41.
25 L.A. Goldenberg. Isocount of the earth Siberian. (Life and S. Remezov's works). Magadan, 1990. Page 391.
26 D.I. Kopylov, Yu. Pribylsky. Item Tobolsk. Sverdlovsk, 1975. Page 224.
27 In the same place.
28 L. Ermakova. We need healthy conservatism (conversation with the governor of the Tyumen region L. Roketsky)//a planet Echo. 1999. No. 2. Page 15-17.

L. Dmitrijeva

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF SIBERIA AND TOBOLSK OF THE XVI-XVIII CENTURIES

Colonial processes in Siberia (from the end of the 16-th century up to the beginning of the 18-th century) as a special variant of historical development, as well as the laws of the formation of Siberian society and city culture of Tobolsk are regarded by means of the analyzing ethnoconfessional environment of the city.

Dijkstra Evelien
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