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Category: History

Russian Homer of the Moldavian blood

boris MARIAN


And the small people have great sons who increase glory of the earth which generated them. But a bigger admiration those our compatriots who left a mark in the history of other powers and the people are worthy.

Very long time ago there lived in the world the offspring of a seigniorial sort who because of the misfortunes which fell to lot of Earth Moldavian owing to the Russo-Turkish war of 1711 was fated to be born far from the earth of ancestors and not somewhere, and in Moskovia at the time of Elizabeth Petrovna, the empress Russian, Peter the Great's dshcher.

Our tribesman, in whose veins blood of the high dignitary and devotee gospodarya Dumitrashku-Vode Kantemir flowed, passed for the unsurpassed poet and the playwright, the conductor of the Russian culture and art. The name it is still honored in Russia.

Who this glorified representative of the Russian classicism which his contemporaries Lomonosov, Sumarokov, Trediakovsky, Antiochus Kantemir, and later and Belinsky unanimously nicknamed "the Russian Homer"? That there was a son of the steward Matvei Heresku named at a baptism Mikhail (1733-1807).

In "Stories of the Russian literature of HUS of a century" (prod. the 2nd, Moscow, 1951) the famous literary critic Dmitry Blagoy devoted huge chapter to creativity, literary and art and cultural activity of Mikhail Heraskov, having noted that he is "a descendant of the important valashsky boyar who moved to Russia together with Dmitri Kantemir". It is quite natural that in the researches we addressed sources of the Moldavian history. The Ariadne's thread brought us directly to the chronicler Ion Nekulche from whom we learn that not who other as Ma is Tay-steward, the brother of the metropolitan Dosoftey Heresku (1750-1789) and the brother-in-law of a muntensky voyennonachalnik of Toma Kantakuzino (1665-1720) was it "the important valashsky boyar". Matey-stolnik, ordering the Moldavian cavalry, was at war on Peter's party, but as a result of defeat of the Russian-Moldavian army


Ruspm 2008, No. 1-2 (11-12)

it was forced to look for shelters in Russia. Then Moldova together with gospodary Dmitri Kantemir about 11,000 Moldavians abandoned, generally large boyars, high dignitaries and military who were granted plots in Ukraine and Russia ("the History of the Moldavian SSR", t. 1, Chisinau, 1954). Among them were the metropolitan Moldavian Anthony who became subsequently the metropolitan Chernihiv and also Banul Spade, the ancestor of the outstanding scientist-microbiologist, the Nobel Prize laureate Ilya Mechnikov whose great-grandfather remade the surname into Russian of manners as the word "spade" in Moldavian means a sword.

Peter I allocated the steward Heresku with big estates in the Poltava province. Exactly there in 1733 his son Mikhail who is written down on the Russian custom by Mikhail Matveevich Heraskov was born.

Mikhail spent the childhood and youth in the house of the prince Trubetskoy (who became related the marriage union with kantemirovsky family). Further the cadet school in Moscow upon termination of which he becomes the officer of the Russian army followed. However the military career did not attract young Heraskov. He was keen on literature and devoted himself entirely to art creativity, having become after some time the creator of outstanding poetic and drama creations. Mikhail Heraskov worked in all the genres which are not mastered to him in the Russian literature. He is considered one of the most prominent playwrights of the time, the epic poet, the writer-satirist and the fabulist.

Three epics in verses became a wreath of his creativity: Rossiada, Vladimir and Bakariana. Mikhail Heraskov created several tragedies (Borislav, "the Destroyed Moscow", "The Venetian conventual") and also the comedy "our kind soldiers". In the "Literary dreams" (1834) Belinsky puts Heraskov in a row with the greatest creators of the 17th century. According to him, epics "Vladimir" and "Rossia-da" are worthy Homer and Virgil's creations. In turn the historian Sergey Solovyov (1820-1879) characterizes our tribesman so: "Italians presented to the world Torquato Tasso, Portuguese - Kamoensa, British - Milton, Germans - Klopshtoka, the French - Voltaire, and Russians - Heraskov who wrote ingenious "Ros-siadu".

Rossiada (1771) is the poem of the wide historical plan, the first in Russia (12 songs, 11,000 verses) in which centuries-old fight of the Russian people against the Tatar yoke is described. As D. Blagoy notes, Mikhail Heraskov became for Moscow "the central figure of the intellectual and literary movement": in St. Petersburg it organized "the first literary salon whose doors were widely from -

are covered for the youth striving for culture"; he directed several literary editions ("Leisure hours", "Useful amusements", etc.), was the rector of the Moscow university, the first director of Drama theater in the Russian capital, the founder of the first Academy of Sciences, the director of university printing house. Let's remind also that our compatriot did hard work on introduction of Russian to university education (before teaching was conducted in French).

On it we finish this biography, but before we will note with special pride that the name of the great Moldavian Mikhail Heraskov (Heresku) adjoins near names of other famous representatives of our people - Pyotr Movile, Nikolay Milesku-Spetara (Spafariya), Dmitry and Antiochus Kantemirov, each of which received high honoring in the history of the Russian and world literature. Mikhail Heraskov's creativity, along with creativity of some of his contemporaries, prepared emergence of a galaxy pisate - pour-classic the 19th century: Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Turgenev, Tolstoy, Dostoyevsky, Chekhov...

Vasily ZHUKOVSKY to his Excellency, mister to the privy councilor, the imperial Moscow university to the curator and the gentleman Mikhail Matveevich Heraskov in case of receiving an award by it St. Annas the 1st degree, from pupils of a university noble board

Still, Heraskov, Minerva's friend,

Still you received a wreath!

Hearts of children, delighted burn Committed to you,

Who a gentle hand are Conducted by you to the temple sacred sciences, - To that temple where the muse lit up You immortality a beam.

Good causes - are eternally alive;

Their fruits ripen in heaven;

Both here and there they are waited by an award:

Here the tsar crowns them, there - god!


Source: V.A. Zhukovsky. Collected works in 4 volumes. T. 1. M, Goslitizdat, 1959.

Groen Simon
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