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Bodies of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs in formation and development of the guerrilla movement in the Briansk region in days of the Great Patriotic War



o. N. Litvinova

BODIES of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs In FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT of the GUERRILLA MOVEMENT IN the BRIANSK REGION in days of the GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

Work is presented by department of national history of the Yaroslavl state pedagogical university of K.D. Ushinsky.

The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor G.N. Kocheshkov

In article on the basis of archival sources work of bodies of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs in guerrilla groups of the Bryansk region is analyzed. Their task was to give to the spontaneous guerrilla movement purposeful and organized character, but this objective was achieved by traditional methods of the Soviet system that conducted to contradictions and not always yielded positive results.

Activity of the People&s Commissariat of Internal Affairs in partisan units in the Bryansk region is analysed in the article on the basis of archival sources. The aim of the Commissariat was to turn a spontaneous partisan movement to a task-oriented and organized one. However, this aim was being achieved by means of traditional methods of the Soviet system. It led to contradictions and results were not always successful.

One of the most debatable subjects in the history of the Great Patriotic War is fight of the Soviet people in the back of the enemy. Despite the considerable number of works, separate aspects of this problem, for example actions of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs in guerrilla

groups, are still insufficiently developed. In "Stories of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union" among governing bodies of the guerrilla movement People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs even not upominayetsya1. Modern domestic researchers V.I. Boyarsky,

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A.S. Knyazkov and A.Yu. Popov, on the contrary, highly appreciated participation of bodies of Gosbezopasnosti in expansion of fight in the back vraga2. A position of the western historians on the matter it is most indicative Ch. Dixon and O. Geylbrunn expressed: "We have no data which would demonstrate that the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs was connected with guerrilla formations more closely, than with any other movement which was carried out under its supervision" 3. In view of ambiguity of assessment of a role of bodies of Gosbezopasnosti in the guerrilla movement researches of this subject in regional aspect are especially relevant. In this article the activity of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs in guerrilla groups of the Briansk region on materials of the Center of the contemporary history of the State archive of the Bryansk region is analyzed.

Preparation for possible occupation of the Bryansk region was carried out in the summer of 1941. In settlements, destructive battalions for which bases in forests were created were formed. These connections were transferred to maintaining the 4th department of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs. In process of edge occupation the destructive battalions passed with parts of Wehrmacht in August-October, 1941 to position of guerrilla groups.

Preliminary measures were not crowned with success. Many warehouses were captured by Germans, and stocks were enough only for the small term of military deystviy4. Destructive battalions were quite often created hasty and insufficiently competently. So, at the organization of one of groups "the worker of UNKVD went to transit point of the 40th army, selected from deserters and okruzhenets of 50 "volunteers" and enlisted them in guerrillas. At selection from them 25 people did not want to accept the guerrilla's oath, having said that in guerrillas they will never go... In the presence in a warehouse of automatic machines, semiautomatic devices and machine guns the group was armed with the English rifles at 10 cartridges... Neither the card, nor the field-glass, nor a compass was given to group..." 5. Similar formations quickly lost

the initial structure. M.P. Romashin so wrote about the group in October, 1941: "Because in destructive battalion it was much accepted without careful selection and individual approach; many of fighters, even certain communists rushed to panic, having taken away perfidious German army, and we had to deduct a number of fighters, to leave in group only 23 persons" 6. According to D.V. Emlyutin, in the first guerrilla groups "was many whiners and hostile persons, they needed to be reconstructed..." 7. Guerrilla groups which had no experience of fight in the back of the enemy and tried to battle, having bad structure and weak arms, were easily broken as Zhiryatinsky group and also Yemelyanov's groups and Filkovskogo8.

A part of guerrilla connections, having appeared in occupation, became puzzled and tried to break through on the Soviet territories. The political leader Sokolov who got to an environment in 1941 reported about a meeting with guerrillas who decided to pass the front, having left in group only three cheloveka9. Also the commander of one of groups Trofimov who ordered all "to go on an exit for the front line" 10 arrived. It was spontaneous reaction of unprepared people who were convinced that the Red Army will smash the enemy in others territory. Those groups which in the fall of 1941 were kept dark in forests survived, as a rule. There was a reorganization of the guerrilla movement, and not always to participation of party or bodies of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs.

Preliminary work on formation of guerrilla groups was not carried out in the Starodub district where "the committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) did not prepare at all and did not head the party organization for conducting guerrilla fight... As a result the party and Soviet asset broke up..." 11. In Kursk region where groups for transfer to the territory of the Briansk region, the guerrilla movement, according to the report in the Central Committee had to be formed

PUBLIC AND HUMANITIES

The All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), "it is failed... regional committee of party and bodies of UNKVD right at the beginning... The guerrilla groups created by regional committee and the 4th department of UNKVD till this moment (21.06.1942. - O.L.) are on this side of the front. Part of them costs in Stary Oskol, are bored to death and nobody is engaged in them" 12.

Groups did not pass the front line both on carelessness of some employees of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, and for the objective reasons: due to the lack of suitable shots. According to the report to the Headquarters of the guerrilla movement of the Bryansk front most of candidates for transfer for the back of the enemy were girls up to 20 years which "by the youth cannot be used... even as ordinary saboteurs..." 13. The people selected by People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs not always differed in high moral qualities, did not seek to get in guerrillas and afforded liberties: "From idleness the group lost any image of the disciplined guerrilla group. Except domesticity, any signs of discipline"; "Guerrillas... considered that they will independently act on the place, having nominated the commander of group from the environment... Group... considers that the discipline demanded from group is not obligatory that they not military unit..."; "Appointed the commander of group, taken from... forwarding point of Minchenko, having been called the lieutenant, it was the sergeant and in 2 weeks it was arrested for unauthorized execution of the guerrilla" 14. Thus, the guerrilla connections created by People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs could be formed without strict selection from any available people. Hit in groups of traitors and German agents against which bodies of Gosbezopasnosti fought was explained by it.

In purposefully organized and in the arisen spontaneously guerrilla groups, special departments which had to make huge work were created. But between them and guerrilla commanders there were disagreements as

the last resisted introduction of new orders. For example, the commander of group of Voroshilov G.F. Pokrovsky wrote the letter to the Central Headquarters of the Guerrilla Movement (CHGM) in which "directly breathes discontent to the address of representatives of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs... Yesterday 13. 08. 1942 Pokrovsky started up the next bluff, having said... that he decided to disperse special department!!!" 15. Commanders of groups could neglect instructions of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs what the order of the Headquarters of the guerrilla movement of the Bryansk front issued in November, 1942 confirms: "... certain commanders of guerrilla groups, obtaining information from operas. KGB groups... do not take effective measures, and often ignore messages of security officers... Certain commanders illegally interfere in the opera - tivny functions of operas. KGB groups, trying to change the management of these groups of operas. KGB department" 16. Got used to independent activity in the back of the enemy, possessing the big power, heads of guerrilla groups very much valued the independence. Ignoring of bodies of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs could at - messages to negative results: "The commander of battalion Chirkanov accepted as the intelligence agent obviously suspicious Fedorova whom acquainted with the line occupied by guerrillas and other data. Fedorova was the agent of the German intelligence... collected data and left to Germans" 17. Both guerrilla commanders, and employees of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs wanted to subordinate each other, and it led to disagreements and the conflicts. Besides security officers performed the counterespionage operations in the traditional way of "cleaning of groups" 18 that could lead to arrests and executions of innocent people.

Contrary to will of employees of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs people without the corresponding preparation could become commanders in groups. So, in For the Homeland group, guerrillas were political leaders of platoons, "not having any military rank while in group is it is old -

shy and junior political leaders who graze the cattle and work as fighters" 19. Commanders were quite often chosen or guerrillas for authority and merits recognized those what not always suited security officers. For example, the representative of CSPD senior major Gosbezopasnosti Matveev asked to recall the head of the Integrated headquarters of guerrilla groups of the Bryansk forests D.V. Emlyutin (though the employee of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs) as person "extremely limited, tactless and stupid" 20. Despite this, Emlyutin remained on the post and later became the Hero of the Soviet Union. The central bodies and command of guerrilla groups on places had different understanding of a role of the guerrilla movement. The first sought to give to groups of national avengers the nature of accessories of the Red Army,

the second understood specifics of national guerrilla fight.

Thus, work of bodies of Gosbezopasnosti in guerrilla formations of the Briansk region had both positive, and negative sides. The guerrilla movement developed also with participation of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, and is spontaneous. Gosbezopasnosti's workers sought to give to the spontaneous guerrilla movement purposeful character, to increase its fighting efficiency, to rationalize management. Guerrillas were negative to attempts of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs to unify and subordinate themselves them activity. Guerrilla commanders wanted to act without their guardianship as Gosbezopasnosti's employees fought for improvement of a moral and fighting condition of groups by traditional methods of a Stalin system.

1 History of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union 1941-1945. M, 1965. T. 6. Page 259.
2 Seigniorial V.I. Guerrillas and army: History of the lost opportunities. Minsk, 2003. Page 70-71; The Guerrilla movement (By experience of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945). M, 2001. Page 38; Popoyea. BB. Stalin's saboteurs. Activity of bodies of Gosbezopasnosti the USSR in the occupied Soviet territory in days of the Great Patriotic War. M, 2004. Page 55-76.
3 Dickson Ch., O. Geilbrunn. Communistic guerrilla actions. M, 1957. Page 98.
4 A.P. Gorshkov. The guerrilla movement in the Briansk region in days of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1943)//there Were for fight guerrillas. Bryansk, 1972. Page 89.
5 CNI GABO. T. 1650. Op. 1. 4. L. 84-85.
6 In the same place. 44. L. 94.
7 In the same place. 45. L. 1-2.
8 In the same place.
9 In the same place. 44. L. 66.
10 In the same place. L. 95.
11 In the same place. 57. L. 108.
12 In the same place. 4. L. 84.
13 In the same place. 6. L. 99-100.
14 In the same place. 4. L. 85, 103, 104.
15 In the same place. L. 52.
16 In the same place. 28. L. 40-41.
17 In the same place.
18 In the same place. 44. L. 49.
19 In the same place. 4. L. 8.
20 In the same place. 6. L. 247.
Robert Carroll
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