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Scientific contribution of professor P.V. Nikolsky to development of domestic dermatology and venereology (to the 150 anniversary since birth)



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MEDICINE HISTORY, ANNIVERSARIES

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The SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTION of PROFESSOR P.V. NIKOLSKOGO V DEVELOPMENT of DOMESTIC DERMATOLOGY AND VENEREOLOGY (To the 150 ANNIVERSARY SINCE BIRTH)

A.I. Zavyalov - Public Educational Institution of Higher Professional Training Saratovsky GMU Roszdrava, the associate professor of skin and venereal diseases, the candidate of medical sciences; V.F. Orkin - Public Educational Institution of Higher Professional Training Saratovsky GMU Roszdrava, the doctor of medical sciences, professor of department of skin and venereal diseases. E-mail: meduniv@sgmu.ru

In article the biographic data on professor P.V. Nikolsk reflecting his scientific and practical contribution to development of domestic dermatology and venereology, to the organization of opening the Emperor - the sky Nikolaev university (Saratov) and formation of dermatovenerologichesky service are provided to the USSR. Keywords: professor P.V. Nikolsky, dermatovenereology, biography.

SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTION OF PROFESSOR P. V. NIKOLSKY TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF DERMATOLOGY AND VENEROLOGY IN RUSSIA (DELICATED TO THE 150th ANNIVERSARY OF HIS BIRTH)

A. I. Zavyalov - Saratov State Medical University, Department of Skin and Venereal Diseases, Assistant Professor, Candidate of Medical Science; V. F. Orkin - Saratov State Medical University, Department of Skin and Venereal Diseases, Professor, Doctor of Medical Science. E-mail: meduniv@sgmu.ru

The article contains some biographical information about professor P. V. Nikolsky, which reflects scientific and practical contribution to the development of native Dermatology and Venereology, to the organization of the Imperial Nikolaev’s University (Saratov) foundation and the becoming of dermatovenerological services in the USSR.

On September 1, 2008 150 years since the birth of one of outstanding domestic dermatovenerologists of the end of X are executed! X and the beginnings of the XX centuries - to Pyotr Vasilyevich Nikolsky, contributed significantly to development of the Russian and world science in the field of dermatology and venereology.

P.V. Nikolsky was born in 1858 in Usman of the Tambov province in family of the priest. After the termination of the Tambov theological seminary in 1877 it arrived on medical faculty of the Imperial Moscow university. After the first course in 1878 it was transferred to medical faculty in the university of St. Vladimir (Kiev) from which graduated in December, 1884, having been entitled the doctor with honors. During study at the university showed great interest to research work and actively participated in work (in again organized in 1881). Scientific clinical organization of medical students of Kiev. In August, 1885 according to the proposal of the trustee of the Kiev educational district P.V. Nikolsky as one of the most talented students who showed interest in research activity was approved as the supernumerary intern in clinic of skin and venereal diseases of the prof. M.I. Stukovenkov. After the termination of a three-year internship P.V. Nikolsky continues to work in this clinic, conducting at the same time reception of the coming patients in a dermatological office of a clinic of the Red Cross and the Kiev charity.

In 1891 P.V. Nikolsky successfully takes examinations for degree of the doctor of medicine. Outstanding abilities of the young scientist could not remain unnoticed, and in 1892 on representation of the prof. M.I. Stukovenkov he is elected in scholars for a period of three years for preparation for a professorial rank that allowed it to work on the doctoral dissertation on a subject: "Materials to the doctrine about pemphigus foliaceus Cazenavi". After public defense of a thesis on November 1, 1896 P.V. Nikolsky receives degree of the doctor of medicine and same year is elected the privatdozent of department of skin and venereal diseases of the university of St. Vladimir with lecturing at the rate of dermatology and syphilology for students of the 4th course.

During work at department under the leadership of M.I. Stukovenkov it performed the original works on dermatology devoted to questions of an etiology and pathogenesis of eczema, patomorfologichesky changes at a bladderwort; to measures to restriction of spread of syphilis and methods of its treatment, health education; to studying history of development of a domestic dermatovenereology. On stories of scientific dermato-syphilology P.V. Nikolsky with big warmth shows in the publications not only a role and merits of founders of domestic dermatology and venereology

And. G. Polotebnova and M.I. Stukovenkova, but also her national advantages and originality.

P.V. Nikolsky in the clinic headed by the prof. M.I. Stukovenkov was created as the outstanding scientist, and his name gained broad popularity that, except the published scientific works, substantially was promoted by active participation in work of dermato-sifilidologichesky sections of congresses of doctors of memory of N.I. Pirogov.

At the end of 1899 P.V. Nikolsky on a competition was elected and since January 1, 1900 is approved as extraordinary professor, and since October 1, 1903 - ordinary professor of the department of skin and venereal diseases of medical faculty of the Warsaw university which was located on the basis of St. Lazar's hospital where he worked till 1915. The department was equipped with fine material resources; on it process of teaching a dermatovenereology was well put.

During work at the Warsaw university P.V. Nikolsky went abroad in a business trip for acquaintance with work of the best dermatological clinics of Germany, France and Switzerland. Zdesyon got acquainted with such largest dermatovenerologists of Europe, Kaká. Fournier, F. Allopo, L. Brock. In 1900 during the business trip Pyotr Vasilyevich took active part in work of the international dermatological congress in Paris. At one of its meetings of the prof. G.A. H. A. Danlos for the purpose of demonstration and clinical analysis presented the patient with the diagnosis: gerpetiformny dermatitis of Dyuringa. P.V. Nikolsky who is present at this meeting disproved this diagnosis, based on presence at the patient of a symptom of an otsloyka of a corneal layer of epidermis, having proved that the patient suffers from a listovidny bladderwort.

In the first year of work at department of skin and venereal diseases of the Warsaw university P.V. Nikolsky at the request of students publishes a course of the lectures given by it in the form of the separate book: "A course of skin and venereal diseases", using

great popularity at future doctors. Seeking to meet the available lack not only in domestic, but also in world dermatological literature, he wrote and published the big management "The general therapy of diseases of skin" which, quite answering the purpose, also long time the only work of this sort was the first. In it Pyotr Vasilyevich pays much attention to pathogenesis of skin diseases and their communication with visceral pathology, methods of diagnostics and complex treatment. Points to an interconnection of bodies among themselves and correlation of their activity and defends positions of the physiological direction in medicine based by S.P. Botkin, I.M. Sechenov and further developed by I.P. Pavlov.

During work at the Warsaw university P.V. Nikolsky during the summer period repeatedly came to Kislovodsk where studied influence of carbonic bathtubs of a narzan on vascular reaction of skin and their value in therapy of a chronic dermatosis. It also worked on a question of action of sunlight, sea bathings, carbonic bathtubs and other resort factors on an organism healthy and sick that allowed to develop indications and contraindications to treatment of a dermatosis in the resort of Anapa.

P.V. Nikolsky constantly took part in work of congresses of Society of the Russian doctors in memory

N. I. Pirogova. So, on V! The Pirogovsky congress he made the report on a case of the heavy galloping syphilis with long fever, odes - novremenno being followed by papular rashes of the secondary period of syphilis and bugorkovy sifilida of the tertiary period. The fundamental thought of the speaker came down to the fact that "... severe forms of syphilis are caused by the known adverse conditions in an organism and mainly in nervous system". This message was highly appreciated by the founder of domestic syphilology of the prof. V.M. Tar-novsky.

The evidence of recognition, the general respect and popularity of the scientist was the fact of election its one of Honorary Chairmen of section of skin and venereal diseases at the VIII congress of the Russian doctors in N.I. Pirogov's memory.

At the following IX Pirogovsky congress in 1904 P.V. Nikolsky performed with specific proposals on the issue of fight against venereal diseases among youth.

Due to the revolutionary events and the subsequent reaction the Warsaw university from 1905 to 1910 was closed and P.V. Nikolsky temporarily goes to Kiev where he is engaged in preparation for the edition of the book "General Therapy of Diseases of Skin", continuing the scientific works begun in Warsaw. Lectures about treatment of syphilis", published in 1905, with the most detailed and critical analysis of a technique of treatment of syphilis, in feature mercury medicines are of great interest. With resumption of activity of the Warsaw university in 1910 .on returns to department for execution of the duties again.

Since 1905, by the Government of the Russian Empire it was repeatedly asked about transfer of the Warsaw university to the large provincial city which would be located in the European part of the country.

Considering such opportunity, on December 1, 1906 professor of the Warsaw university P.V. Nikolsky for the purpose of possible transfer of the Warsaw university to Saratov was invited to a meeting of City Council of Saratov. The commission from three vowels to which the thought charged was elected: "To take all measures to that the university was transferred to Saratov", but however for a number of the objective reasons the transfer of the Warsaw university to Saratov did not take place.

At the beginning of 1909 P.V. Nikolsky as a part of the authoritative commission was sent to the Volga region for the choice of the city for opening of the university. After the meeting of members of the commission and the reasoned conclusion of the prof. P.V. Nikolsky for opening of the university Saratov was chosen.

on May 9, 1909 the bill on establishment of the university was adopted by the State Duma, at the end of May - the State Council, and on June 10, 1909 the emperor Nikolay ІІ approved the law on the organization of the university in Saratov.

P.V. Nikolsky at first helped with the organization new in Russia much - the Imperial Nikolaev university (development of the training program and drawing up the estimate of expenses) as a part of the only medical faculty.

Same year he visits Saratov again, but already as the official representative from the Warsaw university where he participates on December 1 in the solemn meeting devoted to opening of the Imperial Nikolaev university. In acknowledgement and gratitude for the rendered help with development of the program and estimates of the university the rector prof. V.I. Razumovsky awarded P.V. Nikolsky the silver medal.

Three years later P.V. Nikolsky tries to cast in the lot with Saratov again; he files documents on a competition in election to a position of the head of the department of the systematic doctrine about skin and syphilitic diseases at the Imperial Nikolaev university. After acquaintance to personal records of six applicants the Council of the university allowed to stand to this position to only two - ordinary professor of the Warsaw university to the doctor of medicine P.V. Nikolsky and the privatdozent of the Kazan university to the doctor of medicine A.A. Hitrovo.

Results of vote were the following: for P.

V. Nikolsky is given ballots-15, not selective - 1; for A.A. Hitrovo it is given ballots - 9, not selective - 7.

However for the unknown reasons the prof. P.V. Nikolsky elected by Council to a position of the head of the department of skin and venereal diseases did not arrive to Saratov. In this regard according to the Royal order on civil department of August 27, 1912 for No. 57 the doctor for business trips of the VII category at Clinical military hospital was appointed to this position, the privatdozent of Imperial Army medical college the doctor of medicine, the outdoor adviser V.I. Terebinsky.

Summer of 1915 in connection with approach of the German army and the decision of a special meeting in Moscow the Warsaw university was in full strength evacuated to Rostov-on-Don. Clinic and department of skin and venereal diseases the barrack with 25 beds in the territory of former was provided to the Nikolaev city hospital. Despite difficulties of material and technical resources in clinic, scientific work did not stop. For the first 10 years of work of department of skin and venereal diseases in Rostov-on-Don under the leadership of P.V. Nikolsky there were 148 scientific works of employees. A big merit of Pyotr Vasilyevich during his work in Rostov-on-Don was the edition in 1918. "Lectures on skin diseases", and in 1919. "Lectures on syphilis and venereal diseases". In 1923 it on the basis of rich clinical and pedagogical experience made and published the guide to dermatology: "Skin diseases" where advanced views to questions of pathogenesis of diseases are reflected.

P.V. Nikolsky pays the greatest attention in scientific work to studying a role of higher nervous activity in pathogenesis of a chronic dermatosis (eczema, psoriasis, a pochesukha).

Original researches of P.V. Nikolsky and his pupils were devoted to a musculohairpin reflex, skin sensitivity, temperature of skin (V.N. Kosmadis), heat exchange at an ichthyosis, to sweating (B.N. Toniyan), to an oily secretion (V.

S. Hunch), nonspecific reactivity of skin (E.D. Danilevskaya), the drawing of triangular and rhombic fields of skin.

In 1924 the employee of clinic of skin and venereal diseases V.S. Garbi at a histologic research under the leadership of P.V. Nikolsky, the lack of a zhirootdeleniye around a psoriasis plaque was revealed. Same year, but a bit later, D.L. Voronov from clinic of skin and venereal diseases of the Kazan university described a psev-doatrofichesky rim ("collar") of the psoriati-chesky papules which are already created and stopped growth around: "This rim, in the form of the gentle socket, 2 - 5 mm wide, color or normal skin, or slightly more pale and more brilliant, than skin of this subject, and slightly pressed, is represented folded in the manner of tissue paper, kind of psevdoatrofichny". Existence of "Voronov's collar" testifies to a stop of peripheral growth of an element and stabilization psoriatichesko-go process. Further there was a large number of the scientific research devoted to perifocal pathological processes at psoriasis and other papular dermatosis.

The important place is taken by the works devoted to a research of vascular reactions of skin: "A white dermografizm" (1902), "A white dermografizm on red skin" (1906), "To a question of influence of carbonic bathtubs of a narzan on vascular reaction of skin and of their value in therapy of skin diseases" (1913), "Vascular reflexes of skin" (1916), "About sosudistodvigatelny reflexes of skin" (1922), etc. As opposed to N. Barthélemy's opinion (N1. Vag1Ie! to an et), Pyotr Vasilyevich the researches convincingly proved that such vascular reaction is observed not only at persons with dry skin, but also at people with sufficient secretion of sweat and sebaceous glands.

P.V. Nikolsky was the convinced supporter of complex treatment of patients with skin pathology. He developed and widely introduced physical therapy methods, klimato-and balneoterapiya, X-ray therapies of skin diseases in practice.

P.V. Nikolsky was a part of the central organizational bureau of the 1st All-Russian congress

on fight against venereal diseases, taken place in June, 1923 in Moscow.

The special merit belongs to P.V. Nikolsky in the organization and development of network of skin and venereologic clinics and venereologic service in the country since 1923 - 1930. He supported the new direction of a dispensary method of fight against venereal diseases completely, helped bodies of practical health care to develop organizational forms of accounting of patients, combining them with medical and scheduled maintenance.

P.V. Nikolsky one of the first dermatovenerologists of the country on pages of the "Russky Vestnik Dermatologii, 1927, No. 1, S. 112 I No. 4, S. 442" magazine brought up a question of need of the organization of All-Union dermatovenerologichesky society.

The name of P.V. Nikolsky became world-famous in connection with his brilliant researches of a listovidny bladderwort, the rare and very heavy chronic dermatosis for the first time described by the French dermatologist A. Kazenavi (And. Cazenavi) in 1844. In the dissertation work he established that at pemphigus foliaceus the fragility of a corneal layer on all surface of an integument is always noted. The intensive, sliding and rubbing movement about a bubble cause an easy otsloyka of epidermis; at pandiculation for a tire of a bubble there is a rejection of epidermis on probably not changed skin. The symptom described by it entered domestic and world dermatological literature as Nikolsky's (signe de Nikolsky) symptom.

As the outstanding clinical physician-dermatologist, Pyotr Vasilyevich on many questions considerably was ahead of the contemporaries, having established a number of the new valuable facts and having described clinical forms of a dermatosis. So, in 1897 P.V. Nikolsky described a special form of a congenital ichthyosis with an eritrodermiya and bubbles, having offered its name acanthokeratolysis universalis congenitale. Ya.L. Brock (J. L. Vgosd) in 1902 published article in which described a congenital ikhtioziformny eritrodermiya where mentions P.V. Nikolsky's observation and specifies that the form described by the last represents a bullous kind of a congenital eritrodermiya.

In 1900 P.V. Nikolsky the first described the cutting form of a circular hair loss and gave it the name trichorrhexis areata. 21 year later the same form of a disease R. R. Saubouraud under the name trichoclasia idiopathica described.

Special merits belong to P.V. Nikolsky in the field of venereology, in particular, on treatment of syphilis mercury. Continuing scientific research of the teacher - the prof. M.I. Stukovenkov, P.V. Nikolsky with the pupils (Ya.M. Shestopal and F.I. Shiryaev) conducted a research on distribution of mercury in an organism and to contents it in menstrual blood where he established its concentration - up to 1:14000. Then he carried out studying content of mercury to blood of corpses of the patients treated during lifetime for syphilis. Besides, P.V. Nikolsky for the first time entered into out-patient practice of territorial doctors of injection kalomelya at syphilis.

The prof. P.V. Nikolsky generalized the main results of the scientific activity in a series of the original monographs published by him:

1. Materials to the doctrine about pemphigus foliaceus Cazenavi. The thesis on degree of the doctor of medicine. Kiev, 1896.
2. Lektsiiolecheniisifilis. Warsaw, 1905.
3. General therapy of skin diseases. Kiev, 1910.
4. Skin diseases. M-l., 1923, 1927, 1930.
5. Syphilis and venereal diseases. M-l., 1924, 1928, 1932.
6. The management to a research of skin and venereal diseases. Rostov-on-Don, 1925.
Being interested in

in the history of development of domestic dermatology and venereology, he always sought to show achievements of the Russian scientists and to defend their priority. So, Pyotr Vasilyevich for the first time established a priority of the Russian professor of the Helsingfors university (Finland) G.M. Smirnov (1873), to - tory improved hypodermic introduction kalomelya on A. Skarencho (And. Scarenzio), on the way of introduction of medicine to cellulose of buttocks by means of needles 3-5 cm long which gained further wide recognition not only in Russia but also abroad. The offered introduction method kalomelya allowed to reduce significantly morbidity and to reduce the number of the abscesses observed earlier at superficial subcutaneous injections.

Being versatily educated person and the scientist, P.V. Nikolsky published a series of works on history of domestic dermatology and venereology: "Russian dermatology and prof. Alexey Gerasimovich Polotebnov" (1896); "Review of scientific activity of the prof. Mikhail Ivanovich Stukovenkov and his clinic" (1897); "Value of works of the prof. M.I. Stukovenkov in the field of therapy of syphilis" (1907); "Fifth anniversary of clinic of skin and venereal diseases of the University of London" (1922); "Decade of clinic of skin and venereal diseases of the North Caucasian university" (1926).

P.V. Nikolsky published a short essay on dermatology stories in the separate domestic edition: "Fundamentals of clinical, experimental and social venereology and dermatology" (1931). Kromety, to them predstavlendoklad on a subject: "A condition of dermatology and syphilology in Russia since 1884" on YH the International congress of dermatologists in Budapest (1936).

Peru the scientist possesses more than 80 published fundamental works in domestic and foreign editions, including the monographs devoted to topical issues of pathogenesis, clinic, diagnostics and treatment in dermatology and venereology.

In 1922 at the initiative of P.V. Nikolsky the Don scientific dermatovenerologichesky organization (Rostov-on-Don) which headed for many years was organized. It was the honorary member of Society of the Russian doctors in Warsaw, the Kiev Fiziko-meditsinsky and dermatovenerologichesky society, the Moscow, Leningrad, Kuban, Odessa, Don, Saratov, Stavropol scientific organizations of dermatologists and venereologists, the member correspondent. French society of dermatologists and venereologists. Besides, he was a coeditor of department of dermatology of the Big medical encyclopedia of the 1st edition, 1928.

High erudition and depth of scientific views of Pyotr Vasilyevich, a large number of the original researches conducted by it in the field of dermatology

and syphilology, the received new achievements played an important role in development of both domestic, and world dermatovenerologichesky science and brought deserved glory to the outstanding Russian scientist of the first half of the XX century.

Among his numerous pupils three became professors, including P.V. Kozhevnikov is the corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences.

The prof. P.V. Nikolsky by right belongs to a group of outstanding erudite dermatovenerologists of our country of the end of XX and the beginnings of the XX centuries which are skillfully combining versatile scientific, medical and pedagogical, organizing and public work. He was one of initiators on the organization and formation of dermatovenerologichesky service in Russia directed to fight against venereal and infectious skin diseases.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Zavyalov, A.I. Pages of history of department of skin and venereal diseases of the Saratov medical university / A.I. Zavyalov, I.A. Yakupov. - Saratov: SGMU publishing house, 2006. - 75 pages
2. Skinners, P.V. Prof. P.V. Nikolsky and his value in a domestic dermatovenereology (by a decade from the date of death) / P.V. Kozhevnikov//Vestn. dermatol.-1950. - No. 3. - Page 33 - 34.
3. Skinners, P.V. Pyotr Vasilyevich Nikolsky / P.

V. Skinners//BME, prod.-e 3, M., 1981. T.16. - Page 1497 - 1498.

4. To Kstolety since the birth of P.V. Nikolsky//Vestn. dermatol. - 1958. - No. 6. - Page 64 - 70.
5. Levin, to A.M. is 100 years since the birth of P.V. Nikolsky - the outstanding Soviet dermatologist / A.M. Levin, N.S. Potekayev//Klien. medical - 1959. - No. 3. - Page 141 - 144.
6. P.V. Nikolsky, To 40-year anniversary of medical and scientific activity (1884 - 1924)//the Medical thought (scientific and medical magazine). - 1925. - T.Ill, prince 3. - Page 1
7. Minutes No. 3b of a meeting of Council of the Imperial Nikolaev university of April 24, 1912//News of the Imperial Nikolaev university. - 1913.

>- T. YU (release of the 1st). - Page 71 - 74; 160 - 170.

8. Prof. P.V. Nikolsky (1858 - 1940), obituary//Vestn. venerol. and dermatol. - 1940. - No. 9. - Page 61.
9. Prokhorenkov, V.I. is domestic dermatovenerologists. Biographic reference book / V.I. Prokhorenkov, T.A. Yakovleva. - M.: Medical book, 2003. - Page 113 - 114.
10. 45-year anniversary of the prof. P.V. Nikolsky//Doctor. business. - 1930. - No. 6. - Page 475 - 476.
11. Torsuyev, N.A. Rol and merits of the prof. P.V. Nikolsky in development of a domestic dermatovenereology / N.A. Torsuyev//Scientific works of department of dermatovenereal diseases of the Rostov medical institute. - Rostov-on-Don, 1947. T. 1. - Page 5 - 9.
12. Torsuyev, N.A.P.V. Nikolsky / N.A. Torsuyev. - М: Medgiz, 1953. - 166 pages
13. Flerin, N. Prof. P.V. Nikolsky / N. Flerin//Bolshevistskaya Smena Newspaper. - 1934. - No. 271 (2102).
14. N. Flerin. Fifty-year anniversary of prof. P.V. Nikolsky / N. Flerin//Soviet medical newspaper.-1935. - No. 6.
15. Aureliano da Fonseca Dermatology in Europe: A Hystoric Aproach. - S. Paulo, 1997. - P.358.

for record

The staff of the Saratov state medical university took out patents:

1. the No. 2324455 Device for receiving prints from the upper jaw / A.A. Googe, Yu.Yu. Rozaliyeva.
2. the No. 2325130 Way of Optimization of Reparative Osteogenesis in tubular bones / O.V. Beydik, D.A. Markov, K.K. Ayevchenko, Wang Kai, Guo Rui.
Robert Marsh
Other scientific works: