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Role of labor unions in development of the movement of rationalizers in the territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai on the eve of and in days of the first five-years period (1925-1932)



o. I. Savin

The ROLE of LABOR UNIONS IN DEVELOPMENT of the MOVEMENT of RATIONALIZERS in the territory of KRASNOYARSK KRAI ON THE EVE OF And in days of the FIRST FIVE-YEARS PERIOD (1925-1932)

Work is presented by department of national history of the Krasnoyarsk state pedagogical university of V.P. Astafyev.

The research supervisor — the candidate of historical sciences, professor Ya.M. Coffman

Article is devoted to development of the rationalization movement in the territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai on the eve of and in days of the first five-years period and a role in this movement of labor unions. The main activities of labor unions on development of this movement are considered. The main difficulties arising at labor unions with assistance of the rationalization movement are revealed.

O. Savin

ROLE OF TRADE UNIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RATIONALISERS’ MOVEMENT IN THE KRASNOYARSK TERRITORY

ON THE EVE AND DURING THE FIRST FIVE-YEAR PLAN (1925-1932)

The article is dedicated to the development of the rationalisers’ movement in the Krasnoyarsk territory on the eve and during the first five-year plan and the role of trade unions in this movement. The basic directions of the trade unions’ activity in the development of this movement are considered. The main difficulties that the trade unions experienced supporting the rationalisers’ movement are revealed.

In the years of industrialization one of activities of labor unions was development of rationalization and inventive activity at the industrial enterprises. In 1923 the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions (AUCCTU) suggested to carry out broad promotion of invention, using factory exhibitions. Exhibitions had to not only reflect amateur performance of factory collective in the field of inventions and improvements, but also to encourage heroes of work, the best workers, to tell about their biographies, history of inventions [1, page 60].

Grass-roots movement for rationalization of industrial production turned into an initial stage of industrialization of the country in the most important direction of social and economic policy of the state. In the resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee of 1927 it was explained that socialist rationalization means high-quality improvement of the equipment and the organization of production and is carried out in three main directions: 1) creation of the new enterprises on the basis of the last achievements in science and technology; 2) radical re-equipment of operating enterprises at the corresponding improvement of the organization of productions; 3) carrying out a number of practical actions for the most effective use of the cash equipment [14, page 65].

Speaking about development of the rationalization movement in the territory of the Krasnoyarsk district, the first district congress of labor unions in 1925 noted need to enhance attention of trade-union organizations on such questions as: a) planned conducting work; b) correctness of passing of questions; c) reality of the made plans; d) setting of accounting of work of technological meetings and commissions; e) implementation of the made decisions;

e) involvement in work of meetings and commissions of administrative technicians [21, page 10]. In 1927 at the initiative of the trade-union organization on the Tomsk railroad the bureau of the scientific organization of labor (SOL) was created. In 1927 the bureau carried out preparatory work for division of the power supply network of the station Krasnoyarsk [9, l. 154 about]. Besides, in the foundry shop of the Krasnoyarsk railway workshops, columned work with the sequence of phases of molding, casting, knockout of forms was entered that gave production acceleration [9, l. 155].

At implementation of rationalization actions in the territory of both Krasnoyarsk Krai, and all Siberia treated number of the main problems: a) technically misuse of the available installations and arrangement of machines; b) the irrational address with boiler economy; c) the weak attention paid to intra factory transport and "destruction of oncoming traffic" when processing products; d) irrational design of constructions; e) discrepancy of availability of incidental and construction materials with the valid requirement of production; e) lack of norms of consumption of raw materials and exits of products;

g) lack of a system in rationalization works [17, page 3]. In this regard the important role on the leadership in rationalization work in the years of industrialization of the country was assigned to production meetings [1, page 64]. So, in the Southern Yenisei district since October, 1927 until the end of 1928 32 production meetings and meetings of the production commissions during which 110 offers on average from every sixth participant arrived took place [23, page 14]. The main attention of participants of meetings was concentrated on questions of technical improvement of production, economy of material and human resources. At production meetings of the enterprises of Western Siberia in 1926 from all considered questions nearly a half concerned rationalization and technical improvements of production [3, page 38].

For stimulation of participation of employees of the enterprises in production rationalization on January 22, 1927 the All-Union Central Councils of Trade Unions together with the Supreme Soviet of the National Economy (SSNE) of the USSR issued "The provision on fund of assistance to working invention and improvements" which provided creation at all enterprises of special funds and the organization of commissions of experts for consideration of proposals of workers and employees on production improvement [1, page 69]. By the end of 1927 the funds of assistance to working invention were created at many enterprises of the country. Results of it were not slow to affect: the number of the workers who got awards for inventions and improvements in the second half of the year 1926/27 increased more

than by 5 times in comparison with the first half of the year, and the sum of the money given in the form of awards grew almost by 4.5 times [13, page 187]. Nevertheless concerning promotion of working invention and in 1928 — 1929 there were serious defects from the professional organizations of Siberia which did not manage to adjust due control of the organization of this process. So, the bonus fund for 1928 — 1929 made 74,227 rub, 17,289 rub were spent, (about 25%). The award size often was 3 — 5 rub [10, l. 20 about], at the average salary of the worker in 1929 over the country of 57 rub [22, page 58].

In 1929 — 1930 rationalization work in the territory of all Siberia was directed to the solution of the following tasks: improvement of technological processes, production mechanization, creation of intra factory transport and also raw materials use improvement [18, page 20]. So, from the chairman of bureau of rationalization of the Krasnoyarsk glass plant the offer on construction of the suspended road and a water supply system from the river Kacha [8, l arrived. 17]. Besides, on glass plant the transition to continuous work on a workbench was made that increased production by 15% and gave economy in 50,000 rub. At the enterprises of the construction industry in the territory of all Siberian region the organization of a laying of walls without "the radical woods" gave effect in 43,400 rub [18, page 21].

The number of offers on the Siberian industry from workers-inventors grew from 918 offers in 1928 — 1929 to 2960 offers in 1929 — 1930 that made 243% of the previous period. Economic effect of offers (according to incomplete reporting data) was expressed in the sum about 800 thousand rubles that exceeded result of previous year by 4 times [18, page 67-68].

For stimulation of rationalizers and inventors on the II plenum Sibkraysovpro-fa the task to find resources for rewarding of employees was set for administrations of the industrial enterprises. Were distinguished from the main ways of encouragement:

delivery of the passing banner, issue of diplomas, academic trips on the enterprises of the USSR and abroad, a parcel on production excursions, acquisition of technical literature, the structure of kindergartens and a day nursery, a parcel to resorts and in holiday houses, subscriptions in theater and cinema [20, page 31]. At the Krasnoyarsk parovozo-car-repair plant (PVRZ) in April, 1930 the evening devoted to rationalizers took place. Awards were established by committee of assistance to invention. At the same time awards were defined depending on urgent needs of rationalizers. Let's list some of them: the ink device, the fishing device, a cut on trousers, repair of housing, a sports suit, "a bibliotechka of a parovoznik" [4, l. 42]. In some cases the size of an award was more essential. So, award of the worker Zaton of t. The Syag-Leningrad Region for an invention made 1000 rub [4, l. 39] at the average salary of the worker in 1931 over the country of 98 rub 85 kopeks [2, page 21] and across Krasnoyarsk 61 rub 30 kopeks [15, page 23].

We will note that the relations between administration of the enterprises and trade-union leaders influenced distribution of awards too. So, because of the conflict between the chairman of a district committee of the union of gold miners Burikov and the managing director of the mines of the northern Region of Titovym from economic organizations obstacles in "carrying out offers" and awarding of rationalizers constantly were arranged. In 1930 there was only one case of awarding of the rationalizer on the mines of this area [4, l. 100].

Tasks of labor unions included also attraction to participation in the rationalization movement of technical specialists. The Technical Officers (TO) had to not only offer independently improvement suggestions, but also take active part in work of bureau of assistance to working invention.

Most actively the rationalization movement, both in the territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai, and in Siberia, joined the technical sections (TS) of miners and railroad workers [12, page 28]. Nevertheless from

resolutions of the second plenum of Sibkraysovpro-f which took place in December, 1929 it is possible to establish that ITS not always completely answered the tasks set for them [20, page 26]. In this regard it should be noted that, despite improvement of production from offers from workers, the organizational party of rationalization activity had a number of essential shortcomings. It is necessary to refer not completeness to the main of them "special employees" of bodies of assistance to invention (CÔME-SODIZov and BREEZES) at the industrial enterprises and in managements of trusts. Work as combining jobs or additional loading very often had no accurately organized structure. In confirmation of it we will provide data from the report of the inspector Ka-repov on results of inspection of bureau of rationalization of Memories of 13 Fighters glass plant (January, 1930). It found the wrong organization of rationalization work from plant management as the structure of bureau included employees of plant management, the acting as in combination [8, l. 14]. Not completeness of the industrial enterprises technicians, often low qualification of average and lowest personnel did not give the chance on places correctly to organize technical consultations on inquiries of workers.

Also the number of improvement suggestions from ITR was small. So, on the Krasnoyarsk district for the second half of the year 1930 only 59 rationalization proposals arrived. One of the reasons of their small number was the lack of material stimulation of authors of these offers. Proposals of experts were not awarded by heads of many enterprises, with reference to the fact that it entered a circle of their direct duties. For example, in the Krasnoyarsk railway depot 14 offers arrived, it is carried out 9, at the same time any was not awarded [6, l. 14]. The awards ITR given in a small amount were too insignificant to motivate employees to a further ratsi-

of onalizatorsky activity. So, at the Krasnoyarsk power plant the expert Beloborodov was awarded for production of device for cooling of oil by 15 rub [6, l. 14] though in 1928 the average earnings of the master at power plants of the Soviet Union made 256 rub [19, page 57].

One more obstacle in a way of rationalization activity of ITR was fear of prosecutions in case of a failure of improvement suggestion. So, in Krasnoyarsk on the water transport condemned two experts for irrational use of means at introduction of improvement suggestions then any rationalization activity of ITR stopped [6, l. 14]. At some enterprises, in particular at the Krasnoyarsk power plant, labor unions created around experts a mistrust situation [6, l. 15]. Increase in trust was not promoted to experts also by the fact that as ITR "lishenets" worked at the enterprises. So, 2 persons from this category of citizens worked at the Krasnoyarsk boat shipyard that made 40% of technical personnel number [5, l. 32].

For improvement of the management and increase in mass character of the rationalization movement on the decision of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions in March, 1930 the All-Union society of inventors (VOIZ) was created. Society actively developed collective rationalization work, exercised public control over introduction of offers in production. In 1931 the number of the accepted inventions and improvements increased by two-three times in comparison with previous year [13, l. 187]. In Siberia the beginning of the organization of cells of VOIZ at the enterprises belongs to the first half of 1931 [14, page 135]. For a year of organizational bureau at the West Siberian kraysovprof created at the enterprises a number of the inventive cells which united about one thousand inventors and also 47 bureaus of rationalizers and inventors (BREEZES) [14, page 136]. At this time the quantity increased and, mainly, the quality (value) of improvement suggestions and inventions increased.

Engineers who directed cells and circles of inventors participated in search of the most expedient technical solutions, promoted quick implementation of proposals of workers. Administrations considered proposals of workers on rationalization of any given technological processes within 24 hours, and to the worker the receipt with the indication of term of implementation of the offer was issued if it was accepted, at the same time on it the surname responsible for execution was specified [13, page 193]. During the period from November, 1930 to January, 1931 on Montenegro coal mines 129 proposals on production rationalization as a result of which introduction the economy over 47 thousand rubles was received were made [16, page 116].

In January, 1932 the first regional congress of inventors which laid the foundation for organizational registration of the West Siberian regional office of VOIZ took place. In October of the same year the organizational bureau of VOIZ of East Siberia is created. By July, 1933 155 cells of VOIZ which united 4119 members of society acted on 91 enterprises, and for January 1, 1934 already 194 cells united 5590 members [14, page 136]. By the beginning of 1932 of VOIZ over the country in the ranks totaled about 500 thousand members [1, page 84].

Efficiency work considerably extended the first five-years period in recent years. Considerable attention of the enterprise of Siberia was paid to recycling, mechanization of labor-intensive processes, use improvement

materials [11, l. 3]. On Vostsibzoloto trust in 1932 in comparison with other enterprises of Siberia many offers — arrived 1153 especially [23, page 31]. The cumulative economic effect of introduction of improvement suggestions on five gold mining trusts entering association Vostokzoloto in 1932 was not less than 4 million rubles [23, page 32]. At shoe factory Spartak for 1931 418 offers from which 243 from workers and 175 from ITR arrived. The actual savings from introduction of improvement suggestions made 82,501 rub 27 kopeks. At an all-Union competition in rationalization work for implementation of the early plan for efficiency work the enterprise got the second all-Union award and 3000 rub [7, l. 3]. In total for 1928 — 1932 on five main narcomats of the USSR more than 536 thousand improvement suggestions were introduced, economic effect was more than 687 million rubles [13, page 187].

Thus, in days of the first five-years period in the territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai, as well as in the territory of all Soviet Union, under the direction of labor unions the rationalization movement began to develop. It is undoubted that the rationalization movement could not but meet serious difficulties. The sharpest of them: shortage of technical consultants and uneven awarding of activity. Nevertheless these years the efficiency work based on exact evidence-based actions gave very essential economic effect.

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