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Geopolitical and social sources of participation of Russia in the international system



UDK 327

GEOPOLITICAL AND SOCIAL SOURCES of PARTICIPATION of RUSSIA

In the INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM.

A.P. Levchuk

The first geopolitics K. Hauskhofer, Goto Simpey, H. Makinder, being based on F. Rattsel's works, J. Gottmaia, K. Schmitt, established that opposition of the East and West is similar to dualism of their forms - Sushi and the Seas. The East is an enormous piece of Sushi - Russia, China, India - "The median earth". The West, - a hemisphere in which the Atlantic and Quiet oceans are located. Opposition of the sea and continental worlds - base of an explanation of civilization dualism.

Concept essence: "Who rules Eastern Europe, dominates over Hartland; who governs Hartland, dominates over the World Island; who rules the World Island, dominates over the world". In this case: Heartland - "Earth Serdtsevinnaya", - the land including a part of the territory of Russia, its western part. "The world Island" (World Island) - all Eurasia where occupies its northern part, all Russia. In turn, the West, or the Sea is the lands which are in the Atlantic and Quiet oceans with a peculiar Heart. For the Sea it was England which handed over positions of the USA - an axis of geopolitical relationship in HHv. it was displaced. Therefore it is not the country earth, and - the Anglo-Saxon world. Definition of geopolitics of Martirosyan leads to a conclusion: Aggression - geopolitical essence of the West, and Safety - Russia. As it is military terminology: Aggression is an approach, and Safety - defense. The answer - at Clausewitz: "weak, doomed to defense, also have to be always fully equipped not to undergo sudden attack; such is the requirement of military art" 12. Therefore components of geopolitics of Russia Safety: 1) strategically - perimeter defense; 2) tactically - extraordinary mobility; 3) socially and politically (for Russia - spiritual (Orthodoxy) and political (Fatherland) of the concept; 4) genetic - "the code "of the besieged fortress" in DNA of the Russian state" is put by the fact of its survival.

From here - sotsio-geopolitical participation in the international system of Russia - Sushi (Hartlenda) being exposed to continuous threat of the West (Sea), steadily extended territorially. Aggression of the Anglo-Saxon world remains, as well as in the last centuries.

Still philosophers of Ancient Greece noted the basic forms defining development of the people and civilizations. So, "already antique chroniclers of wars of Sparta and Athens, Rome and Carthage paid attention that at culmination points of world history the fate of mankind is defined by collisions of Civilizations of the Sea and Civilizations of Earth" 1. Hippocrates in 5 century BC in the treatise "About Vozdukha, Waters and Areas" also addressed this subject. But only in 19 century in works of philosophers of the German "organitsistsky school" led by F. Rattsel the term "political geography" (it is allocated by me, - A.L.) received conceptual justification" 2.

J. Gottman's work "The policy of the states and their geography" 3 became the following step in formation of the scientific directions. He noticed that independent cultural spaces form not only visible works of art, but also the autonomous, self-organized forms of political, economic and public life. He enters wider term "space iconography" (it is allocated by me, - A.L.). Here spatial display of the world, a consequence of influence of traditions, customs, religions, social and cultural models, characteristic features of the area joins.

Its component is "the iconography of political space" (it is allocated by me, - A.L.). I.A. Vasilenko defines it as "typical forms of manifestation of political life, the system of political institutes and diverse forms of political life and also the symbolical world of political culture, including its characteristic implication, hints, symbolism, expressions of the political ideas and emotions forming semantic, significant space of culture" 4. Between these

continuous process of interference - "circulation of ikonografiya" (it is allocated by me, - A.L.) - a peculiar exchange of information, what it is accepted to call "dialogue of cultures (civilizations)" happens spaces.

In spatial measurement of basic cultures the iconography of space allocates two main - Western and East. They differ with the relation to an image, an icon (it is allocated by me, - A.L.). The cultures of the East mainly are negative to visual images (The Old Testament and the Quran forbid to represent God on icons). While honoring of an iconography and painting in general in the West was created. Though here, in each rule there are exceptions, they are obvious - existence of iconoclastic traditions, for example, at puritans, hussites, sectarians of babtist.

Proceeding from this duality, K. Schmitt offered a hypothesis by which the iconography of space determines for east civilizations by basic elements the Land, and for western - elements of the Sea. The difference in existence of these spaces defines also their specifics in state system, features of political cultures and legal systems. For designation of spaces K. Schmitt offered the Greek term "nomos" as peculiar organized and ordered prostranstvo5.

Essence of each form in the following: Earth Nomos consists in static character, reliability, stability, constancy of a relief where it is easy to establish borders and ways of trade messages. The Seas Nomos it is characterized by a variable constant where it is impossible to establish borders and to draw visible lines of communications. From here: "Stability of an iconography of overland space acts as nutrient medium of conservatism of the political cultures of the East representing Earth Nomos... (and, - A.L.) political and legal structures of civilizations of the West are so dynamic, is fluid, are subject to continuous innovations" 6. Also a conclusion about eternal opposition of the East and West like dualism of their forms - Sushi and the Seas follows. "What we call the East today represents the uniform mass of the firm land: Russia, China, India is an enormous piece of Land, "The median earth" as it was called by the great English geographer sir H. Makinder. What we call the West today is one of world oceans, a hemisphere in which the Atlantic and Quiet oceans are located. Opposition of the sea and continental worlds - here that global truth which is the cornerstone of an explanation of the civilization dualism which is constantly generating planetary tension and stimulating all process of history". It is also geopolitics quintessence. Let's address its elements.

It happened so that another of the founder of "political geography" Friedrich Ratzel there was professor of economic geography of the Munich polytechnical institute Max Hauskhofer whose son Karl, was the involuntary witness of hours-long discussions of the specified persons, and eventually himself also taking active part in them. Karl Hauskhofer became the founder of the Eurasian version of geopolitics and simply, one of her founders. For years of service in Japan he got acquainted with Goto Simpeem, the germanophile, the admirer of Bismarck who had similar geopolitical views. The son of the doctor, the doctor of medicine, the baron, the viscount, the count - Goto Simpey studied in Germany where there was his geopolitical outlook under the influence of the German school of "political geography". This person by right is considered the founder of geopolitics in Japan, i.e. - on other side of the Land. In turn, the founder of Anglo-Saxon geopolitics - Makkinder John Helford is Nomos's founder of Morya8.

The most laconically geographical essence of the concept is presented to the last: "Who rules Eastern Europe, dominates over Hartland; who governs Hartland, dominates over the World Island; who rules the World Island, dominates over the world" 9. In this case: Heartland - "Serdtsevinnaya (middle) earth", that is the land including a part of the territory of the western Russia. "The world Island" (World Island) - all Eurasia where its northern part is occupied, besides, by Russia, but now all.

The domestic researcher Arsen Martirosyan, making a start from Ilyin's definition, gives concrete political essence of an object: "Because if "policy, - as nowadays especially esteemed Russian philosopher I.A. Ilyin used to say, - there is an art to learn and neutralize the enemy", then the foremother of policy - Geopolitics - is art of preliminary recognition and neutralization of the motives and reasons able to create the enemy and to bring it to an active state! Figuratively speaking this art of a preventive immobilization (immobilization - both intellectual, and physical) the enemy" 10. Further, in the emotional, but quite reasoned work "Behind the scenes of the Munich conspiracy. Who gave the war in the USSR", A.B. Martirosyan outputs "The supreme law of the Highest World Geopolitics and Policy" (further - VZGP - A.L.) which is defined as follows: "this severe Law says: out of any communication with the purposes and the reasons of her statement, but in direct dependence on methods of its finding, monopoly means of communication it is uncontested forces to automatic establishment as well monopoly of settling in an area of action of the first, and those methods by which it also was established! However in direct dependence on the purposes, the reasons and methods of her statement monopoly of settling it is so uncontested forces to automatic establishment as well monopoly means of communication in an area of action of the first, and those methods by which it was established, but at observance of a guarantee of absolute firmness of its existence from now on" (all aktsentation author's, - A.L.) 11.

Martirosyan explains that both parts of VZGP "are absolutely irreconcilable

antagonists". Moreover, "what methods established any given monopoly

and, the most important for the sake of what it was established, also consequences 12 directly depend

another". And further "Functioning of the Law can even lay the foundation for new eras in the history of a world civilization - from great geographical discoveries and generation of new religions (exercises) to new means of transport and communications". The main proofs for the last semi-millennium are given as an example. It "same era of Great geographical discoveries. Having begun at the very end of 15 century with discovery of America and ways to Asia, it proceeds actually still. With only that difference that owing to rough scientific and technical progress it constantly flows in absolutely other quality". Further, it - "fight for global monopoly of rail services" (a boundary 19-20vv.); then, "since the middle of World War I" - fight "for control over oil sources". By the end of 20 century it assumes a universal scale as fight "for global control over sources of all types of hydrocarbon raw materials and also pipeline and other communications of a strategic importance". From the second half of 20 century "the fight for monopoly in development of space" is added, and already at a turn of the millennia "the same fight captured even virtual space - the Internet" 13.

As "Functioning of the Supreme Law is relentless", history knows a set of examples of emergence and disappearance "hardly who can count" the states, their unions and empires.

It belongs also to the people them inhabiting: "Also the facts of total disappearance of many people and ethnic groups, and also civilizations both antiquity, and the recent present are not less known... Mainly owing to genocide... First of all, it is "red" genocide - that is physical destruction of a number of the people and tribes. From recent history the facts of mass physical extermination of Armenians, Jews, Roma, American Indians, Kurds and a set of other European, Asian African, Australian and American tribes are known. It and so-called "white" genocide with which "acts" of the first - that is violent assimilation including through religion came to the end. For example, bloody "germanization" with the subsequent onemechivaniye of a number of the people of Europe, first of all Slavs. Or violent okatolichivaniye of a part of the western Slavs, Islamization of some once Christian

people or their certain part".

All this demanded theoretical justification, and therefore were used old, or new exercises, doctrines, religions and their branches were created. "It both Protestantism, and exercises about capitalism, socialism and communism, both the rough Renaissance of freemasonry..., and Zionism, and Sunni Islam, and Shia Islam, and Wahhabism, and a pantyurkizm with Pan-Islamism, various Pax Britanica, Pax Americana, Pax Germana, Pax Ottomana, etc. It is necessary to mention also modern "-isms" - globalism and anti-globalism" 15.

Thus, agreeing with opinion of the researcher, we receive tools - VZGP ("The supreme law of the Highest World Geopolitics and Policy") which will allow to consider fluently influence on participation of Russia (Russia-USSR) in the international system. It is relevant because Russia (European Russia), and even more precisely its part which is on the right coast of Volga (historically - what was Kievan Rus'), was and nowadays there is not simply Heartland, and - Heart-Heartland - Heart of Middle Eastern Europe as from the middle of Central Russian Upland Europe stretches (geographically) approximately for equal distances, both for the East-West, and for the North-South. It especially is right that actually Eastern Europe and, therefore, its organic part - the territory of the former Kievan Rus' is defined by the term Heartland. And all this Land, or East. At last, Russia not just Europe and the more so not only Eastern Europe, and truly transcontinental Eurasian power - a core of Sushi.

In turn, the West, or the Sea is the lands which are in the Atlantic and Quiet oceans. From Great Britain to Australia, from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, with a peculiar Heart. For the Sea before it was England which handed over, however, during World War I, the positions the USA. Therefore an originality of Heart of the Sea not the country earth, simply - the Anglo-Saxon West. And an axis of geopolitical relationship, was, is and there will be irreconcilable oppositions of Russia (Land) and (England) - the USA (Sea).

Due to the restrictions imposed by article volume appropriate to consider only key aspects of historical formation and development of this relationship.

The 5th century is known as an era of resettlement of the people. In its millstones, in 476 g the Western Roman Empire fell. Barbarians aggressors acted within VZGP logic. In the West Germans conquerors established at first monopoly of means of communication, and then and monopoly of settling what required some time. However and from the East there were flows of the barbarians known for our history: Huns, Ugra, Bulgars, Pechenegs, Cumans and in the second millennium - Mongol Tatars. They, or forced out the people living in Eastern Europe, even the barbarians who came earlier, is ready Huns forced out; sometimes assimilating, adopting customs, culture and even language, the people living in this area (Bulgars - at the southern Slavs); or at all disappearing as independent ethnic group (Pechenegs, Cumans). But anyway they began with control of means of communication. Nevertheless, by the end of the first millennium A.D., the Germans conquerors who began the resettlement earlier already accustomed to borders of lands of the former Western Roman Empire and found out that their area of dwelling from three parties is limited to the sea. As technologically creation of the ocean fleet then was still business unknown (the slanting sail allowing to go a tack that is against wind, Arabs just thought up and "tested") that to barbarians aggressors, nothing remained. They made the last throw on the West, on yet not occupied earth of England (1066). Now there was the last overland route, the only way for Aggression. Here they also turned the looks on the East where limits of borders of Sushi seemed boundless.

So the notorious call "Forward, on the East" arose (Drang-nakh-Osten). The West enabled its realization in three directions. In the southeast - this gaining the Holy Sepulcher, numerous Crusades were a consequence of what. In the northeast - colonization of the Baltics (the earth of the western Slavs - Poles, Czechs and pruss, Balts, est) notorious for our ancestors Livonian and Teutonic

awards and (modern) Finland - Sweden. At last, central east direction, to Russia. All three streams pursued both the geopolitical purposes, and political (then - religious). In the south - to win the Holy Sepulcher. In the north - to catholicize Slavic pagans, the close people of the Baltics to them and finno-ugr. In the center, in Russia, - to liquidate Orthodoxy stronghold.

However geopolitical aspects prevailed. First, Kievan Rus' was the largest subject of the international system of the Early Middle Ages which concealed potential threat to the West already owing to the sizes not comparable with one European country in the 10th century. Secondly, it controlled at least three major communications. At first it was the known way "from the Varangian in Greeks". Then, with gain by Svyatoslav of the Volga Bulgaria, Russia completed association of Slavic tribes (radimich and residents of Vyatka) and was approved on Upper and Middle Volga. And, at last, with defeat of Khazaria, the Kiev state established control as on the way from the North to Persia (across the same Volga - from upper courses where were drag to the rivers of the Baltic basin controlled by Novgorodians to the mouth); and over the last stage of a northern branch of the "Silk way" passing through the North of the Caspian Sea bypassing the Arab Caliphate and khanates which arose on its fragments. It came to the end in the Black Sea where, in the Crimea, there was a large colony of genoeses to whom these goods also went. However and here, on Taman Peninsula, the Russian principality - Tmutarakan appeared. Thus, the West began to depend on Russia geopolitical.

This factor and Orthodoxy predetermined its destiny. "It was talked of advance far to the East not just of essence of Europe, namely geopolitical essence of Europe! And it is geopolitical essence of Europe (and then and all West) - since those far times., it is already final and uncontested for ages it was embodied in Aggression! Nothing surprising in that was, - A.B. Martirosyan notes, - genetics - it and in geopolitics of the geneticist. As a result it turned out that at the heart of creation, and then and creation of the West Aggression - it and a fundamental factor of its life in general lies what it is easy to make sure from daily media reports of" 16. (Allocated by the author, - A.L.)

On the other hand, from the East, and one of the reasons was also the fact that Svyatoslav saved east branches of Slavs from oppression of a Hazaria tribute, having crushed this state education, the new flow of the nomadic people rushed. In the policy which is an organic part of human life as it was noted, the same laws work. Therefore - nature abhors a vacuum. Instead of Khazars for control over northern Black Sea Coast and the Caspian Sea Pechenegs, later - Cumans, at last, - Mongol Tatars began to apply. Russia received eternal enemies in the east and in the south. Nomads, starting with Huns, speaking the VZGP language, also began to apply for the monopoly of means of communication with the West.

Thus, Russia appeared in a ring of the hostile people. From the East and the South nomads, from the North and the West the catholicized Europe threatened.

It seemed to Russia remained, or to disappear as to the state education that in some way and resulted from the Mongolian invasion, and is possible to disappear and as to ethnic group; or to fight. At first just for the right to live, and then to protect monopoly for settling. Especially as the dwelling area changed a little. As a result of feudal fragmentation in 11-13 centuries Russia handed over to nomads a number of positions in the south, and to Poles and Lithuania in the West, but moved to the North and the northeast, occupying undeveloped lands of small finno-ugr. As a result, the relations with nomads stabilized, and fight against them had no geopolitical character (excepting invasion of Batyya). Moreover, Novgorodians and in dashing times of invasions steadily continued to master the North: having reached the White Sea, Ledovity ocean; and the northeast - moving ahead to the Urals.

But the threat on the other hand was more dangerous. From the North Swedes constantly threatened (before - Vikings, Normans). From the northwest - the same German people

(Livonian and Teutonic awards). From the West - Poles and Lithuanians, and from the southwest - Hungarians.

The difference of the Western Threat was fundamental. First, invasions went on Russia under banners of crusaders and carried ideological (by modern criteria) character. Secondly, the West had no other direction of aggression - around as it was noted, there was a Sea. Among themselves they, as a rule, preferred to measure forces in tournaments. Thirdly, the West was torn on the East for establishment of control over ways of messages with the subsequent settling of the won area of dwelling as in the west of Europe the relative overpopulation was already felt. Its sharpness was a little reduced by Crusades, but finally did not remove. At last, fourthly, - economic factor. For the nomadic people the existence of a pasture for the cattle was essentially important. Therefore the area of their settling was defined not so much by a strategic factor of control over ways of messages (the exception makes Genghis Khan's invasions and Batyya), how many tactical - settling steppe and parts forest-steppe zones. The forest zone did not suit them. For the West for which the markets of east spices were necessary, as defined their resistant aspiration on the East, it was necessary to be supernumeraries. Between spices and the West there was Russia (trade across Volga through Persia), and in the south - the Arab (Islamic) countries. Crusaders had to be influenced by strength of the last. This way considered the West insuperable, being content with trade mediation of Arabs.

There was Russia especially as the West had an experience of gaining other orthodox power. In 1204 the crusaders, on the way to Jerusalem, took Constantinople and, in the traditionally "vandal" style, plundered it. Then their advance to the Holy Sepulcher stopped. However, in 60 years they so bothered Byzantines that those simply expelled them. But also Russia got to the Mongolian dependence by this time. It would seem, this fact finishes the Russian history, people history surrounded with irreconcilable enemies from all directions. It appeared not so. First, Mongols did not make difficulties to Orthodoxy. Secondly, Russia received a peculiar defender, "I rat", being expressed by a modern slang. After the awful defeats inflicted by chingizida in the early forties 13 century to the Hungarian horsemen, the Polish hussars and the German knights the West just ceased to dream to break through to spices on the lands won by Mongols. That is through Russia. Thirdly, the undertaken crusades on northwest lands in 1240 and 1242 were rejected by team and the Novgorod militia under leadership And. The Nevsky that too discouraged to carry out Drang-nakh-Osten. For a while, Aggression of the West was stopped. But its essence - Aggression - did not change.

And what was essence of Russia. Submitting to VZGP, east Slavs asserted in the armed way the right for existence, then for resettlement and monopoly for control of trade ways. But from positions of political geography Russia was very vulnerable. Its flat arrangement did not answer any laws of fortification. The flat nature of Kievan Rus' allowed any aggressor to strike a blow from the most unexpected direction. Other power of Sushi - China tried to solve this problem construction of a defensive wall against nomads who, however, made attacks on the empire from the North (to Russia - from the South and the East). But even this a labor-consuming and difficult design in the engineering relation did not save the country. For Russia this way was impossible at least on cost intensity degree, but the main thing that mountains nearby were not. Therefore there were no stones for a wall. Mark attempts to create wooden only partially, it is rather morally, performed defensive function. Moreover, experience of China showed, as a main, stone wall, - and walls, ancient Chinese for the history, constructed three - does not solve a problem. But Safety needed to be ensured.

For this reason Safety, in the geopolitical plan, became essence of Russia. Perimeter defense becomes the strategy of Russia or, speaking language of the French generals of the 60th years of the 20th century - "defense on all azimuths". A. Martirosyan gives I.L. Solonevich's expression.: "It is wisely noticed that "the geography is destiny

the people", and "the history of Russia is the history of overcoming geography of Russia" 17 At last, tactics of Russia was shown in its extraordinary mobility.

The following aspect - socio-political. It is possible to hold long time unapproachable fortress, but also it will fall if it is taken by the great commander and strong army and so that "Danube will begin to flow back" (capture by Suvorov of unapproachable Izmail). It is possible to hold long time the redoubts, positions surrounded with a set of rows of trenches, but also they will be taken when all defenders are interrupted by a shrapnel or products and ammunition will come to an end (defense of Sevastopol in 1854-1855). And how to keep East European Plain if it has no natural barriers - such as seas (England), mountains (The Alps for Italy), the rivers (Rein - a natural obstacle between France and Germany). There is only a person, people, the people which has to be united by the general spiritual and political idea. For Russia it respectively: Orthodoxy and fatherland.

A. Martirosyan notes also a genetic component: "The genetic code "of the besieged fortress" appeared in DNA of the Russian state, first, not accidentally, secondly, under massive, centuries-old influence of various threats" 18 (it is allocated by me, - A.L.).

Thus, basic provisions took shape.

Aggression - geopolitical essence of the West.

Safety - geopolitical essence of Russia.

Are revealed for Russia.: 1) strategic provisions - perimeter defense, "defense on all azimuths"; 2) tactical - extraordinary mobility; 3) socio-political - spiritual (Orthodoxy) and political (fatherland) of the concept and it 4) genetic - "the genetic code "of the besieged fortress" in DNA of the Russian state" - components.

But it is not enough to answer a question how Russia expanded to scales of the Eurasian subcontinent, so far as it is peaceful and always ensured Safety defense, being afraid of Aggression from neighbors. The answer, however, was given by the classic of the theory of military art Karl von Clausewitz in the 19th century. At the same time we mean (basic provisions of its theory of that demand) that Aggression is an approach, and Safety - an essence - defense (both terms from military terminology). Here we find surprising answers. For example, "War exists more for defending, than for the conqueror... (V. Lenin, according to a remark of the editor who was responsible for imposition gave an extract from his marks where the text remained in original language, and irony of the leader - in Russian: "Haha! Witty"). weak, doomed to defense, also have to be always fully equipped not to undergo sudden attack; such is the requirement of military art" 12. No more no less!

Further, we will look at a position of the classic of war on strategic (perimeter defense, "defense on all azimuths"), and tactical (extraordinary mobility), parcels. Here we find full compliance to the theorist: "defense consists of two diverse parts - waiting (we have a perimeter defense) and actions (i.e. - extraordinary mobility)". The author explains: "waiting and action - and the last will always be retaliation, i.e. reaction, - make two essential

parts of defense: without the first it would not be defense, and without the last it would not be

& #34;20 war".

Now, as they say, a lot of things fall into place. However Clausewitz adds: "the idea of punishment" 20 was the cornerstone of defense. Everything is right, but we will remember that in our parcel there was a point defining an essence - not punishment: "Geopolitics - is art of preliminary recognition and neutralization of motives and reasons,

able to create the enemy and to bring him to an active state! Figuratively speaking this art of a preventive immobilization (immobilization - both intellectual, and physical) the enemy" (see 10). In other words "action" (i.e. - extraordinary mobility) is Aggression anticipation. But "actions", according to Clausewitz, mean "war". Really, as it was noted above (see footnote 18), Russia-Russia had to do some fighting so much how many to any country of the world. Whether it means that anticipation of Aggression is always war. For the answer we will address Clausewitz: "For defending the hour comes to work. What the solution in general is in. we submitted it in shape (general, - the Edition) battles. But the last is, of course, not necessary." 20.

There is that truth which allows to answer the question which is involuntarily arising at the researcher. Kohl Russia-Russia was at war very much and turned into the transcontinental power whether she was an aggressor. Actually, Clausewitz already answered this question: no, was not. Her politician it always at first "waiting", or defense and only then "action", or war. Though here Karl von Clausewitz already made the hint the - "the last it is, of course, not necessary". It is confirmed by history. Having hardly passed for "the Big Stone" (Ural Mountains) in the 80th years 16 century, Russians promptly moved to coast of the Pacific Ocean where already through 60 with small years founded the first city - Okhotsk. Yes, the Siberian khanate of Kuchuma was won (war). But, first, it was action - the second act of anticipation of Aggression to which long "waiting" that is when the patience of the industrialists mastering the Urals burst because of continuous threats of kuchumovsky attacks preceded. And, secondly, this act was "played" by not the Russian power, but "business community", being expressed by modern terminology. They equipped and financed Yermak's expedition.

And we are solidary with A.B. Martirosyan: "Therefore Russia-Russia also extended only owing to the same reason of Safety - when absolutely peacefully (we will remember once again - the form of decisive battle is not necessary, - A.L.) when, however, the military. This feature of Russia is noticed long ago. (As Peter the Great used to say, eliko it is possible, "caress, but not zhestochyyu")" 23. Already after Kuchum's conquest the Russians moved the East only "caress, but not zhestochyyu".

From here - sotsio-geopolitical participation of Russia. Being exposed to continuous threat of the West (Sea), it, in reply, steadily extended territorially. Aggression of the Anglo-Saxon world remains, as well as in the last centuries.

First geopoliticians Haushofer K., Goto Sympei, Mackinder H., basing on the works of Ratsel F., Gottman G., Shimitt K. settled that the confrontation between the West and the East looks like dualism of their hypostasis of & #34; Land and the Sea". The East is the huge piece of the Land i.e. Russia, China, India - & #34; Heartland". The West is hemisphere where Atlantic and Pacific Oceans are situated. The distance between the Sea world and the Land world is the base, which explains civil dualism. The essence of the conception is in the following: who governs the East Europe that one dominates over the Heartland. Who governs the Heartland that one dominates over the World Island. Who governs the World Island that one dominates over the World. In this meaning, Heartland, its western part includes the territory of Kiev Rus. The World Island is the whole Eurasia, where its north part is Russia. In its turn, West (Sea) is the lands situated in Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with an original Heart. For the Sea - England was such a Heart but it yielded to the USA and in the 20-th century the axis of geopolitics was shifted. Therefore, this is not the Country-Land but the Anglo-Saxon West.

Martirosian&s definition of geopolitics concludes that the Aggression is the geopolitical essence of the West and the Security is the essence of Russia (Kiev Rus). The Aggression means an Attack and the Security means a Defense. Clausevits gives the answer: & #34; Just the weak, doomed to defense, must be always fully armed in order not to undergo sudden attack. There is the demand of military art. & #34;

of Therefore, Russian geopolitics includes the following constituents: 1) Strategic statement (all-round defense), 2) Tactics (unusual mobility), 3) Sociopolitical conceptions (religious - Orthodoxy, political - Native land), 4) Genetic constituent - & #34; Genetic code" of & #34; Sieged fortress" DNA of the Russian state. Russia (Kiev Rus) - the Land undergone constant threats from the West (the Sea) - had constantly to enlarge its territory. The Aggression of the Anglo-Saxon World remains the same as it was the centuries ago.

The key words: Geopolitics, is a permanent fight between the East, "Security" - the Land (Russia and other Land

states) and the West, "Aggression" - the Sea (England and the USA), or Anglo-Saxon World.

List of references

1. Vasilenko.A. Political global studies. M, "LOGOS", 2000, Page 288.
2. Gottman J.La Politique des Etats Leur Geographie. P., 1981.
3. Mackinder H. Democratic Ideals Reality - A Study in the Politics of Reconstruction. Wash. DC, 1996. (For the first time work appeared in 1919)
4. K. Hauskhofer. About geopolitics. Works of different years. M, Thought, 2001.
5.Haushofer K. Geopolitics of the Pacific Ocean. Lewinston, 2002.
6. Goto Simpey. Nitiro kakey tsuyte sekan. (Opinion on the Russian-Japanese relations). Tokyo, Nitiro kekay, 1923.
7. Mackinder H. Democratic Ideals Reality - A Study in the Politics of Reconstruction. Wash. DC, 1996.P.186. (The first edition of the monograph - 1919)
8. A.B. Martirosyan. Behind the scenes of the Munich conspiracy. Who gave the war in the USSR. M, Veche, 2008, Page 30.
9. KlauzevitsK. About war. M.,1936, T.2, C. 24.

About the author

A.P. Levchuk - an edging., dots. Bryansk state university of the academician. I.G. Petrovsky, CHUK32@MAIL.RU.

Diane Watson
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