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To a question of a periodization of foundation of monasteries of the North Caucasus (end the XVIII beginning of the 20th century)



v. E. Borodenko

To the QUESTION OF the PERIODIZATION of FOUNDATION of MONASTERIES of the NORTH CAUCASUS (the end of XVIII - the beginning of the 20th century)

Work is presented by department of pre-revolutionary national history of the Kuban State University. The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor V.N. Ratushnyak

In article the periodization of foundation of monasteries in the North Caucasus is for the first time given, all monastic monasteries existing during the pre-revolutionary period in the region are called and also the location of some of them is specified.

The article is devoted to some aspects of history and mapping of monasteries in the Northern Caucasus area. The author proposes his own original version of dates of their founding, presents an ultimate list of monasteries in the Pre-Revolutionary period and also specifies geographic placement for some of them.

2 1

Monkhood and monasteries were an integral part of church history. The early Christian inochestvo was a high ideal of moral purity. Monkhood in Russia, keeping ascetic tradition of Byzantium, strengthened an evangelical element of effective love, i.e. service to people, mercy. Leaving from the world, monks served it.

Studying history of emergence and activity of orthodox monasteries of the North Caucasus supplements an overall picture of development of this region. Since introduction of Christianity in Russia the monasteries were the religious and moral centers, but except the main purpose they carried out charitable, educational, missionary and other functions. The last from the listed functions treated generally new territories, attached to the Russian Empire, with the multinational structure of the population. The North Caucasus was it. From time to time any given function of the monastery became priority, depending on a political situation.

In domestic historical science, both secular, and church, this subject was not a subject of a special research. In a pre-Soviet historiography the first monasteries of the North Caucasus are mentioned in help and statistical editions of the beginning of the 19th century, such as "History of the Russian hierarchy" and "Complete collection of historical data on all monasteries which were in the ancient time and nowadays existing...".

P.M. Stroyev, V.V. Zverinsky, L.I. Denisov's works, etc. have help character, left at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century of 2 V them not only almost all monasteries of the region are listed, but more detailed information, than in editions of the previous period is given. In these works the fact of creation of the monastery was established, its exact location, number of monks and some interesting events from the history of monastery was specified.

The comprehensive description of certain monasteries of the Kuban, Tersky regions and the Stavropol province is given in "Kavkazskikh-Stavropolsky diocesan sheets" (from the 1870th) and "The Vladikavkaz diocesan sheets" (since 1886). Except publications in local editions material about the North Caucasian monasteries was placed also in capital periodicals, for example, in "Church sheets", "The Moscow sheets", etc. In the 1890th, work of the abbot Serafim "Ancient Christian temples and St. was published. Aleksandro-Afonsky Zelenchuksky monastery." 3, sustained three editions.

Special attention A. Voskresensky's works united in a peculiar series under general name "From Travelling Notes of the Pilgrim" 4 deserve. In 1908 the 20 anniversary of its church and writer's activity was celebrated. It was published under a wordly name, A. Voskresensky, in fact was the celibate priest of the Oransky Bogoroditsky monastery of the Nizhny Novgorod province of the island of Dimitriyem and carried out writer's obedience. A. Voskresensky bore the idea of the description of monasteries of the South of the Russian Empire, and in particular the North Caucasus. For this purpose he made a pilgrimage in monastery and lived in them some time, observing life in the monastery, talking to monks and nuns. The extensive material collected as a result of such travel had to form the basis of work of "the Shrine of the North Caucasus". October events of 1917 interfered with implementation of conceived.

In the early nineties researchers of history of the North Caucasus addressed studying questions of religion and Church again. Historians and local historians of Kuban and Stavropol Territory published articles on this subject in collections of scientific works and periodicals.

Creation of monasteries in the North Caucasus fell on the fatal period in the history of Russian Orthodox Church To a question of a periodization of foundation of monasteries of the North Caucasus (the end of XVIII - the beginning of the 20th century)

Synod (it is more correct to tell - sinodskiya). Fatal it became also for the Russian monasteries. Petrovsky transformations of Church were completed by Catherine II, 5 On them monasteries were divided introduction of Monastic states in February, 1764 into three degrees: The 1, 2 and 3 classes. It was as a result closed considerable if - a chestvo of monasteries. To the remained monasteries, depending on degree, the earth size was defined, monashestvuyushchy the annual salary from the state treasury was established. The economy in them was recommended to be conducted by forces of monks and novices. The monasteries which were not receiving the state contents were ranked as unimportant. The earth selected as a result of these actions departed in favor of the state, and the monastic peasants working at it were transferred to the category of state. It is possible to tell that in the second half of the 18th century the process of folding of a monastic system in Russia which assumed rather accurate structure of management and a certain hierarchical subordination came to the end. To the middle of the 19th century the legal framework which defined legal position of monasteries, their monks and nuns was finally developed.

The North Caucasian monasteries were established on the existing legal basis on samples of the monastic monasteries of the Russian Empire which are already created thus. Church reform of Catherine II concerned the only thing at that time in the Krestovozdvizhensky Monastery region in fortress Kizlyar. Process of creation of monasteries of the North Caucasus can be divided into four periods:

1) the initial stage - the 1730th - the 1790th, is connected with foundation of the first four monasteries: three men's and one women's. The first of them as it was noted above, the Kizlyar Krestovozdvizhensky monastery founded approximately in 1736 was. It was created by the Georgian monks at full assistance of the Russian government for the purpose of distribution of Orthodoxy among Ossetians and other people of the North Caucasus. At first in it the missionary camp - "The Ossetian Farmstead" was located. The Krestovoz-dvizhensky monastery long time was the only outpost of Orthodoxy in the region. In 1793 along with the organization of the Mozdok and Madzharsky vikarny diocese two cenobitic monasteries were arranged: Preobrazhensky men's and Uspensky women's. Missionary activity was the main function of these monasteries also. In six years both Ob - a body abolished together with a vikariatstvo as a result of the next administrative-territorial transformations in the country.

With resettlement of the Black Sea Cossacks on the lands granted by Catherine II there was a need of creation of monastery. In 1794-1795 began to settle Cossack, class, Ekaterino-lebyazhsky Sacred and Nikolaev men's deserts. It performed other function - charitable, sheltered crippled, aged Cossacks. Most of the moved Cossacks had no family, there were siromakham, living the days in monastery, i.e. it was the monastery almshouse. Thus, by the beginning of the 19th century only two monasteries in northeast and northwest parts of the North Caucasus worked;

2) the second period - the 1840th - - is connected the 1850th with creation of two female monastic communities built then in degree of monasteries of the 2nd and 3rd classes. Need of their creation was dictated by the developed political circumstances. The first half of the 19th century was sated with military operations in the region which the large number of widows was result, of orphans and lonely the aged man. In this regard there was at the beginning Army Chernomorskaya for the sake of Mary Magdalene cenobitic women's deserts (3rd class) in 1848 6 It were located between Timashevskaya and Rogovskaya's villages in the village of Malinino on the Kirpili River. Deserts was class Cossack monastery, in it accepted representatives only of the Cossack estate, mainly Black Sea-Kuban army. Only with the permission of the army government in deserts could accept as an exception the representative of other estate, "nonresident" if she was skillful in different needlework and the monastery needed it.

In 1859 Ioanno-Predtechensky the Mariinsky cenobitic convent built in degree of the 2nd klassa7 began to act. It was in three versts from Stavropol. The monastery accepted all in it coming without class restrictions.

A main goal of both monasteries - charity. Here sheltered and rendered to persons in need all help. Besides, their activity had a wide range: schools, schools, training in icon-painting and zolotoshveyny business, training of nurses for work in hospitals during military operations, etc.

It is necessary to notice that, having class degree, both monasteries did not receive the contents put on this degree from the state treasury. Such position of monasteries of the region was allowed Russian zakonodatelstvom8 when degree of a class was appropriated nominally, i.e. had the status of prestige. Especially it belonged to the monasteries founded in the administrative centers of the new territories attached to the Russian Empire;

3) the third period - the 1870th - - is connected the 1890th with strengthening of positions of the tsarist government in the region after the end of the Caucasian war and political stabilization. In the North Caucasus it is possible to judge durability of a position of Russia on if - to a chestvo of the monasteries founded during this period. Them was eight - four men's: Mikhaylo-Athos Zakubanskaya, the Aleksan-dro-Afonskaya Zelenchukskaya emergency cenobitic deserts and also the Caucasian Nikolaev missionary emergency monastery - in Kuban oblasti9 and Resurrection Mamay-Madzharsky unimportant cenobitic Monastery - in Stavropol gubernii10. Four women's: Of St. George and Pokrovsk emergency cenobitic monasteries - in Terskaya oblasti11; Sentinsky Spaso-Preobrazhensky and New and Pokrovsk supernumerary cenobitic monasteries - in Kuban oblasti12. Two men's deserts were founded by celibate priests from Athos. The charters entered in these monasteries repeated the structure of monasteries of the Sacred Mountain and were strictly observed throughout all existence. The largest and rich monastery of the North Caucasus can be considered Mikhaylo-Athos Zakubanskuyu cenobitic deserts.

All monasteries of the considered period, except New and Pokrovsky, to a degree were engaged in missionary activity;

4) the fourth period - - is characterized 1900-1917 by the fact that at this time small monastic monasteries, both men's, and women's were created. Men's were approved as monasteries at once, and women's - in the beginning as the monastic communities, some of them were built in the category of monasteries over time. During the considered period eight monasteries were created, and one Krestovozdvizhensky men's monastery was transformed to women's. Men's monasteries: Vtoro-Afonsky Uspensky near Pyatigorsk and Sacred and Troitsk near Vladikavkaz - in the Tersky region; Kazan - near Ekaterinodar - in Kuban oblasti13; Sacred and Troitsk near the village Forest on the way to Krasnaya Polyana - in Chernomorskaya gubernii14. Women's: Sacred and Troitsk-Serafimovskaya community in the Nalchinsky district and community for the sake of Anna of Kashin near Grozny - in Terskaya oblasti15; Iversko-Alekseevsky community near the posad of Tuapse - Chernomorskaya gubernii16, the Kazan Agafa-dorov the monastery - in the Stavropol province.

All created since the end of XVIII - the beginnings of the 20th century of monastery of the North Caucasus were unimportant and did not receive from the state treasury of money for the existence. Therefore economic activity for them was the major, and at times priority to support itself the means.

From the above it is possible to draw a conclusion that creation of monasteries in the North Caucasus depended mainly from weed - a tichesky situation in the region, good will of the military and civil authority. Foundation of monastic monasteries also demonstrated stabilization of a situation and durability of positions of Russia in the North Caucasus.

of the NOTE

1 Ambrose (Ornatsky), celibate priest. History of the Russian hierarchy. M, 1801-1815. T. 1-6; A. Ratshin, svyashch. Complete collection of historical data on all both the nynesushche-stvuyushchy monasteries and remarkable churches which were in the ancient time in Russia. M, 1852.
2 V.V. Zverinsky. Materials for a historical and topographical research about orthodox monasteries of the Russian Empire: In 3 t. SPb., 1890-1897; L.I. Denisov. Orthodox monasteries of the Russian Empire. M, 1908; P.M. Stroyev. Lists of hierarches and priors of monasteries of the Russian Church. SPb., 1877.
3 Seraph, abbot. Ancient Christian temples and St. Aleksandro-Afonsky Zelenchuksky monastery of the Kuban region of Batalpashinsky department.
4 Voskresensky A. Chernomorskaya Ekaterino-lebyazheskaya Nikolayevskaya cenobitic deserts of the Kuban region (From traveling notes of the pilgrim). Nizhny Novgorod, 1909; It. The new and Pokrovsk convent in the Kuban region (From traveling notes of the pilgrim). Sergiyev Posad, 1910; It. A sacred Favor of the North Caucasus - Spaso-Preobrazhensky convent on the Teberde River, in the Kuban region (From traveling notes of the pilgrim). Odessa, 1910.
5 1PSZ. T. 16. February 26, 1764. No. 12060.
6 2PSZ. T. 23. December 11, 1848. No. 22812.
7 The review of establishment in Russia orthodox monasteries / Sost. N. Grigorovich. SPb., 1869. Page 128.
8 A review of church and civil legalizations on spiritual department / Sost. Ya. Ivanovsky. SPb., 1900. Page 12.
9 RGIA. T. 796. Op. 442. 1531. L. 15.
10 Extraction from the Vsepoddanneyshy report of the Chief prosecutor Sv. The synod on department of orthodox religion for 1884 SPb., 1885. Page 231.
11 RGIA. T. 796. Op. 442. 1766. L. 7-7ob.
12 RGIA. T. 796. Op. 442. 2239. L. 5ob.
13 GAKK. T. 318. Op. 6. 701. L. 4-4ob.
14 RGIA. T. 797. Op. 70. II otd. The 3rd table. 190. L. 19-19ob.
15 RGIA. T. 796. Op. 442. 2782. L. 10ob.
16 RGIA. T. 796. Op. 205. 247. L. 4.
Charlotte Pamela
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