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Metal of pit culture Pritobolya


T.M. Potemkina, A.D. Degtyareva

Data on materials of pit culture are provided in Pritobolye. Special attention is paid to the copper instruments of labor similar to products from burials of a steppe zone of Eastern Europe: their morfologo-typological characteristic is given, results of an atomic and issue and metalgraphic research are stated. Distribution of traditions of metallurgical production of the Cisural pit tribes and probably penetration of their carriers into Pritobolye was prepared by similar historical development and long contacts and interference of the population of the considered territories. Results of a research of antiquities of the eneolit and early bronze of the last years both in the forest-steppe Trans-Ural region, and in adjacent territories allow to fix not only contacts and influences, but also direct penetration of the population of the Volga-Ural steppes into the trans-Ural-Kazakhstan steppe and forest-steppe areas.

In the 70th of the last century in the territory Pritobolya archaeological expeditions under the leadership of T.M. Potemkina opened several monuments with materials of pit culture. A number of burials in burial grounds Top Alabuga and Ubagan 1 [Potemkina, were referred 1982 to their number. Page 159-172; 1985. Page 148-157]. Definition of accurate cultural accessory of a number of metal products from burial grounds Ubagan 1 and Top Alabuga has the difficulties connected with conditions of stay both metal objects, and other stock accompanying them — ceramics, silicon tools, etc. Almost all mentioned material material, except for isolated cases, comes from accidental finds or superficial collecting (fig. 1). Ubagansky metal is also found without binding to the closed complexes as the burial ground is substantially destroyed by a wind erosion. Besides monument non-simultaneous: at its square are present as finds and traces of burials of eneolitichesky time which the author of excavation finds it possible to carry to a circle of pit antiquities, and lifting ceramics and the burial investigated by excavation with lines of sintashtinsky culture. The part of the square of the burial ground is blocked by the settlement of alakul-sky culture [Potemkina, 1982. Page 166-168, fig. 2, 2, 3, 5-7; 1985. Page 123-127, 200-203, fig. 45, 47]. One of 1 knives (fig. 7, 1) found on the area of the burial ground Ubagan which morphology and analytical data show its belonging to a drevneyamny circle of monuments was found near a vessel of sintashtinsky type on the removed monument surface after a rain. In 20 m from this place the burial with a vessel of also sintashtinsky type and a bronze channeled bracelet with the rounded-off ends [Potemkina, is investigated 1985. Page 123, 127, 201, 202, fig. 45; 47, 1, 2, 5]. Nevertheless, in accordance with the circumstances finding of a knife, we have no full confidence that it makes a uniform complex with a vessel. Analogs a vessel are known in South Ural among ceramics of the settlements of Sintashta, Arkaim, Sintasht's burial grounds, the Stone Barn, the Curve Lake [Gening, etc., 1992. Page 90, fig. 23, 5; 138, fig. 60, 2; 142, fig. 63, 4; 271, fig. 151, 2; 303, fig. 172, 2; etc.; Malyutina, Zdanovich, 2004. Page 70, fig. 2, 8; Vinogradov, 2003. Fig. 39, 13; 52, 3; 55, 6; 83, 3; Epimakhov, 2002. Fig. 12].

The only thing from the metal products considered in article found in the closed complex is the pricker from burial of the 5th burial ground Top Alabuga (fig. 6, 3; 7, 8) [Potemkina, 1982. Page 165, 166, fig. 2, 1, 4; 1985. Page 152, fig. 63, 4, 5]. The vessel from this burial — round-bottomed, with a little priostrenny bottom, entirely covered with fir-tree edge figuration (fig. 6, 4), has similarity to local eneolitichesky ceramics of an edge geometrizm [Potemkina, 2001. Page 180, 218-220, fig. 6, 1, 4; 2005. Page 48, fig. 3, 2-6]. At the same time it has analogs and among the drevneyamny ware of Cisural area found in sepulchral complexes together with metal products — a knife, a pricker, temporal pendants (Tamar-Utkul VIII, kurg. 5). The Cisural knife and a pricker of related topics that are found near a sintashtinsky vessel on Uba-Ghana 1 and in burial of the 5th burial ground Top Alabuga [Morgunova, Kravtsov, 1994. Page 25-28, fig. 13, 1-5]. Similar vessels are also in drevneyamny burials of the second chronological group of the Lower Volga district [Merpert, 1974. Page 62-64, fig. 13, 6, 7]. In complexes with this ceramics copper, square in section, prickers and knives also meet a subtriangular and listovidny blade [In the same place. Page 65, fig. 14, 1, 4-7, 12].

Fig. 1. Burial ground and settlement of Ubagan 1-2. General plan:

1 — a trench of 1975; 2 — the destroyed burial; 3 — excavations and holes of 1977-1978; 4 — bezynventarny burial; 5 — the holes which are cleared away on the outlines noticeable from a surface; 6 — estimated location of the destroyed eneolitichesky burial; 7 — the steep river bank

When cleaning the first horizon on the surface of the burial ground Ubagan 1 vessels, a congestion of quartzitic preparations of copies and darts were found (fig. 2, 1, 3-5; 3, 2, 8). In a cut of the coast of the Tobol River locals burial with a set of things — two vessels, bone pro-splitting, a silicon tip of a spear, the stone iron (fig. 4) was revealed. In the territory of the settlements of Ubagan 1-7, the cultural layer of which is also substantially destroyed by an erosion, the calcinated, charred bones, disorders of vessels, silicon, stone and metal products were found (fig. 2, 3, 6, 8; 3, 1-15) [Potemkina, 1985. Page 124-130, fig. 1, 2].

The author of excavation could. Top Alabuga contacts an eneolitichesky era 56 holes of mainly oval, is more rare — a subrectangular shape, located in three-four rows through the center of ostanets from the West on the East [In the same place. Page 150-155]. In the majority of burials, insignificant fragments of ceramics, a bone of bad safety, coals, small pieces of ochre are found. On sites where the cultural layer is less destroyed, disorders of vessels (fig. 5, 2, 3, 5), an iron half, silicon products are found in edge of burials and over them (fig. 3, 16-26; 6, 10). Only in 14 holes and near them traces of burials are revealed: in 11 — without stock, in 3 — with stock. Buried were on a back in strongly writhed situation or in a sitting position or on cards in a prayer pose. One burial was two-level, at the same time two were buried in an antithesis pose — the heads in the opposite directions on a back with strongly turned in legs, one over another, and in a northern part of a grave the skull of the third person was found. A part of buried was in the extended situation on a back. The accompanying stock is found in burials 5 (a vessel, a pricker; fig. 6, 3, 4), 83 (9 bone rectangular plates; fig. 6, 5-9), 90 (2 vessels; fig. 6, 1, 2). Buried "sitting" are known in complexes of srednestogovsky culture on Dnieper, in Khvalynsk the burial ground; the pose on cards in a pose of a prayer is revealed among group of burials of drevneyamny culture of the Volga region and Cisural area [Telepn, 1973. Page 104, 112; Agapov, etc., 1990. Page 41, 46, 51; Bogdanov, 2004. Page 151-154]. N.Ya. Merpert refers burials in the extended situation on a back to early drevneyamny burials of the Volga region [1974. Page 45, 47-51].

Fig. 2. Ceramics from could. Ubagan of 1 (1, 3-5) and superficial collecting settlement of Ubagan 2 (2, 3, 6, 8;

7 — an ornament on inside of a vessel 8)

Ubagansky and verkhnealabuzhsky vessels are presented by several types. The bessheyny pot with a flat small bottom which diameter is four times less than diameter of the mouth belongs to the first type. The ornament is put with the prints of a crenulate stamp forming wide vertical slanting strips on all outer surface (fig. 2, 1). The similar form of ceramics is known in the Cisural burial grounds at the farm Baryshnikov, Boldyrevo IV [Bogdanov, 2004. Fig. 37, 1-3]. The second group includes the vast majority of vessels which are presented by korotkosheyny, round-bottomed forms (fig. 2, 2-5; 5, 1-6). A part of pots of this type is not ornamented, in several cases on a nimbus or on a trunk the drawn or rope pattern, semicircular vdavleniye is put. Two vessels from Top Alabugi are covered on all surface with a crenulate stamp in the form of a horizontal fir-tree. The similar ceramics is rather presented in funeral pit complexes of Orenburg Oblast — Labour to II, the farm Baryshnikov, Medvedka, Efimovka IV, Big Dedurovsky Mar [Morgunova, Kravtsov, 1994. Fig. 32, 15, 19; Bogdanov, 2004. Fig. 39, 1-3, 5-6]. Treats the following type

a vessel with the allocated slaboprofilirovanny throat covered in the top part and on nimbus inside with a crenulate stamp horizontal ranks of a fir-tree (fig. 2, 7-8). The ceramics of a similar form with the same style of figuration is recorded in burial could. Tamar-Utkul VIII [Morgunova, Kravtsov, 1994. Fig. 13, 5, page 28]. The last vessel can be carried to type of pots with the reinforced flat small bottom, the wide mouth unbent outside by a nimbus (fig. 2, 6). Its surface is covered with the prints of a comb and the intertwined cord forming inclined, horizontal and vertical rows. Similar vessels were found in burials of burial grounds Tamar-Utkul VIII, Rich by I [In the same place. 1994. Fig. 12, 2; 21, 5].


Fig. 3. Silicon instruments of labor of the settlement of Ubagan 2-7, could. Ubagan 1, Top Alabuga: 1, 6, 13 — the settlement of Ubagan 5; 2, 8 — could. Ubagan 1; 3, 7, 9-12, 14, 15 — the settlement of Ubagan 3; 4 — the settlement of Ubagan 2; 5 — the settlement of Ubagan 7; 16-26 — could. Top Alabuga

Fig. 4. The stock from the destroyed burial could. Ubagan 1:

1, 2 — vessels; 3 — a silicon tip of a spear; 4 — the stone iron; 5 — bone pro-splitting

The ornament at a half of vessels — edge is also put on all surface, including the inner edge or a cut of a nimbus; a part of vessels — without ornament; isolated cases of the drawn and rope pattern.

When viewing archaeological collections in funds of Kurgan museum of local lore

special attention was paid on several metal tools, occurring from a lump -


burial ground plex Ubagan 1, settlements of Ubagan 1 and 2. These objects presented by three knives, to teslas, a pricker, a dart tip of the tipologo-morphological features, a circle of analogies can be carried to drevneyamny antiquities (fig. 7, 1-3, 7-10). The subsequent atomic and issue spectrometer and metalgraphic research of products provided the additional argument in favor of this conclusion. Except the specified objects, we considered possible to include two tips of arrows and a copper ingot (fig. 7, 11-12, 14) in this group.


We express the sincere gratitude to the chief keeper of the museum A.I. Kaydalov and the research associate E.A. Sechko for assistance in studying collections.

Fig. 5. Ceramics from could. Top Alabuga: 1 — pogr. 5; 2 — apartment K22; 3 — apartment L35; 4, 6 — pogr. 90; 5 — apartment H22

Knives in number of 3 copies are found in the territory of the burial ground Ubagan 1 and the settlement of Ubagan 2 [Potemkina, 1985. Fig. 47, 5]. They treat Cherenkov' type, with an elongated subtriangular shape edge, lentiform section, the long and massive shank which is gradually narrowed from an edge to the termination (fig. 7, 1-3; 8, 1-3). Total length of these copies is equal to 18.8; 13.6; 9.8 cm, the maximum width of an edge — 3.4; 2.5; 3.1 cm, scape thickness — 0.6; 0.6; 0.7 cm respectively. Length of a scape is about a half of height of a product (7.5; 6.5; 4.5 cm). This type of knives is characteristic of pit funeral complexes of the Dnieper Bank and Volga-Uralya. Similar knives are known in burials of burial grounds Tamar-Utkul VII (kurg. 4, pogr. 9; kurg. 8, pogr. 4), Tamar-Utkul VIII (kurg. 5, pogr. 1), Uvak (kurg. 12, pogr. 4), Boldyrev-sky 1 (kurg. 10, pogr. 3), Skatovka (kurg. 5, pogr. 3), Berezhnovka 1 (kurg. 5, pogr. 19), Bykovo (kurg. 21, pogr. 7), Pokrovka 1 (kurg. 12, pogr. 1), Lower Pitch-and-toss 1 (kurg. 1, pogr. 4), Prepoloven 1 (kurg. 1, pogr. 4), Kashpir 3 (kurg. 1, pogr. 1), Kutuluk 3 (kurg. 1, pogr. 2), Potapovka (kurg. 3, pogr. 5), Mikhaylovka, Novogrigoryevka, Konstantinovka (kurg. 9, pogr. 15), Kamenka (kurg. 13, pogr. 10), Pleasant (kurg. 1, pogr. 15), Nestroyev's manor near Simferopol [Chernykh, 1966. Fig. 34, An. 428, 434, 438, 439, 445, 456, 459; 35, An. 472; Morgunova, Kravtsov, 1994. Fig. 4, 3; 6, 1; 9, 1; 13, 1; 20, 4; Morgunova, 2000. Fig. 6, 3; Bogdanov, 2004. Fig. 54, 2, 7, 8; 55, 4, 5; Shaposh-

nikova, 1986. Fig. 16, 2-4; Vasilyev, etc., 1994. Fig. 26, 10, 11; History..., 2000. Fig. 10, 2, 610; Kiyashko, 2002. Fig. 3, 5-6, 8; 4, 6-7; XII, 5, 11].

Fig. 6. The stock from burials could. Top Alabuga: 1, 2 — pogr. 90; 3, 4 — pogr. 5; 5-9 — pogr. 83; 10 — apartment H22: 1, 2, 4 — clay, 3 — copper; 5-9 — a bone; 10 — a stone

Similar knives, but with shorter scape are known also in the novosvobodnensky, pit, novotitorovsky Prikubanya complexes, the pit culture of northwest Prikaspiya — Novokorsunskaya, May Day, Steppe, Timashyovsk, Swans I, Baturinsky I, could. Onions IV curve [Gay, 2000. Fig. 46, 4, 5, 10, 12, 16, 19, 20; Shishlina, 2007. Fig. 51, 6]. Almost identical form knives are found in the territory of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. The first knife comes from pit burial of the burial ground Karagash in the Karaganda region (kurg. 2, pogr. 2; fig. 7, 4) [Evdokimov, Is broken, 1989. Page 38-44, fig. 6, 5], the second — from burial in the burial ground Aksuat in the territory of the Kostanay region (fig. 7, 6) from M.K. Kadyrbayev's excavation 1981. Unfortunately, materials of the last burial were not published and about the accompanying stock we have no data. The third knife was found during the irrigational works on laying of the route of the Big Chuya canal [Works., 1950. Tab. XXXVI, 4; Kuzmina, 1966. Tab. VII, 3, page 38-41]. E.E. Kuzmina noted concerning the Chuya knife that its shape differs in archaism and comparability to tools pit poltavkinskogo like (fig. 7, 5). The first and third products are made of the pure oxidized copper that is confirmed both by data of the NPP analyses, and structural indicators (tab. 1, An. 317, 37617).

Found in the territory of the burial ground Ubagan 1 tesla has a rectangular shape with the sides which are slightly extending to the termination [Potemkina, 1985. Fig. 47, 3]. Length of a product is 12.7 cm, thickness — 0.7 cm (fig. 7, 7; 8, 4). Width around a butt of 3 cm, at a lezviyny part of 3.5 cm. Tools of this type rather widely occurred in the centers of metalproduction of the Tsirkumpontiysky metallurgical province — pit poltavkinskom, Volsk lbishchen-skom (could. Tamar-Utkul VII, Baryshnikovsky, Utevka, Equal, Koltubank, Old Yablonka,

Tsarev barrow, cave of Brothers Grev) [Rykov, 1927. S. 78, Abb. 21, 1; Krivtsova-Grakova, 1955. Page 57-59, fig. 13, 1, 2; Sealing glands, 1967. Fig. 23, 12; Chernykh, Korenevsky, 1976. Fig. 2, 1, 2; Chernykh, 1992. Fig. 19, 8; 23, 5; 24, 11-13; 28, 19-21; 29, 18, 19; 33, 21; 45, 32; 46, 2; Morgunova, Kravtsov, 1994. Fig. 9, 5; Morgunova, Turkish, 1998. Fig. 6, 2; Vasilyev, 1979. Page 42-43; 1999. Fig. 16, 3; 28, 19; History..., 2000. Fig. 9, 3]. They are especially numerous in materials catacomb cultures; so, according to E.I. Gak, teset number of known in monuments of the southern steppe zone of Russia reaches 39 copies [2005. Page 14]. About 40 products come from the centers of metalproduction of an early phase of the Eurasian metallurgical province [Degtyareva, 2006. Page 53-54]. Us tesla to number of pit products features of the chemical composition and technological indicators both cases tesla, and its working part formed the basis for reference.

of Fig. 7. Copper products: 1, 7, 10, 11, 14 — could. Ubagan 1; 2, 3, 9, 12 — the settlement of Ubagan 2; 4 — could. Karagash; 5 — the Chuy Valley; 6 — could. Aksuat; 8 — could. Top Alabuga; 13 — the parking the Predatory Island

Fig. 8. Photos of copper knives, tesla, dart tip

Prickers are presented to 2 copies occurring from could. Top Alabuga (pogr. 5) and collecting from the settlement of Ubagan 2 [Potemkina, 1985. Fig. 63, 4]. Both copies belong to type of tools with an emphasis thickening, square in section (fig. 6, 3; 7, 8, 9). One tool is broken, the remained fragment in length reaches 2.9 cm, thickness — 0.6 cm. The second product has length of 14.5 cm at a thickness of sides of 0.6 cm. The tool belong to the type standard for the centers of the Tsirkumpontiysky metallurgical province of both a northern, and southern zone [Chernykh, 2007. Fig. 3.4; 3.6-3.9]. Prickers with an emphasis are known in materials could. Gerasimovsky 2 (kurg 4, pogr. 2), Tamar-Utkul VII (kurg. 4, pogr. 9; kurg. 8, pogr. 4) [Morgunova, Kravtsov, 1994. Fig. 6, 2; 9, 2; Bogdanov, 2004. Fig. 56, 1, 6, 7].

The dart tip found at superficial collecting in the territory of the burial ground Uba-gan 1 belongs to type of vtulchaty tools with the open, closed only in the lower part sleeve, the short feather of subtriangular shape lentiform in section (fig. 7, 10; 8, 5). Total length of a product — 6.5 cm, length and width of a feather — 2.6 and 2.4 cm, diameter of the sleeve is 1.6 cm. Most likely, the feather had big length, but in connection with excess oxidation of metal when forging and the subsequent use was broken. Vtulchaty tools are known in monuments of pit culture, among such products it is necessary to mention a spear tip, a chisel and a pick from could. Boldyrevsky 1 (kurg. 1, pogr. 1), Tamar-Utkul VII (kurg. 8, pogr. 4), Mustayevo V (kurg. 1, ditch) [Morgunova, Kravtsov, 1994. Fig. 9, 4; Morgunova, 2000. Fig. 5, 6; Morgunova, etc., 2005. Page 5-6, fig. 3, 7]. All these rather massive tools have the through, opened on both sides sleeve. Closer ubagansky according to parametrical data a spear tip from the Balanovsky burial ground (could. 15), which had length of 7.8 cm, a small feather and the sleeve 2 cm wide [Bader, 1963. Fig. 115, 1]. The similar spear of more extended proportions comes from a layer of the settlement of Osh-Pando [Bader, Halikov, 1976. Tab. 48, 11]. Balanovsky tools are manufactured also of pure copper with insignificant natural impurity of silver, nickel, iron, lead, is rare tin, peculiar to the ore fields localized in the Lower Prikamye and the Volga region [Chernykh, 1966. Page 75-77].

In an ubagansky collection also two tiny tools of a listovidny form with hardly planned subrectangular scapes and a lentiform feather in section which can be considered both as tiny knives and as the tips of arrows which were perhaps imitating silicon analogs of a listovidny form (fig. 7, 11, 12) are found. We incline to the latest version. The development of the classification scheme of tips of arrows of an era of the bronze of the Top Priobye considering rather mass products from a stone, bones, horns, metal, a tree undertaken by Yu.F. Kiryushin, S.P. Gru-shinym, A.A. Tishkin [Kiryushin, etc., allows to support 2002 this assumption to us. Page 16-32]. Researches of these scientists showed that upon transition to other material for production of tips — the bone or metal of a product from it in a form copied stone prototypes. Ubagansky arrows had length of 2.9 and 3.1 cm with a width of feather of 0.8-0.9 cm. Copper analogies are almost not known to these copies, except for the product coming from the lower layer interfaced to materials of lipchin-sky culture of the parking the Predatory Island [Chairkina, 2005. Fig. 38, 3, page 209-212]. Length and width of the last were 4.1 and 1.3 cm (fig. 7, 13). On its surface the imitation of cellular structure of a silicon product reproduced on a shutter of a clay matrix, perhaps, by a print of the silicon original in clay is found. Radio-carbon dates, palynological and stratigraphic indicators allowed N.M. Chairkina to date monuments of lipchinsky type the end of IV — the middle of the III millennium BC [In the same place. Page 288-294].

The cone-shaped ingot has in the lower part subtriangular, in top — oval section. Height of an ingot is 2.2 cm, width in the lower part of 3.2 cm; most likely, this volume of metal could be used for casting of a small knife (fig. 7, 14). The ingot was considered by us in this collection in connection with its high chemical purity inherent in the vast majority of pit products.

The analytical data provided in tab. 1 testify in favor of use metallurgical of the pure oxidized copper with the grown poor impurity structure for production of instruments of labor. The main considerable impurity was the silver which is contained in tenth-hundredth shares of percent, other elements are noted in thousand-hundredth shares of percent. On the chemical composition these samples are close to metal pit poltavkinskogo the center Volga-Uralya, coming from mines of the Kargalinsky mining and metallurgical center in Orenburg Oblast [to Chernykh, 1966. Page 58-60; 2007. Page 66]. According to E.N. Chernykh, kargalinsky ore differed in outstanding chemical purity, samples of this sort is allocated a little — about 80, and practically all of them corresponded to drevneyamny and pit poltavkinskimi complexes and were dated an early bronze age within the middle of IV — the middle of the III millennium BC [Chernykh, 2007. Page 66-67]. Results of spectrometer studying the samples of copper ore coming from a settlement layer. Mountain and its vicinities, testified sharp prevalence in the studied collection of fragments of the oxidized ores — malachite and azurite over other minerals [Kargala. 2004. Page 106-110].

One of ubagansky metal products — the lezviyny termination welded on the case tesla is presented by arsenical bronze with concentration of arsenic of 2.4% (An. 17913). The research of composition of metal of pit culture of Cisural area showed that along with prepotent

use metallurgical of pure copper seldom or never notes the tools manufactured from low-alloyed — from 0.75 to 4.5% of the arsenical bronze having generally Caucasian origin [Degtyareva, 2003]. These tools are knives and a pricker differed in low metal consumption and the small sizes. Besides tools the pit masters Volga-Uralya did also bimetallic tools in which a working part was made of meteoric iron of arsenical bronz. So, iron edges were welded on the main cases of tools from pure copper with formation of the sleeve at production of the razor, tesla plane from materials of burial grounds Tamar-Utkul VII, Boldyrevsky 1 [Terekhova, etc., 1997. Page 33-39; Degtyareva, 2003. Page 369]. Fragments of iron were also recorded on the working terminations of the razor from Utevk I's burial (kurg. 1, pogr. 1) and a pricker from materials could. Kutuluk of III (kurg. 1, pogr. 2) [History..., 2000. Fig. 9, 7, 8]. This processing method considerably increased hardness on the lezviyny terminations, along with increase in labor productivity. In case of the ubagansky tool a working part, insignificant on weight, was welded with the copper casing tesla and fixed by not close sleeve. Probably, the similar technological procedure was dictated by apparent defect of so valuable ligature in comparison with the pure copper differing as is well-known in low indicators of hardness even after high extents of cold deformation and hardening of metal.

Table 1

Results of the NPP analyses *

Subject Fig. No. range. anat. No. strukt. anat. Cu Sn Pb Zn Bi Ag Sb As Fe Ni Co Au

Knife 7, 1 302 950 Osn. 0.05 0.004 0.08 0.001 0.1 & lt; 0.05 0.01 0.06 0.001 & lt; 0.002 & lt; 0.001

Knife 7, 2 296 933 Osn. 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.001 0.002 & lt; 0.05 0.05 0.05 & lt; 0.001 0.002 & lt; 0.001

Knife 7, 3 297 935 Osn. 0.004 0.01 0.01 0.012 0.1 & lt; 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.001 & lt; 0.002 0.06

Tesla 7, 7 17912 965-1 Osn. settlement 0.015 — — 0.1 0.025 0.01 0.01 0.003 — 0.001

Tesla 7, 7 17913 965-2 Osn. settlement — — 0.002 0.15 0.01 2.4 0.007 0.007 — —

Pricker 7, 9 305 957 Osn. 0.07 0.003 & lt; 0.01 0.001 0.002 & lt; 0.05 0.03 0.05 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.002 & lt; 0.001

Pricker 7, 8 27868 — Osn. 0.0015 0.01 — — 0.0005 — — 0.001 0.002 — —

Dart 3, 10 307 961 Osn. 0.02 0.007 0.03 0.001 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.05 0.02 0.09 0.001 & lt; 0.002 & lt; 0.001

Arrow 7, 11 300 943 Osn. 0.02 0.003 0.01 0.009 0.04 0.05 0.03 0.07 0.001 & lt; 0.002 0.12

Arrow 7, 12 303 951 Osn. 0.01 0.04 0.11 0.007 0.02 0.1 0.04 0.07 0.005 & lt; 0.002 & lt; 0.001

Ingot 7, 14 298 938 Osn. 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.002 0.005 & lt; 0.05 0.05 0.013 0.01 & lt; 0.002 & lt; 0.001

Arrow 7, 13 094 680 Osn. & lt; 0.003 0.013 0.07 & lt; 0.0002 0.05 & lt; 0.05 0.001 0.1 & lt; 0.0002 & lt; 0.002 & lt; 0.001

Knife 7, 6 317 210 Osn. 0.01 0.02 0.07 0.001 0.003 & lt; 0.05 0.02 0.05 0.001 & lt; 0.002 & lt; 0.001

Knife 7, 5 37617 660 Osn. & lt; 0.09 0.002 0.004 0.009 0.06 0.008 0.033 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.0004

*analiza with three-digit numbers are made at Institute of inorganic chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, with five-digit numbers — in laboratory of natural science methods of RAS news Agency.

The tips of arrows relating also to metallurgical group of pure copper have higher impurity of zinc, gold, antimony, to the tenth shares of percent. It is possible that at their production metal from other oxidized radical fields of the Trans-Ural region was used or when casting the scrap which changed initial impurity components was added to metal.

Studying manufacturing techniques of metal by methods of the metalgraphic analysis in combination with data of superficial inspection of tools led to allocation of technological schemes (tab. 2).

Knives are made according to the uniform technological scheme — casting in casting molds, unilateral with flat covers, and hot completion malleable all case of tools at average extents of sinking of metal — 50-60%, directed to removal of defects of casting and shrinkable sinks (An. 950, 933, 935; fig. 9, 1-6). Extents of the deforming influence are fixed on scapes by the inclusions of an eutectic of Si-Si20 which are almost not changed by sinking. Casting and forging at a temperature were conducted in the recovery environment, at the same time liquid metal is skillfully protected from excess oxidation, the content of oxygen was normal and did not exceed 0.07-0.09%. Judging by rather large sizes of crystals with a diameter within 0.12-0.2 mm, forging of the second and third knife was conducted at premelting temperatures about 900-1000 °C; at such high temperatures the masters managed to avoid a perezhog of metal (An. 922, 935). Completion of the first tool proceeded in the mode of temperatures of 600-800 °C (An. 950).

of instruments of labor deliberate hardening and a point of edges cold pro-forging with sinking of 70-90% was a closing stage of production, reflection of what in a microstructure of metal was existence of strips of deformation and fibrous structure. Hardening of metal led to significant increase in microhardness of metal in comparison with indicators of cast copper, up to 119.6 kg/mm2.

Table 2

Schemes of manufacturing techniques of stock

Technological schemes Quantity of products %

1. Литье+ forging at 600-800 °C 4 50
2. Литье+ forging at 900-1000 °C 2 25
3. Литье+ forging at 600-700 °C & #43; welding at 900-1000 °C 1 12.5
4. Forging at 900-1000 °C 1 12.5

Hardening 4 50

Only 8 100

The similar technological scheme was recorded at production of a knife from the Chuy Valley — it is received by casting in combination with forging at premelting temperatures of 900-1000 °C with the subsequent hardening of a cold malleable lezviyny part (An. 660; fig. 11, 1, 2). Microstructural indicators of the tool from the burial ground Aksuat demonstrate completion of a knife after casting only by cold forging (An. 210; fig. 11, 3). When casting and heat treatment both of these knives were rather skillfully deoxidated, oxygen content in copper did not exceed 0.03% in both cases.

Production tesla was connected with preliminary casting of a lezviyny part and the main case tesla in casting molds, unilateral with flat covers (An. 965; fig. 9, 7, 8; 10, 1). As it was noted above, at the same time various foundry material was used: for an edge — the bronze low-alloyed by arsenic, for the case — the pure oxidized copper. Overheating of pure copper before filling in a form led to emergence of numerous shrinkable cracks. Judging by their existence and also on the mesh nature of arrangement of inclusions of an eutectic of Si-Si20, extents of deformation of metal were insignificant, about 40-50%, and were connected with the procedure of welding of an edge with the case. The edge from arsenical bronze after receiving casting was finished by the forging with sinking of metal within 70-80% directed to an extract of a lezviyny edge and a point. This completion was carried out with heatings at a temperature of 600-700 °C. Final operation was connected with welding of an edge and the case at which the last was warmed to high premelting temperatures, of about 900-1000 °C (the sizes of crystals were in limits of 0.2 mm and above). At the same time the perezhoga of metal was succeeded to avoid. Bottom edges of the case were flattened out and welded on the top part of an edge with incomplete folding of edges around an edge. Most likely, originally top part an obushka was flattened also out for the purpose of receiving the sleeve. But for some reason the master refused this idea and sides an obushka were curtailed and welded on the main case. Heating of metal was made in the recovery atmosphere with use of the fillings protecting from oxidation, reflection of what was reduction of quantity of an eutectic of Si-Si20 near the surface of metal.

The pricker is made of the bar which is previously cast in a form, unilateral with a flat cover (An. 957; fig. 10, 2). Overheating of liquid metal before filling in a form led to emergence of numerous shrinkable cracks which at the subsequent completion of the tool were the reason of its breakage. Judging by a form and arrangement of skoagulirovanny inclusions of an eutectic of Si-Si20, extent of deformation of metal were insignificant — about 50-60%. Forging was carried out in the mode of temperatures of 600-800 °C.

The tip of a dart is made of the subtriangular plate cast previously in an open unilateral casting mold what the inclusions of an eutectic of Si-Si20 distributed on more thickly metal unevenly testify to (An. 961; fig. 10, 3, 4). Near one of surfaces the layered arrangement of an eutectic with the excess content of oxygen, within 0.2% is observed. In process of advance from the center to an opposite surface the number of eutectic sites decreases and the content of oxygen does not exceed 0.05%. Further cast preparation underwent completion by the forging connected with an extract of the sleeve and an edge, a point of a lezviyny part and folding of the sleeve on a roundish mandrel. Extents of the deforming influence were essential and reached 70-80%. Forging was carried out at premelting temperatures of 900-1000 °C on what specify the sizes of crystals in limits

0.12-0.2 mm. Excess oxidation of metal near one of surfaces led at forge completion to its cracking and most likely breakage of an edge.

Fig. 9. Photos of microstructures (took away. 120):

1-6 — knives (An. 950, 933, 935; 1, 3, 5 — on a scape cut, 2, 4, 6 — on an edge cut); 7, 8 — tesla

(An. 965, butt section)

Fig. 10. Photos of microstructures (took away. 120):

1 — tesla (An. 965, edge cut); 2 — a pricker (An. 957, cross cut); 3, 4 — a dart tip (An. 961, cuts of the sleeve and edge); 5, 6 — tips of arrows (An. 943, 951, cuts of an edge and scape);
7, 8 — an ingot (An. 938, cross section)

Both tips of arrows were cast in bilateral casting molds, at the same time process of casting was carefully controlled for the purpose of prevention of excess oxidation of metal (An. 943, 951; fig. 10, 5, 6). Judging by arrangement of skoagulirovanny inclusions of an eutectic of Si-Si20, further

they were finished at T of 600-800 °C by the hot forging directed to an extract and a point of a lezviyny part and which is followed by average extents of sinking of metal of about 50-60%. Hardening by cold pro-forging of an edge was the last stage of production of the first tip of an arrow, reflection of what was existence of strips of deformation in structure of metal.

Almost similar technology was used at production of a tip of an arrow from the parking the Predatory Island (An. 680; fig. 11, 4). It also came down to casting in combination with forging at 50-60% of sinking of metal. However forging proceeded in the mode of premelting temperatures of 900-1000 °C what the large sizes of crystals testify to (0.2 mm and above). Emergence in lipchinsky materials of the copper subject made by rather difficult processing methods at a big rarity of copper products in monuments, is connected, most likely, with activity or contacts with pit masters.


Fig. 11. Photos of microstructures (took away. 120):

1-3 — knives (An. 660, 210; 1 — a scape cut, 2, 3 — cuts of edges); 4 — an arrow tip

(An. 680, edge cut)

The last subject represents refined copper slitochek, received by way of crucible melting in open capacity that led to oxidation of a surface. Inclusions of an eutectic of Cu-Cu2O are distributed on more thickly metal unevenly — at a surface the content of oxygen reaches 0.2% while in the center of a shlif they form a thin fringe around grains with oxygen content within 0.05%. Crystallization of an ingot proceeded with the slowed-down speed in process of cooling of the furnace that led to formation of large crystals, in the diameter of 0.2 mm and more.

The majority of ubagansky products are executed according to rather uniform standards of production in the course of casting of the pure oxidized copper, the metal sinking which is followed further by forging with average degrees, it is not higher than 50-60%. Processes of casting and high-temperature heatings when forging were carefully controlled in order to avoid excess oxidation of metal. Forge processes proceeded in the modes of hot forging — 600-800 °C or at premelting temperatures of 900-1000 °C. Processing at low temperatures was not peculiar to products. A working part of nearly a half of products was subjected deliberate uprochne-

a niya cold forging with increase in microhardness of metal. Rather difficult technological scheme was revealed at production bimetallic tesla, the case manufactured with preliminary casting and an edge which were welded further at 900-1000 °C. At the same time possibilities of the edge alloyed by arsenic having much higher hardness in comparison with copper were used. The tip of a dart was made according to the 4th scheme in the course of forging at 900-1000 °C at which it was not succeeded to avoid excess oxidation of metal, to 0.2% that was the main reason for breakage of a product. The considered traditions of metal working quite fit into a circle of skills and methods of processing of the non-ferrous metal characteristic of the Cisural pit center of metalproduction that enough remote territories [Degtyareva, demonstrate 2003 undoubted contacts and relations between tribes. Page 374-375].

Ubagansky and verkhnealabuzhsky materials as, however, and burials of burial grounds Aleksandrovsky 4, Aksuat, Karagash, a hatchet find at the village of Knyazhenskoye in the territory of the Trans-Ural region and Kazakhstan, shed light on possible vectors of interrelations and interferences of tribes in the III millennium BC and first of all indicate the dominating role in distribution of traditions of metallurgical production of the Cisural pit tribes [Potemkina, 1982. Page 159-172; 1985. Page 148-154, 200-203; Zdanovich, etc., 2006. Page 41-47; Evdokimov, Is broken, 1989. Page 34-46; Chernykh, 2007. Fig. 3.11],

Proceeding from the archaeological data stated above and also similarity on composition of metal and manufacturing techniques Ubagan 1 and at the same time proximity on all indicators of vessels from collections of these monuments [Potemkina, sewed 1982 from burial 5 Top Alabugi with metal products from superficial collecting the burial ground. Page 163, 164, fig. 2, 3; 1985. Page 152, fig. 63], we have all reasons to consider their belonging to uniform cultural group of monuments of an era of eneolita-early bronze of the South of the forest-steppe zone Pritobolya, left which the population was closely connected with the drevneyamny population of Cisural area and other more western territories. The evidence of distribution of cultural traditions and penetrations of the pit population of the Uralo-Povolzhsky region on the territory Pritobolya are not only the data on skills and methods of processing of non-ferrous metal characteristic of the Cisural drevneyamny center of metalproduction stated in this article, but also many other lines of culture of the population of the Trans-Ural region during an era of eneolita-early bronze shown below. These communications were not the one-act phenomenon, and took place at all stages of existence of pit KIO, in the previous and subsequent time, amplifying, fading, depending on the developing historical and cultural situation in the Povolzhsko-Uralo-Kazakhstanskom region and in territories, adjacent to it.

The ceramics most convincingly shows communications of the trans-Ural eneolitichesky population with drevneyamny. As it was already noted, ware of burial grounds Top Alabuga and Ubagan 1 is similar and finds the same parallels. The collection of eneolitichesky ware from these monuments is not numerous, makes 14 whole and restored vessels and 72 fragments of nimbuses, walls and roundish bottoms [Potemkina, 1982. Page 163, 164, fig. 2, 1-3, 6; 2, 1, 2, 4; 1985. Page 152, fig. 63, 1, 2, 5, 11, 12]. From them only three whole vessels come from the closed complexes [Potemkina, 1985. Page 152, fig. 63, 1, 2, 5]. Vessels — the average and small sizes, round-bottomed forms, with direct walls, bessheyny or with poorly allocated short neck, the flattened and rounded off nimbuses (fig. 2, 5). As impurity to the clay test serves krupnotolcheny chamotte, is more rare — sand. The ornament at a half of vessels — edge is also put on all surface, including the inner edge or a cut of a nimbus; a part of vessels — without ornament; isolated cases of the drawn and rope pattern. The similar ceramics is rather presented in funeral pit complexes of Orenburg Oblast — Tamar-Utkul VIII, Labour to II, the farm Baryshnikov, Medvedka, Efimovka IV, Big Dedurovsky Mar [Morgunova, Kravtsov, 1994. Page 26, 27, 31, 71; fig. 12, 2; 13, 5; 16, 3, 4; 32, 15, 19; Bogdanov, 2004. Fig. 39, 1-3, 5, 6]. The ceramics of burial grounds Top Alabuga and Ubagan 1 has also strong likeness with vessels of the second chronological group of burials of pit culture of the Volga and Ural Entre Rios [ Merpert,

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