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The Russian policy in the North Caucasus in the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century (administrative-territorial aspects)



BBK T 3 (2R37)5-5

The RUSSIAN POLICY IN the NORTH CAUCASUS

IN the SECOND HALF of XIX - the BEGINNING of the 20th century. (Administrative-territorial ASPECTS)

© 2008 A. Matveev

Southern Federal University, Southern Federal University,

344006, Rostov-on-Don, B. Sadovaya St., 105, 344006, Rostov-on-Don, B. Sadovaya Str., 105,

On the basis of the archive material which was not introduced earlier for scientific use administrative-territorial aspects of the Russian policy in the North Caucasus in the second half of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century are shown. Systematization of the facts is followed by original observations and conclusions.

The article is based on new archival findings in administrative-territorial history of Russian politics in the Nothern Caucuses from the last half of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20h century. The article contains a systematic analysis of new information with original findings and conclusions.

On the North Caucasian outskirts when fixing as a part of the Russian Empire not only provinces, but also the areas differing in the specific structure of the population [1] were created. As A.I. Khasbulatov truly noticed, "territorial division" formed a basis for education and functioning of "the Russian control system" [2, page 146]. It respectively was primary link of the transformations directed to overcoming separatist isolation.

In the territory of the Caucasian Cossack troops, in the Kuban and Tersky regions, departments were its basis (originally, as well as in the central provinces of Russia, counties). Some of them joined also the local people [3]. Such administrative division which developed still in 60 - the 80th of the 19th century and legislatively fixed since July 1, 1888, remained till 1917 only in the Kuban region [4, l. 38, 135]. In it there were seven Cossack departments: ESA-terinodarsky, Tamansky, Yeysk, Caucasian, Labinsk, Maykop and Batalpashinsky [5], subdivided into sites [6].

Adyghes and Circassians entered Ekaterinodarsky and Maykop, and a part of Karachays (more than 60%) - in Batalpashinsky departments [4, l. 38, 135]. On a closing stage of the Caucasian war in northwest parts of the region in 1862 the 4th pristavsky managements with division on top - lower Kuban and Labinsk and also 2 district - Bzhedukhovsky and Natukhai were temporarily founded. They were designed "to satisfy administrative requirements..., to develop between natives civic consciousness" [7, page 84-85].

This establishment was made under the influence of extreme military circumstances, and since 1863 in it gradual transformations which led to noted territorial division of the Kuban region began to be carried out. During them the native population was grouped for convenience of management to big auls [7, page 87]. In 1865 in the Northwest Caucasus it is distributed on 5 districts which received

name of military and national: Psekupsky, Labinsk, Urupsky, Zelenchuksky and Elbrus. Abazins, Armenians, Nogais and Karachays entered them except Circassians [8, page 38].

Administrative-territorial division of the Kuban region thereof turned out non-uniform on structure though on aulny societies the principle of ethnicity was sustained. That was promoted, in particular, by the military and national districts allocated with broad internal independence and a peculiar autonomy. Since 1871 there is a transition to civil management, but the former organization of the power in areas of resettlement of Turkic and mountain communities with elements of protection of ethnic originality remained not broken [8]. As autonomy it was understood then ".pravo self-government, independence of the people" in internal affairs [9] which allowed to provide such protection. Existence of a certain space as a part of the Russian Empire acted as primary condition of this status.

However in the Kuban region the coincidence of ethnic and territorial signs was not established in what large-scale movements of the population and the developed features of an ethnodemographic situation [10, l were reflected. 40 about.]. Presence of various ethnic groups in the Northwest Caucasus as showed special developments of V.B. Vinogradov, had historical conditionality. Many circumstances among which important role was played by attacks from the Crimean khanate before inclusion it in the borders of Russia which led to emergence of not populated territories and their subsequent East Slavic colonization [11] influenced.

In the Kuban region there was a practice of administrative unity of ethnic communities where there was impossible because of the land and other got of the past circumstances a full territorial combination. It was applied, in particular, at arrangement of Karachays whose part (more than 30%) remained at disengagement in the Tersky region.

At transformation implementation their representatives, expressing the general mood of the people, appealed to the Russian administration "not to shatter them". The petition of Karachays, despite all difficulties, had satisfaction.

The solution was proposed the following. The part of these people which was in the Tersky region was transferred in the administrative relation in Kuban. On it Karachays gave the consent approved by aulny descents. The territory of resettlement of these people in the Tersky region formally was not withdrawn from its limits where remaining the rights of non-residents [4, l were granted. 34, 38]. But as ethnic community administratively Karachays were integrated. Conditions for respect for their customs and traditions in management were created, to the organization of spiritual life.

Z.B. Kipkeeva considers that placement of the Cossack settlements in the Northwest Caucasus in combination with the neighbourhood of native auls was based on aspiration to the termination of the "hostility between the people" existing still in some cases, exceptions according to the probability of the attacks and mutinies which were not allowing to adjust peaceful relationship in the past. At the expense of it also safety of the territories which were a part of Russia was maintained [12, page 29]. However noted division of the territory of Karachays at openness of the state space did not create obstacles for ethnic development. It concerned also other similar, but not numerous cases.

In the Tersky region in the second half of the 19th century there was also a mixed accommodation order in a number of the Cossack departments of the East Slavic and native population. However here need of division on ethnic origin was more insistent. Administrative redistribution of the territory is made for achievement of it in 1899 in the Tersky region. The Mozdok department is formed of adjacent areas of the Kizlyar and Pyatigorsk departments [13, page 27-28].

The greatest changes in administrative-territorial differentiation of the Tersky region were outlined in 1904-1905. The Cossacks during them unlike the previous policy directed to cohabitation of various ethnic communities were protected from other people prevailing in number. Were considered at disengagement interests and the foreign population [14, l. 1-14 about.; 15]. According to the decision of the State Council made in 1904, the southwest part of the Grozny district inhabited by Chechens joins Vedeno [13, page 28]. It included in the prevailing degree mountain Chechnya [2, page 164] owing to what unity of these people continued.

In 1905 the low-Kabardian auls of the 1st site of the Sunzha department with all farms entering it, settlements are transferred to the structure of management of the Nalchik district as which are ranked, besides, the supervising foreman and local office. As a result of this change the 4th administrative site [14, l was formed. 3-3 about.]. The translation of a part of the native population from the Cossack department in ethnically related to it the administrative district is the certificate strem-

the line of representatives of the Russian power to eliminate the obstacles which remained owing to any given circumstances for consolidation and cultural interaction.

As were considered at the organization of the territory of the North Caucasian outskirts for management the interests of inoet-nichesky communities, it is possible to track, in particular, on the example of the satisfaction of petitions of Ingushs for disengagement with Cossacks [14, l. 1-14 about.; 15]. After restoration of a namestnichestvo in the Caucasus the general aide-de-camp count I.I. Vorontsov-Dashkov who headed it charged to the assistant on military unit lieutenant general Malama "... to find out on the place of the reason, caused... disorders and to take appropriate measures to their termination". Following the results of acquaintance to a situation ".soobrazheniye about need of allocation of Ingushs from management of the Sunzha department" were presented to the deputy. For them it was offered to create the Nazran district with the special staff of management and administrative borders [16, l. 1 about. - 2].

The justification of division of the Tersky region into districts and departments, i.e. on ethnic sign, was recognized even during administrative-territorial transformations after the end of the Caucasian war. Such approach was fixed in 1888 and was the general as it was already noted, for the Kuban and Tersky regions. I.I. Vorontsov-Dashkov, having studied the office report of the lieutenant general Malama, supported his offer on creation of the special district for "an order .vodvoreniye among Ingushs and development of their cultural economic situation". Also the purpose of "a protection of the Cossack population" from amplified ".grabezhy, the robberies and collisions. reaching sometimes the use of weapon" [16, l was pursued at the same time. 2-2 about., 3].

Allocation of Ingushs in 1905 to the special Nazran district, thus, was a response of representatives of the Russian power to the wishes proceeding from places. Before it was necessary to face numerous protests of Ingushs against administrative association with Cossacks at which governing bodies were combined in army board and were in St. Sunzha [17]. At design of transformation the opinion of authorized Ingush societies was considered. In their appeals to government instances of local level and coming to St. Petersburg it was claimed that administration "... showed the activity. sometimes very severe measures; in the field of education of the Ingush tribe and cares of his welfare. nothing was made" [18, l. 13]. Concern expressed also concerning the police measures taken against robberies and robberies, which not always were adequately answering to the developing situation [18, l. 13].

The Sunzha department including in the borders not only the Cossack settlements, but also the Ingush auls was formed on the basis of the provision "About Management of the Kuban and Tersky Regions" of 1888. Taking into account the shown discontent of glavnonachalstvuyushchiya with troops of the Caucasian military district in 1905 made the order assuming formation of "the special Ingush district" under the name Nazran [18,

l. 11]. Representation was issued in Head department of the Cossack troops and on November 8 is directed to the Council of War. Its consideration took place on November 17. At acquaintance to representation the members of the Council of War paid attention that "The Nazran district existed already before and was then is abolished for the purpose of the termination of constant discord between the Cossack population and Ingushs." [14, l. 14].

Acting with regret noted resumption of requirement of restoration of this district for "... settlements of an order among Ingushs.". It was recommended with "to treat extra care the projected measure... to enter it at first it is temporary subsequently if only in practice it results in favorable results to establish it as a measure constant" [14, l. 14-14 about.]. This initiative proceeding from the regional power received the royal approval then it began to be carried out through legislative instances of the Russian Empire [18, l. 11].

the Commission on the direction of the legislative assumptions, having considered attentively arrived justifications, came to a conclusion that petitions from the Ingush population of the Sunzha department really are a consequence "the irrational control unit these people", and the administration does not cope with the official duties assigned to it. Consisting mainly of Cossacks, she anyway "cared more and penetrated into needs of villages". At trial by the same commission the fact "quite objective attitude towards the foreign population was elicited.". Made sure of it at acquaintance to business and other power instances on which decision-making [18, l depended. 11].

However the carelessness to "economic and cultural needs" of the Ingush societies from administration of the Sunzha department was also established and qualified as the offense promoting rise in crime. For counteraction it needed acceptance of "appropriate repressive measures". Justifications for administrative-territorial division were presented on acquaintance to the Minister of War general aide-de-camp V.A. Sukhomlinov and the Chairman of the State Duma M.V. Rodzyanko. They also shared concern that the situation in the Sunzha department "is undermined by the authority of the government power in the opinion of Ingushs" [18, l. 11, 18].

Consideration of the case led to recognition that "abolition of the separate management of Ingushs existing till 1888 and their inclusion in the structure of the Sunzha department made without any reason with outlook and living conditions of this tribe was a large mistake" [18, l. 11-11 about.]. In this regard by the order glavnonachalstvuyushchy troops of the Caucasian military district in 1905 it was formed of a part of the Sunzha department of the Tersky region "special Nazran district". It was made as it was explained in the text, "in types of achievement of the best management of the Ingush population". The decision passed through a preliminary stage of study in General staff of the military

the ministries also underwent expert estimates of specialists of this department.

Having agreed with it, the commission began to dig up resources "on the maintenance of the Nazran district". The question of a source of financing was difficult as "the cash condition of the arobny sums" collected from the Ingush population did not allow "to support management of the district further one year". Therefore 80% of the assumed expenses were assigned to the state treasury, and 20% - "at the expense of the general army capital of Tersky Cossack army". The royal statement provided existence of the Nazran district in the Tersky region "... in the form of experience for 3 years" [18, l. 13]. In reforming thus it was careful, and final realization was put into dependence on natural evolutionary selection.

Further observations showed that establishment of the certain Nazran district "conceived very beneficial influence on Ingushs.", promoted the statement of feeling at them ". civic consciousness". For all the time of its existence as it was noted in office correspondence, on them "... any penalty was not imposed. the number of crimes decreased, despite the general restless condition of all state" [18, l. 13]. In this regard the observation about need to keep the Nazran district as at the return administrative-territorial accession to the Sunzha department the cultural and economic development can "slow down was made." these people that ". not for the benefit of the government" [18, l. 13].

In 1907 the positive changes gained recognition of regional board and a namestnichestvo then the commander-in-chief of troops of the Caucasian military district confirmed the order "about formation of the special Ingush district under the name Nazran." [16, l. 16]. Existence of the Nazran district in the Tersky region in 1907 "most high" was prolonged by the approved position of the Council of War till 1911 [18, l. 13, 18]. However in 1909, before the planned term, after approval of the bill of the financial commission by the State Duma and support of the State Council, the royal statement, the Nazran district [13, by page 28 was formed of the Ingush auls allocated from the Sunzha department as a part of the Tersky region; 18, l. 13].

Following the results of transformations by 1910 the Tersky region was differentiated on 4 departments in which the Cossacks, and 6 districts including the foreign population mainly lived [13, page 28]. By the boundary of the 20th century, in 1899, we will note for comparison, it was divided into 4 departments and 4 districts [19]. Departments of Tersky Cossack army, Pyatigorsk, Mozdok, Kizlyar and Sunzha, having a little narrowed the spatial limits due to reorganization, remained [20].

Administrative changes affected only territories of resettlement of native societies owing to what their unity on ethnic sign reached bigger compliance. In a mountain strip in the administrative relation of society united in it is old -

shinstvo [21]. As a result in this area unlike Kuban coincidence of administrative division to limits of traditional accommodation of various ethnic groups [10, l was established in most cases. 40 about.].

It passed across districts: Kabardians and Balkars inhabited Nalchik, Ossetians - Vladikavkaz, Chechens - Grozny and Vedeno, Ingushs - Nazran, Kumyks - Khasavyurt, karanogay-ets - of the same name with ethnic identity at-stavstvo the Kizlyar department [22]. The last till 1888 were in the Stavropol province and to the Tersky region were transferred because of cultural proximity to other Turkic societies living in its limits what the adjacency of arrangement favored [23] to. In a case with karanogayets the deviation from the established practice of administrative names in the Tersky region is obvious.

Districts in turn were divided into sites [8, page 38]. Besides the listed administrative formations in the Tersky region there was an aimag inhabited by Kalmyks [24]. Thus, in the Tersky region where the mountain and Turkic population prevailed in number, the territory of districts generally coincided with ethnic borders [10, l. 40-41 about.]. Administrative division did not violate, apparently, the right of the autochthonic people of edge.

Changes in administrative-territorial arrangement of the Tersky region were assumed and further. At their design, as before, the numerous petitions proceeding from aulny societies were considered. In the same 1910 the petition before the commander-in-chief of the Caucasian army for inclusion in the Kizlyar district of Kalmyks and-ranogaytsev, remaining out of this administrative association was excited. Also 5 country volosts were subject to accession to this district according to an initiative.

Discussion of details of this transformation demanded thoughtful approach and dragged on in time. Difficulties were caused by the situation which arose in the region from the beginning of World War I. The suspense of a question remained till 1917. There was no restoration of the existing earlier Argun district about what asked the Chechen societies [13, page 28]. However and in this case the Russian authorities expressed readiness to make concessions and took steps for their embodiment in practice.

Literature

1. Russia//Encyclopaedic dictionary (B.: F.A. Brockhaus and I.A. Efron. SPb. 1898). L., 1991. Page 161.

Came to edition

2. A.I. Khasbulatov. Administrative-territorial and administrative transformations in Chechnya to the II floor. XIX - the head of the 20th century//Caucasus: problems of sack-turno-civilization development: Dokl. Vseros. nauch. - prakt. konf. "Caucasian region: problems of cultural development and interaction". (Rostov-on-Don, December 22 - 23, 1999) / Otv. edition Yu.G. Volkov. Rostov N / D, 2000.
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4. GARF, t. 1318, op. 1, 645.
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12. Z.B. Kipkeeva. The Russian factor in migrations and resettlement of zakubansky auls of the 19th century. Armavir; Stavropol, 2002.
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14. RGVIA, t. 1, op. 1, 62800.
15. In the same place, t. 400, op. 1, 103, l. 5.
16. In the same place, t. 1, op. 1, 68800.
17. G. Martirosian. To Mountain Ingushetia. Social and economic essay//News of the Ingush research institute of study of local lore. Issue 1. Vladikavkaz, 1928. Page 17.
18. RGIA, t. 1276, op. 21, 624, l. 13.
19. The report of the chief of the Tersky region and the nakazny ataman of Tersky Cossack army for 1901. Vladikavkaz, 1902. Page 2.
20. The Tersky calendar for 1907 / Under the editorship of G.A. Ver-tepov. Issue 16. Vladikavkaz, 1907. Page 2.
21. P.N. Razhdayev. The main lines of the organization of country economy in the North Caucasus. Rostov N / D, 1925. Page 57.
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24. RGIA, t. 1276, op. 21, 53, l. 8

On February 20, 2008

Doris Armstrong
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