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Activities of joint-stock company for construction of the Kursk and Kiev railroad



UDK 947 1470.32)

ACTIVITIES of JOINT-STOCK COMPANY FOR CONSTRUCTION of the KURSK and KIEV RAILROAD

Belgorod state technological university of V.G. Shukhov

L.S. LAShINA

In article the problem of creation of joint-stock company of the Kursk and Kiev railroad which was the initial stage of construction of the Moscow and Kiev and Voronezh railroad is analyzed. Material of researches about interaction of this Society with the Government, stages of construction of MKV railway is stated.

One of the largest areas of development of the industry and agriculture is the Central Chernozem area. Long time in the Central Black Earth and in particular in Kursk region intensively developed agriculture, craft and trade. As a result, there was quite intensively a development of marketing in this region. The products came true in the city market or to local customers that was undoubted favorable only till certain time. Laws of development of market economy demanded further expansion of the market far inland and out of its limits. For further normal development of the market relations ways which could lead as to the large markets of the country in other areas, and to seaports were required.

The main goods for export from the Kursk province abroad (through St. Petersburg) were: honey, wax, fat of a stump, fur. The Kursk merchants had close foreign trade ties with Poland and Prussia. Business of the Kursk merchants in Russia was done Kazan, Orenburg, Astrakhan where fur goods were delivered; the cattle was carried to Moscow and St. Petersburg, honey — to Tula, Moscow, St. Petersburg, bread — to Riga and St. Petersburg.1 At the same time, the lack of convenient means of communication between certain regions of the country affected that did extremely non-uniform domestic market. The railroads had to become that catalyst which would accelerate development both the industry, and trade in this region.

Considering these factors, the Government decided to build at public expense network of "The main lines" of the railroads for which more high-quality functioning it was required to unite them with each other. Similar sites through the whole country there was a set. It is clear, that with economic and furthermore strategic point of view they were extremely important. It should be noted that similar sites, the government with the greatest hunting put in private hands. The reason of it was that there was a mutual interest: one party — businessmen, understood that for cargo delivery to seaports without similar lines not to do, and the second — the government which understood that in case of military operations such lines can be strategically important as the additional ways helping to avoid reset of the main (strategically important, and therefore state) lines of the railroads. The Kursk and Kiev railroad had to connect the Southern and Southwest lines of the railroads.

Road cost from Kursk to Kiev, apart from the bridge through Dnieper River, was determined by researches of 1865 by government engineers in 45.567 credit rub. With payment of percent during works — in 50.118 rub from verst. Adding to this figure on realization of the capital 18%, the poverstny price would be figure in 59.139 credit rub. After the end of these researches the founders of Von-Derwis and von Mecca joint-stock company in January, 1866 made the proposal on construction of the road from Oryol through Kursk to Kiev for 56.010 rub about versts, and percent during construction, and also and the cost of realization of the capital, remained on responsibility of government. 2

1 Kursk local history dictionary reference \entrance of the Edition of Yu.A. Bugrov. Kursk, 1997. Page 4-7.
2 Concession on the Kursk and Kiev railroad. M, 1877. Page 9; RGIA. T. 219. Op. ¥2. 2633. L. 12.

Von-Derwis and von Mecca signed the contract with the government on construction of Kursko-Kiyevskaya Road, having an appearance of concession and two-piece:

• in a row on construction of the road for the wholesale sum with delivery upon termination of the government and with the termination of responsibility of builders and their relations to the government,

• and another, belonging to formation of joint-stock company for operation of the road upon termination of construction and after acceptance by its government.

Conditions of the first part were that they undertake to build the road to one way; a cloth and stone details of bridges for two ways; artificial constructions at design of the road — the bridge on Dnieper and other bridges from 10 to 25 sazhens 47. The wholesale payment for a construction of the road was defined at 9.360.000 credit rub and 20.469.425 credit rub, and only 29.829.425 rub with the greatest length 440 versts though in fact it appeared in 438 versts. Therefore the poverstny cost of construction was determined at 68.103 credit rub from verst. As means for this payment the sums of the state treasury and also the sum on issue of bonds by founders for 3.000.000 pounds sterlingov3 had to serve; the price and their terms of sale were determined by the agreement of founders with the Minister of Finance.

Conditions of the second part of the offer were that upon termination of construction of the road three quarters the government reserved joint-stock company with the share capital of 1.500.000 pounds sterling from which founders had to retain the fourth part and, placing for it money at the nominal price.

Thus, fixed capital of the enterprise was defined in 4.500.000 pounds sterling or 35.100.000 credit rub and on this capital the government guaranteed income to society in 5% and 1/12% pogasheniya4. Foundation of the railway line connecting Kursk with large regional and industrial centers Kiev and Voronezh, and through Bryansk and with Moscow, was necessary Society of the Kursk and Kiev railroad. Offers on construction of the Kursk and Kiev railroad came to the Government. On their consideration the decree of "Its imperial Majesty" on the permission for construction of this road and on foundation of joint-stock company Kursk and Kiev iron dorogi5 was approved on December 24, 1866.

The called Society received from the government concession on construction of a single-track railway track Kursk-Kiev which on time of construction is the oldest site.

The joint-stock company of the Kursk and Kiev railroad received big privileges. In its use the state lands necessary for construction of the railroad which were not making quitrent articles were donated. Society was granted the right of free getting on state lands of the necessary construction materials — a stone, sand, clay, gravel, lime and so forth 6

All accessories of stations, the rolling stock brought from abroad, tools to the equipment of workshops, telegraph and so forth were exempted from payment of the customs duties. Besides, on the Russian roads all materials and accessories to the road were taken on a moderate tariff.

At concession delivery the Society had to assume a number of obligations. Naturally, the most important of them was — about implementation of operation of branch lines according to the legislation. According to the Charter, Society undertook to supply lines with the rolling stock and all necessary for their service: oil warehouses, elevators, hranilishcha7. Upon the demand of Ministry of Railways, roads have to was constantly seek to improve capacity and to accept the rolling stock from other roads.8 at the same time for Society the condition was exposed that all railway accessories had to be got at the Russian plants and they had to be made of domestic materials.9 If Society wishes to buy the foreign equipment, then it owed a floor -

3 At course 60 — the 70th years of the 19th century paid 7 rub 80 kopeks for 1 pound sterling (GAKO. T. 46. Op. 1. 1. L. 14.)
4 A.A. Golovachev. History of railway matter in Russia. SPb, 1881. Page 64-66.
5 RGIA. T. 219. Op. 1/16. 23880. L. 1.
6 Charter of society of the Kiyevo-Voronezhsky railroad. M, 1893. Page 5, § 5.
7 Charter of society of the Kiyevo-Voronezhsky railroad. M, 1893. Page 6, § 7 — 8.
8 Charter of Society of the Southeast railroads. SPb, 1904. Page 6.
9 The set of the existing charters of railway Societies. SPb, 1881. Page 9.

to chit permission of the Ministry of Finance. And also, if Society did not execute any requirement of Ministry of Railways in relation to quality of construction works, then completions had to be made at the expense of Society, with the subsequent compensation kazne10.

The project of the direction of the Kursk and Kiev railroad received from Ministry of Railways and approved by inspection of the Kursk and Kiev railroad on July 17, 1867, attached to the Concession which is "most highly granted" to Society gave accurate orders about creation of the road and to the smallest details instructed various technical and construction aspects of works:

• "That the project of location of stations in the area of the road with the indication of distance between them and placements of locomotive buildings was especially submitted by

for approval of Mister Minister

• That the attention to research of small dredging and that appropriate changes in longitudinal profiles were in this regard made was paid.

• And that the detailed project, corresponding to local data and requirements of navigation, through Dnieper River at Kiev was submitted for approval of mister Minister beginning from the 429th verst before connection with the Kiyevo-Baltsky railroad" 11.

No later than October every year, Society undertook to provide in Ministry of Railways the annual estimate of arrival and an expense on operation forthcoming year, and no later than June — the report on arrivals and expenses for the expired year. Except these documents, they sent inventories of expenses and the estimate of arrival and an expense. The Ministry of Finance approved these documents.12

All works on a construction of the road had to is carried out under the supervision of government inspection to which sheets were periodically provided. The analysis of documentary sources shows that inspectors had the accurate written instructions approved by the sovereign on December 24, 1866 as as it has to be constructed and in what terms, and what sums are spent for it. For supervision of works the Minister of Railways with assistants was appointed. The inspectorate was obliged:

1) to watch that constructions were made in all norms of concession on the Kursk and Kiev railroad, that is it agrees with the approved projects or with the accepted types, it is strong also from good-quality materials.
2) to give out to Founders of the enterprise or persons of the sheet authorized from founders about for what sum it is made by them expenses on account of 3.824.285 pounds sterling accepted by the total cost of construction and their supply.

Note: Under the special contract with the Ministry of Finance, on account of the wholesale sum, Founders received 1.200.000 pounds sterling - pounds sterling, and instead of other sum they will be given 20.469.425 credit rub

The purpose of supervision of works consisted in providing and durability of constructions and in elimination of such errors in them which could cause damage to the interests of Society at operation of the road.

Founders undertook to transfer to Inspection all data on degree of success in business what Ministry of Railways will demand.

Assessment of materials, works, deliveries and any expenses which were carried out by Inspectorate the rastsenochny sheet for all these works and expenses served. This sheet was formed Ministry of Railways, under the agreement with Founders of the Kursk and Kiev railroad, and had to be issued to them not later than two months from the Adoption of Concession. The general result of this sheet made the wholesale sum of 3.824.285 pounds sterling determined by § 2 of Concession. This retail sheet was formed so that the rough estimate of materials, works and deliveries could be made at any time, irrespective of degree of completion of work.

10 O.N. Nedorubov. The railroads of the South of Russia at the beginning of the 20th century. State and private capital. M, 2003. Page 44.
11 GAKO. T. 46. Op. 2. D 11. L. 23-26.
12 Charter of society of the Kiyevo-Voronezhsky railroad. M, 1893. Page 10.

Had to enter this retail sheet as it is told above and the total costs, namely:

1) acquisitions of pledges (an expense not less than 2.400 rubles on verst),
2) administrative costs (not less than 3.000 rubles on verst).

The sums corresponding to expenses under these two articles were included in certificates of inspection only for monotony as payment and ranked as the total estimated amount of every month by equal parts in all the time of work.

This certificate of inspection included also expenses on acquisition under the road of lands. The average cost of tithe of the earth accepted in the retail sheet formed the basis for definition of this expense.

In order to avoid encumbrance of Inspection, Founders were obliged to deliver monthly to Inspection the sheet about the number of the performed works and the put materials.

On the basis of this sheet, and on its check, by Inspectorate was given the certificate of for what sum works are performed.

Considering documents for opening of the constructed way it is possible to draw a conclusion that at delivery of any given way to operation Ministry of Railways in board of Society of the Kursk and Kiev railroad sent certain requirements for technical means and rules of their operation. Namely: there were requirements in specifications for delivery of engines, tenders for a track which contained detailed descriptions of this equipment, their quality characteristics, the number of its deliveries, and also stoimost13.

All part of the wholesale sum which remained unspent founders on the opening day of the road and had no certain purpose on any of works which were planned according to the retail sheet, but were not ended yet had to be paid to founders. The rest was paid to them in process of completion of works, and thus the wholesale sum turned out to founders wholly, according to §2 Kontsessii14.

The analysis of sources showed that appointments of inspectors to construction of the Kursk and Kiev railroad from 1864 to 1867. The department of the railroads appointed: colonel Kipriyanov, engineers lieutenant colonels of Shulman, Petrovsky, Paskin, Rylsky.15

Because activity of Society was controlled by public authorities, it had to pay the sums on the content of government inspections and keeping of inspectors (tab. 1).

Table 1

Structure and the amount of annual payment to the inspectors who were taking part

in survey of the road before its introduction to operation

Name of persons Salary, rub Dining rooms, rub Room, rub Traveling, rub

Inspector of works, engineer, councilor of state 1960 1960 1000 2000

Assistant to the inspector, engineer, collegiate asessor 1176 1176 600 1000

Local police inspector, engineer, collegiate asessor 1176 1176 600 1000

Proceeding from the studied materials, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the wage from these sums to them was charged monthly in a size respectively: 557, 355 and 317 rub (behind interest contribution in emeritarny cash desk (6%). The difference between 1 and 3 turned out because 2 paid extra "additional" money of 490 rub a year. The similar salary was paid to inspectors irrespective of on what branch they rabotali16.

Inspectors regularly participated in quality of representatives from the government at General shareholder meetings (especially it concerns extraordinary meetings or meetings,

13 GAKO. T. 46. Op. 26. 499. NN. 1-2.
14 GAKO. T. 46. Op. 2. 2. NN. 80-82.
15 GAKO. T. 46. Op 2. 2. L. 8-9; T. 46. Op 2. 11. L. 5.
16 GAKO. T. 46. Op. 28. 362. L. 4-5.

on which repayment circulations obligatsiy17 were carried out). The inspector received the formal notice in which the dates of a meeting made a reservation, and in the addition to the instruction its venue, and also the number of actions (voices) which the inspector can vote as the representative pravitelstva18 accurately made a reservation. As government actions he participated in discussion and the solution of the questions presented to consideration at a meeting. These matters were referred to the inspector in advance and if he found necessary on any of them to vote negatively, this representative of the government declared it beforehand to Department of the railroads.

Upon termination of construction the Society was granted the right of operation within 85 years, but after 20 years the government could redeem the road 19 at any time.

Moscow, Kursk or Kiev could be the residence of Board of Society at its discretion. Originally the Board of Society was located in Moscow. It had departments of Society: Technical (the rolling stock and its repair), the Governor of affairs (paper work, i.e. the entering and outgoing documents: applications, instructions, circulars, correspondence and transfer on instances) 20, Accounts department (charge of the salary by the worker and employee), Control of collecting (made estimates of income from operation of the railroad), Control of expenses Commercial (expenses on construction of the railroad and its operation), Searches and claims (considered material cases and claims of individuals to joint-stock company), yuriskonsulta21.

Each of these departments consisted of the head and several subordinates. As a rule, departments were under control of Management of Society and performed the functions depending on the appointment and orders and circulars lowered from higher instances: Managements, Boards, Ministries of Railways, Ministries of Finance, etc. In turn, departments at the end of every year made reports on activity of the industry and transferred them on instance. Direct management of Society of the Kursk and Kiev railroad of the enterprise lay on the management of the road which was in Kursk.

In the head of department there was a managing director of the road. In the submission he had the following offices: Office, table of staff, Legal, Accounts department and pension cash desks.22

Management of the road was divided into services: ways, drafts, movement, telegraph, material and medical. Each service was headed by the chief at whom the office, in turn, which was breaking up on otdely23 consisted.

Establishment of rules of the internal device, receiving and expenditure of the sums, estimating, signing of the contracts belonged to duties of Board, permission of superbudget costs is not higher than 100.000 rub a year, hiring and dismissal of employees of the top skills, purpose of salaries of contents, grants and awards, establishment and change of a carrying payment, definition, an expense and purpose of the sums spare kapitala24.

The Board reported on the activity at general shareholder meeting once a year. Except reporting meetings, at the discretion of Board or upon the demand of the shareholders having 100 voices (actions) also extraordinary meeting.25 were appointed

The analysis of reporting documents allowed to find out that certificates on the money which is due to concession proceeded from Society on a construction of the Kursk and Kiev railroad to the inspector of works. Society having annually reported on the done work and costs of it, on the basis of articles of concession made request for a certain sum of money for supply of necessary materials and the equipment (at the same time, of course the estimate was attached). The inspector, having considered these estimates, sent "The certificate on due on a game -

17 GAKO. T. 46. Op. 11. 3. L. 11, 12, 26, 27.
18 GAKO. T. 46. Op. 11. 3. L. 5.
19 Charter of society of the Kiyevo-Voronezhsky railroad. M, 1893. Page 16, § 48.
20 See for example, GAKO. T. 46. Op. 2. 2., 6, 13.
21 The reference book on staff of employees of the Moscow and Kiev and Voronezh railroad. Railway society MKV. M, 1925. Page 55.
22 GAKO. T. 46. Op. 43. 1. NN. 3-6.
23 GAKO. T. 46. Op. 40. 1. L. 1-23.
24 GAKO. T. 46. Op. 39. 3. L. 7; Charter of Society MKV railway. M, 1893. Page 15, § 24.
25 Charter of Society MKV railway. M, 1893. Page 17, § 27.

cessions money". Society in turn reported on the done work, pointing accurately to what money is spent for (consignment notes on purchase, for example a rail, platforms, cars, tools for production of earthwork, and even consignment notes on transportation of these materials from abroad by the sea or by land here were attached) 26.

Here it must be kept in mind that the Russian government during this period faced quite difficult task, namely — where to take the railway equipment for construction of roads. As a rule, it was imported from abroad, to be exact from England. It is clear, that this equipment often was outdated, insufficiently qualitative, but always very expensive.

From the middle of the 60th of the 19th century the government under the influence of continuous threat of financial crash and the political reasons vainly tried to adjust the organization of domestic production of the railway equipment in the country. So, on October 6, 1866 Alexander II approved the decision of Council of ministers on that all government railway orders for the purpose of money transfer reduction abroad were executed "in the state, without looking on any difficulties or inconveniences which it could present at the beginning" 27.

By 1868 the government developed the system of issue of state orders with payment of advance payments, awards and subsidies from railway fund for speeding up of development of the domestic plants of the transport equipment and rail production. Since this period of delivery of rails and the rolling stock for railway construction began to enter the course of the state centralization gradually. In Ministry of Railways the main supervisory responsibilities on distribution of railway orders for the equipment of the railroads under construction in Russia were concentrated. At the same time loans from railway fund to the industrial societies and the plants producing railway accessories for the purpose of development in Russia of production of rails, engines, cars and so forth which joined in concessions on a construction of the railroads as a condition about the obligatory order of a part of the marked objects at the Russian plants" 28 were issued ".

in the years of industrial upsurge from 1868 on 1874 total amount of the money paid by state orders for the organization of production of the railway equipment within the country made 21.1 million rubles, including 6.7 million rubles, engines — 3.5 million rubles were paid for rails, commodity cars — 10.9 million rubles 29 Gold "rain" from the Russian state treasury promoted the organization to the middle of the 70th 8 rail-rolling, 5 engine-building and 12 car-building zavodov30.

However in actual practice technical backwardness of Russia at the actual lack capitalist of organized metallurgical base and huge demand for the railway equipment in the period of construction "fever" this "system" of the economic management of the government was palliative, having caused ugly forms of development of the Russian reefficient metallurgy entirely depending on import of foreign metal (tab. 2).

Table 2

Expenses of Joint-stock company of the Kursk and Kiev railroad on purchase of the equipment in 1867 — 1868

Reporting period Expenses, pounds Item of expenditure

December, 1867 till February, 1868 79.496 t. the village of 11 highways of 11 items for delivery of rails from abroad under 7 certificates

February, 1868 till June, 1868 60.881 t. the village of 15 highways of 3 items for delivery of rails from abroad under 5 certificates

from June to July, 1868 28. 065 f. the village of 7 highways of 11 items for delivery of rails from abroad under 2 certificates

from August to October, 1868 18. 198 f. the village of 2 highways of 10 items for delivery of rails from abroad under 4 certificates

Total for everything vysheperechis- 221.370, 12 f. page

26 Cm: GAKO. T. 46. Op. 2. 4. L. 34, 79, 120, 147, 149, 173, 184.
27 Our railway policy. T. IV. SPb., 1902. Page 228.
28 A financial position of the Russian societies of the railroads by January 1, 1880 of Part II. M, 1881. Page 75.
29 A. Bushen. The collection of data on questions of supply of the Russian railroads with rails, the rolling stock and other accessories. T. III. SPb, 1876. Page 67.
30 A.M. Solovyova. Railway transport in Russia in the second half of the 19th century. M, 1975. Page 129.

lenny periods:

Executed the main works on construction of the line Kursk-Kiev, Society in 1868. After survey of the road the movement from the station Kursk of the Moscow and Kursk railroad to Brovary31 station was open the same year. Following 1869 the movement from Dneprovsky Bridge to the article of Brovara, and in 1870 from Kiev to Dneprovsky Bridge was open. Thus, in 1870 Kursk was connected with Kiev in the single-track way.

In 1891 on May 14 construction and operation of the line Kursk-Voronezh and laying of the second way from Kursk to Kiev was provided to Society in view of what the first addition to the charter of Society was approved. And also in this connection, Society was transformed to Society of the Kiyevo-Voronezhsky railroad, and its functions were expanded. 32

From now on activity of Society begins to increase quickly. So, same year the construction of narrow-gage access roads is allowed to Society: from the Korenevo station to the city of Rylsk (32 versts), from the same station to the city of Sudzha (37 versts), from the station Konotop to the village of Pirogovka (92 versts), from the station Are abrupt to the city of Chernihiv (75 versts), from the same station to the city of Piryatina (102 versts) 33.

The railway MKV Moscow-Bryansk line. had to connect the center of the country with its southwest areas. It had important economic and big strategic znacheniye34. On June 7, 1895 Society of the Kiyevo-Voronezhsky railroad was granted the right to build the railway line from the station Bryansk of the Lgovo-Bryansky line to Sukhinichi, Kaluga and Maloyaroslavets to Moscow with connecting branches from freight yard Kaluga Moscow and Bryansk to the passenger station Kaluga Syzra-no-Vyazemskoy Road and from the station Moscow to one or several stations of the railroads meeting there.

Thus, upon termination of construction of the line Moscow-Bryansk, on June 2, 1895 Society received the new name Moscow and Kiev and Voronezh iron dorogi35.

The new railroad provided economic welfare of edge as an opportunity easily appeared to market and transport Moscow, Kiev and St. Petersburg the wood, bread, the cattle and all that is manufactured by the Maltsevsky plants. The transit value of the road - passengers is high and the goods sent to Kiev and other southern cities and also going from there to Moscow, St. Petersburg and other cities of northern Russia received reduction of a way on 140 versts. And at last the strategic importance is an opportunity to quickly move troops to southwest borders.

In the last decade of the 19th century the Society MKV railway conducted intensive construction of new lines. Its network for these years increased more than by 5 times and exceeded 2 thousand versts. Lines were laid in southeast Ukraine and Moskovsky industrial region, in nine central provinces of Russia. Foreign bond issues were the main source of financing of construction. The bonded capital of Society for the 90th grew by 6.5 times and by 1900 reached 195 million rubles. The share capital was 14.2 million rubles (7.3% of fixed capital). Dividends of shareholders reached 25-30%.36

The movement on the highway Kursk-Voronezh was open in 1894, and on access roads in 1893. It images, Society in 1894 had the railway line from Kiev to Voronezh, 669 verst long and 329 versts of access roads 37.

According to the fourth addition to the Charter approved in 1898, Society the construction of the line Kiev-Poltava38 is provided. The fifth addition approved in 1903 provides to the same Society construction and operation the Konotop-Navka39 line. In 1908 the sixth addition to the Charter to Society provided construction of the site Bach - mAh-Ivnya, Zolotonosha-Cherkasy and Bobrinskaya-Odessa, reorganization from a narrow track on

31 A.A. Tankov. From last M.K. V. railway//the Messenger M.K. V. of railway 1926. No. 4 of Page 6.
32 Short data on development of the Domestic railroads from 1838 to 1990. M, 1995. Page 48.
33 Data on the railroads of the state control for 1901 SPb, 1904. Page 60.
34 Moscow Railway. In years, through distances...\Edition entrance. Chief of the Moscow Railway I.L. Paristy. M, 1997. Page 42-45.
35 Short data on development of the Domestic railroads from 1838 to 1990. M, 1995. Page 48.
36 Data on the railroads of the state control for 1901 SPb, 1904. Page 59.
37 Hundred years of existence of railroads 1825 1925. M, 1930. Page 26.
38 To a question of repayment in treasury of the enterprises of Society MKVZHD. M, 1913. Page 5.
39 In the same place. With 6.

wide Ivnya-Zolotonosh's site, and from treasury for rent of a branch of the Southwest railroad from Cherkass to Bobrinskaya, inclusion in structure of the new highway and also supply with the rolling stock and accessories and operation of all highway Odessa-Bakhmach. 40

By 1901 the extent of network of the lines operated by Society MKV railway made 2016 versts, and by 1913 the Society constructed and reconstructed ways 1152 versts. As a result of this activity the general extent of the lines operated by Society MKV railway reached 2529 verst41.

In 1913 in the State Duma the question of repayment in treasury of the enterprise of Society MKV of the railway road was brought up, but it did not result in positive results. Society still continued to function up to Great October socialist revolution. On September 4, 1918 Society MKV railway was liquidated by the special decree of Council of People's Commissars and its functions were transferred to Management Moskovsko-Kiyevo-Voronezhskoy iron dorogi42.

Thus, reforms of 60-70 of the 19th century improved conditions for formation of the market relations. Transformations in national economy were resulted by need for overland messages. The Kursk and Kiev railroad which connected Kiev to Central Chernozem farming provinces became one of the perspective directions. But further development of economy of this region gave the chance to understand that the given line for development of domestic market of the country is not enough. Requirements of the developed agricultural industry, involved need of further railway construction.

40 To a question of repayment in treasury of the enterprises of Society MKVZHD. M, 1913. Page 5.
41 The report on operation of MKV railway for 1915. M, 1915. Page 3.
42 Hundred years of existence of railroads 1825-1925. M, 1932. Page 27; Reports on operation for 1898, 1901, 1913. M, 1899, 1902, 1914

THE JOINT-STOCK COMPANY OF THE KURSK-KIEV RAILWAY

L.S. LASHINA

This article is about the problem of creation the joint-stock company of the Kursk-Kiev railway. That was the beginning of building the Moscow-Kiev-Voronezh railway. Here you can find the material about the interaction of this joint-stock company and the Government and the stages of building the MKV railway.

Belgorod Shukhov State Technological University

Sonia Hughes
Other scientific works: