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Temyasovsky Bashkir normal school: history of formation and development



UDC 94 (47) & #43;94 (470.57)


© G.A. Asadullina

Bashkir state university Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, 450074 Ufa, Zacky Validi St., 32.

Ph. / fax: & #43;7 (347) 272 08 22.


In the publication stages of formation and activity of Temyasovsky Bashkir normal school are considered. The author traces various aspects of life of educational institution, defining dynamics of development of school in different years, at the same time the attention to problems of material security and quantitative parameters of development of this educational institution is paid. In a research it is noted that the important contribution for development of school was brought by his teachers and directors. Besides, also some aspects of cultural life of students are shown.

The Soviet education system assumed development and formation of secular education. In the conditions of an acute shortage of shots for development of this system new schools and other educational institutions opened. Elimination of illiteracy and semi-illiteracy among the population of the republic was the most difficult problem facing national education in the 20-30th years of the XX century.

Teachers prepared on the basis of pedagogical courses. The Orenburg Bashkir pedagogical technical school founded on base of short-term courses played a big role in creation of teacher's shots for BASSR. The educational institution was placed in the building of the Caravanserai where there were four audiences, eight offices, two masterful rooms and the hostel. If in 1932-1933 academic year in the Orenburg pedtekhnikum 273 students studied, then in 1935-1936 academic year their quantity grew to 588 people [1, Op.1. 3379. L.30.].

On the basis of the resolution of VTsIK of December 23, 1935 SNK BASSR made the decision on the translation of the Orenburg Bashkir pedtekhnikum on the territory of Bashkir ASSR. The technical school was supposed to be placed in Ufa. For the organization of moving the special commission to which duties the search corresponding educational and premises for students of 2-3 courses of the Orenburg pedtekhnikum belonged was created. According to the resolution in Ufa it was supposed to build the educational building and the hostel for the Bashkir pedagogical technical school with calculation of accommodation of 600 students. Also the plan of the transfer of students of 2-3 courses of the Orenburg pedtekhnikum to Davlekanovsky pedtekhnikum - 180 people, in Sterlitamak Bashkir pedtekhnikum - 160 people was approved. It was also specified that reception on the first course will be carried out in the village of Temyasovo of Baymaksky district of BASSR. Soon this circumstance caused acceptance of the final decision on placement of all Orenburg pedtekhnikum in the village of Temyasovo [1, Op.1. 3379. L.65].

For ensuring new enrollment in Temyasovo the educational building of high school, the mosque and three houses was assigned to technical school, In the last three rooms before took place the Temyasovsky Village Council,

Baymaksky district consumer union and former volost board. By the beginning of August, 1936 the personnel of the Orenburg pedtekhnikum were transferred to the village of Temyasovo.

The big role in activity of the Orenburg technical school was played by S.R. Alibayev who was the director of technical school during a row of years. He graduated in Academy of communistic education of N. Krupskaya in Moscow. In 1936 A. Galimov was appointed the director of the Bashkir Temyasovsky pedtekhnikum, and then since 1943 this position was held by F.Z. Zagafuranov, the chairman of Presidium of the Supreme Council of Bashkir ASSR who subsequently became.

Originally Temyasovsky pedtekhnikum suffered a shortage of teaching personnel. In total teachers was seven, positions of teachers of the Russian and Bashkir languages, biology and chemistry, drawing, music, pedagogics, military science and physical education were vacant.

In 1937-1938 academic year in the Bashkir ped-technical school 277 people studied. During this period the size of a grant of students equaled to 55-70 rubles. At the same time the grant of 55 rubles was got by all pupils of the first year of training. Food cost in the canteen of school was 50-53 rubles a month.

Many students lived in hostels. From 277 people 249 lived in five hostels with a total area of 617.6 square meters, that is 2.48 square meters were the share of each student. Hostels were located in remoteness from the academic building of school that in the conditions of insufficient security of students with clothes and footwear created additional difficulties. In 1937 one of buildings of school burned down and it was necessary to staff of school will be placed in the building of incomplete high school [2, page 34-36].

The management of a normal school nipped any talk, jokes of anti-Soviet and anti-Communist character in the bud. For example, students of the II course said among themselves that "... if Stalin died, one more day of rest in a year would increase". Other student told chastushkas: "The tractor plows sides, the tractor driver laughs, in a year, through two, the collective farm will disperse...". Against the guilty students were accepted such

_ZhK 1998-4812 Bulletin of the Bashkir university. 2011. T. 16. No. 1


measures as an explanatory conversation, discussion at meetings of educational group or at a meeting of Komsomol committee [1, Op. 1 5645, L. 17].

Extracurricular activities were conducted by political education circles. In some circles studied the history of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), and in others the political diploma. For teachers the circle on studying works of V.I. Lenin worked. Reports on subjects were also discussed at meetings of students: "About world situation", "About events in China", "About harm of religion", "About the Stalin constitution and religion", etc. Besides, circles on the organization of choral singing, chess, physical education and the voluntary organizations of civil defense worked. By twentieth anniversary of the October revolution, wall newspapers and the literary magazine were published. The literary circle published the Edebi Kes magazine ("Power of literature"). Collective viewing movies "Battleship Potemkin", "Chapayev", "Gorge Alma Owl", "Girl from Kamchatka", "Gold Lake", "Love of Alyona", "Dawn", etc. became a significant event in life of school. Statements "Frontier guards" of Baymaksky theater and to "Galiyaban" of the Tubinsky theatrical circle had great success. Forces of a theatrical circle of school put performances in Bashkir "A red star", Gulsum, "Protect that did not blow up", "Kirilbay", "Black eyes", "For a gift", "Young life" and also "The people, we will get even!" in Russian" [1, Op. 1 4425. L. 31].

In 1939-1940 the Temyasovsky Bashkir normal school let out 39 experts, and the total studying at full-time department then made 350 students. At the same time certain attention was paid to activity of correspondence department where in the specified years 357 students studied.

The special place was allocated to teaching Russian. Many students made progress. For example, pupils R. Baimov, K. Rafikov,

A. Ismakova were encouraged with valuable presents in the form of books. The library of school contained more than 20,000 units of literature, from them 7000 on fiction.

The school held mass agitation events for elimination of illiteracy among country people. During elections the students of older years and teachers worked as propagandists at sites, that helped the Soviet and party organizations to hold these important events successfully. Pupils were engaged in different circles. Many of them were awarded with the Voroshilov sharpshooter's badges (24 persons), PVHO (288 people), GSO (216 people), GTO (72 persons).

In 1939-1940 the hostel on 283 places, a table, joiner's, forge and joiner's workshop and also a bath and club worth 40 thousand rubles was built. Besides, the school had two cars and eight horses [2, page 34-36].

The Great Patriotic War made the corrections to activity of a normal school. On August 9, 1941 SNK BASSR adopted the resolution "About Merge of Normal Schools and Granting Rooms to Orphanages". According to this resolution there was a merge of Sermenevsky and Temyasovsky normal schools, Tatar and Chuvash normal schools in Belebey. The freed buildings were transferred to orphanages. During this period in the Sermenevsky normal school only 67 students, and in Temyasovskom - 180 students studied. The material resources of the Sermenevsky normal school were weak, and there were not enough shots [1, Op. 9 2052. L. 3].

For the successful organization of teaching and educational work and for providing students with food the school supported subsidiary farm. At first it was small. In 1936-1939 economic activity it was carried out on 7 hectares of the earth and 250 thousand rubles of income were gained. In the years of war economic activity continued to develop. For example, in 1943-1944 the Temyasovsky normal school had in economy of 20 horses, 25 sheep, 4 pigs. On 10 hectares potatoes were grown up, 4 thousand roots of cabbage and also 1100 centners of hay were prepared. The school was completely provided with 2300 cubic meters of firewood.

In the same years the school lacked shots of teachers of history, music, singing and drawing. In plans of educational institution there was an organization and participation in socialist competitions between normal schools and classes. At first socialist competitions played a certain role on strengthening of material resources and pedagogical potential. Subsequently in this competition item on a gain score of students was removed, and it led to formal assessment of knowledge [1, Op. 8. 1287. L. 31].

Despite these difficulties the Temyasovsky normal school played a big role in education of the intellectuals and competent people for the republic in general. Activity of a normal school helped a raising of cultural level of the population.

In 1956 the Temyasovsky normal school along with other educational institutions was combined with the Beloretsk normal school. Sharp reduction of number of entrants because of deterioration in a demographic situation was the reason of it following the results of the Great Patriotic War.

The Temyasovsky Bashkir normal school turned into a source of manpower for the republic and the regions, neighboring to it. Some of graduates held responsible positions in the republic - Chairmen of the board of Ministers of BASSR, first secretaries of district committees of party, Ministers of Education, heads of party and public authorities of management.


1. Central state historical archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Fund 798.
2. I. Mamleev. Progress of Temyasovsky normal school//the Teacher of Bashkortostan (On bashk. language). No. 11-12 (43-44); November-December, 1939 of 55 pages

Came to edition of 23.11.2010

Bruno Peter Luke
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