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Category: History


UDK 94 (470+571)


© 2009 M.S. Tepsuyev

Chechen state pedagogical insti- Chechen State Pedagogical Institute,

here, Kievskaya St., 33, Grozny, 364051,

Kiyevskaya St., 33, Grozny, 364051,

chechgpi@mail. ru

Questions of formation in the territory of the Northeast Caucasus of multinational sociocultural space in the XVIII—XIX centuries are considered. Process is represented from the point of view of various historians. The special role of Kizlyar in expansion of political, commercial, economic and cultural ties of Russia with the people of the Northeast Caucasus is emphasized.

The article deals with the problems of formation of the multinational sociocultural area in the XVIII — XIX centuries in North Eastern Caucasus. Having learned a lot of sources, author presents this process with the point of view of many historians. The author underlined the special role of the town Kizlyar in spreading cultural connections of Russia with the peoples of the North Eastern Caucasus.

The northeast Caucasus, in the past and in the present remains the multinational region of our country. Here throughout centuries side by side lived, according to the estimates of different researchers, about hundred people and nationalities. The famous Arab scientist Ibn-Haukal (X century) specified that in the Caucasus "360 languages; I denied it earlier, - he said, - yet did not see the many cities and in everyone the language" [1, page 97]. Of course, there could not be so many languages if not to mean adverbs and dialects in which various ethnographic groups of the Caucasus talked.

Throughout the millennia these people had among themselves no designated territorial borders: all of them lived cherespolosno, alternately and much in common was at them in development of economy and culture. Besides, as V.G. Gadzhiyev, "similar uslo-noted

the Viy of life, community of historical destinies, century economic and cultural ties, material and spiritual interference, mutual enrichment, support and mutual assistance generated the idea of community of origin of the people of the Caucasus" [2, page 8].

The latest researches devoted to a question of the most ancient toponymics of the Caucasian tribes indicate much more extensive territory occupied by earlier Chechen tribes. According to G.A. Melikishvili, Adygei checheno - the Lezghin tribes "were widespread not only north of Greater Caucasus Range, but, apparently, and south of it, in Transcaucasia and still to the south" [3, page 14]. Other Georgian scientist I.A. Dzhavakhishvili established that "east provinces of East Georgia were once populated Chechen and the Dagestan tribes" [3, page 15], and N. Marr pointed that hevsura and psha-

you are "gruzinirovanny tribes of the Chechen people" [3, page 15]. The same point of view was supported also by the famous orientalist A.N. Genko.

According to many scientists, the territory of resettlement of the protochechen tribes in the ancient time extended from Dagestan to Svaneti, covering North and South Ossetia, Balkaria, Karachay and mountainous areas of Georgia. It should be noted that in toponymics of these territories and also some other Provinces of Transcaucasia considerable layer of chechenoyazychny names was laid.

For all the 18th century the Chechen population of Tersko-Sulaksky Entre Rios continued to be replenished at the expense of ichkerinets, karabulak and lamakkhinets. Speaking about settling of these lands by Chechens, P.I. Kowalewski wrote that they, Chechens, "little by little began to climb down mountains and to gradually occupy the Kumyk plane under the auls. A number of auls from the Kachkaly-kovsky ridge and nearly to Kizlyar across Terek, forming Kachkalykovsky Chechnya was so formed" [3, page 16].

While one part of the Chechen tribes developed eastern regions of modern Chechnya, another moved the West, across Entre Rios of Terek and Sunzha. Development of these territories allowed Chechens-orshtkhoyevtsam in the second half of the 18th century to begin land development in the lower part of Fortangi and Assa. During this period in the top part of the basin of the Assy River were located Ingush (galgay) settlements, and on the river Armkhi there lived Ingushs-fappintsy bordering in the lower part of the gorge on dzherakhovets. Sometimes carried the territory located between the rivers Fortangoy and Shalazhi to orshtkhoyevsky possession, however, as some scientists emphasize, in 1762 only pastures of mountain Chechens were located there. But from 80th of the 18th century this territory natives of Ichkeria and the Argun gorge and also akkinets, yalkhoroyevets, galayets, nashkhoyevets, merzhoyevets and other Chechen tribes occupied.

Since the beginning of the 18th century the process of resettlement from mountains on the plain of Ingushs amplifies. They migrate on the West, on gorges of the Terek River (on the North, through the gorge of the Assy River they were not let to the karabulaka plane). Ingushs occupied the foothills of the Tarsky valley (the page Angusht is known already no later than the end of the 17th century) on coast of the Kambileevki River.

Before the tsarism end of war with forces of the imam Mang sura (the period from 1785 to 1791) in documents any movements of Ingushs on new lands are not recorded. Their resettlement to the area Nazran, judging by some sources, happened at the beginning of the 19th century. It was carried out from consent and under the patronage of Chechens and their allies of Kabardians. Vladikavkaz of the major general Delpozzo to the general from an infanteriya Bulgakov indicates on June 13, 1807 the official report of the commandant of fortress it: "... ingushevsky people... having entered into the closest union with Kabardians and Chechens, all moved into place, called Nazran., accepted from them mullahs, built mosques, started confession of the Mukhammedansky law and promised both to Chechens, and Kabardians on a condition to pay taxes" [3, page 19]. To the east of Nazran was located the village of Yan -

a hole in which there were 80 yards of Chechens-orshtkhoyevtsev and settled to them is later than Ingushs. To the south of Yandyri there was a village of Galashki founded by representatives of the Chechen tayp of Galay. The village was joint settlements of Chechens and Ingushs. The top Alkun, the village of Falkhan it was based by natives of the Chechen village of Akki.

The zone of the Chechen internal colonization at the beginning of the 19th century included also the territory of modern Malgobekov-sky district which was considered then as Small Kabarda's part. In 1822 on these lands there was the Chechen village of Psedakh (Dolak-Yurt), the auls of Kozhakov and Mizi-Yurt were formed a little later. Besides, Chechens and Kumyks founded the settlement Magomet Yurtas (village of Voznesenskaya), by the joint settlement of Chechens, Kumyks and Kabardians there was a village of Kizlyar.

The share of Chechens as a part of the population of the Russian cities founded near Terek was considerable. So, at the end of the 17th century in the Okotsky settlement of. Graters there were several hundreds of the yards okochan (akkinets), and the share of Chechens in the population of this city exceeded 18%. More than 1.0 thousand Chechens (17.9% of the population of the city) lived in Kizlyar in 1796. In the multilingual population of Kizlyar they were national group, the second after Armenians [3, page 21].

Since the end of the 16th century in steppes of Ciscaucasia appeared kochevya Nogais. The foundation for their mass movement to the territory of the Northeast Caucasus was laid by the Big Nogai Horde which passed in 1606 to the right bank of the Volga River. It occupied by the kochevyam priterechny steppes, having infringed thereby on the economic interests of Chechens, Kumyks and Kabardians. But this situation remained not for long as at the beginning of 1620 as a result of feudal wars the Horde broke up and was forced to reconcile with Russia, and it kochevya moved to the Volga region again.

New relocation of nomadic divisions of Nogais to coast of Terek belongs to 1645 and is connected with news of repeated invasion of Kalmyks. In 1649-1650 from the Astrakhan steppes one more Nogai ulus which located between the Koysu Rivers (Sulak) and Aksay otkochevat to Terek. In the second half of the 17th century the Nogais left Caspian steppes more than once, moving to Astrakhan, to Kuban. And only in the 18th century they finally settled on this territory.

Not surprisingly therefore that with so large number of various ethnic groups in the territory of Dagestan, Chechnya and Ingushetia there was a process of formation of joint settlements in which representatives of many North Caucasian people lived. In the territory of Chechnya it were Devletgireeva the village, New Yurtas, Shawls, Braguna. The mixed Kumyk-Chechen population lived in kachkaly-kovsky settlements: Koshkelda, Oysungur, Isti-su, etc. Botash-yurt, the Bayram aul, Endirey, Aksay, etc. were joint settlements where there lived Dagestanis, Chechens, Ingushs and Kabardians, in Dagestan. In adjacent territories of Accident and Chechnya there was a number of joint settlements. So, Avarian settlement

Ansalta (Botlikh area), according to the legend, is considered based by Chechens, and Chechen Ishkhoy-aul - Avars [4, page 301].

In Dagestan, Kabarda, Chechnya, Ingushetia the whole surnames of non-local origin arose. So, tukhuma Chungurulal and Blital having the general roots among Avars and Chechens lived in border areas of Accident and Chechnya [5, page 279]. Natives of Dagestan were the ancestors of the Kabardian surnames Shamkhalovy, Kumykovy, Kazanishchevy and others; surnames of Kabardiyev Tambiyevy in Dagestan are based by Kabardians. The Ingush tukhuma of Kotiev, Togiyevy, Gadarboshevy occurred from Kumyks. Mountaineers of Dagestan [4, page 302] were the ancestors of the Chechen surnames of Shavkhalov, Aydemirovy.

Cossacks were one more group of the population of the Northeast Caucasus. The Tersko-grebensky Cossacks which located on a left bank of Terek at the end of XVI - the beginning of the 17th century, from the very beginning of the existence were sluzhily, i.e. it was created not by the movement of a people at large, but the tsarist government which very much early understood all benefits of the Cossack system at implementation of the plans in the Caucasus.

Directly point to it also historical documents. "Settling of the North Caucasus on a current of the Terek River by natives of Velikorossiya began in the 16th century at Ivan the Terrible. The first Cossacks who appeared here represented a part of garrison of fortress of the Grater founded in 1577. Emergence of actually Cossack settlements belongs to the 17th century" [6, page 18]. About same the general V. Potto speaks, pointing that on the bank of the Caspian Sea the Cossacks constructed Graters, "where began to bring together to themselves Kabardians, Chechens, Kumyks and even Circassians of whom in a consequence and the Tersky army was formed" [7, page 39].

Thus, the first tersky Cossacks belonged to the category of so-called "policemen of Cossacks". They were used generally for garrison, intelligence and guard service. Policemen Cossacks received grounds over time, were exempted from all taxes, awarded with a monetary salary.

For the 17th century owing to weakness of positions of Russia in the Northeast Caucasus, position of tersky Cossacks was unstable. In 1653 the considerable part of their settlements was destroyed and remained not restored. According to I. Gerber, even at the beginning of the 18th century the Cossacks were not able to take any serious actions against Chechens. And in 1707 the majority of the remained Cossack towns was destroyed by attack of the Kuban and Crimean Tatars and Circassians.

Naturally, being in an environment of mountaineers, tersky Cossacks were exposed to considerable influence of the last. Grebensky Cossacks of the second half of the 18th century, for example, are known that "by means of marriages they so mixed up with Tatars (i.e. with mountaineers) that their former Russian speech turned into the bad language mixed with Tatar". About same wrote much later L.N. Tolstaya: "Living between Chechens, Cossacks became related with them and acquired to themselves

customs, way of life, customs of mountaineers... The young Cossack sports knowledge of Tatar and, having cleared up, even with the brother speaks in Tatar" [8, page 143].

Meanwhile the situation in the Caucasus to the middle of the 30th of the 18th century underwent significant changes. The situation developed in such a way that Ottoman Port became the serious opponent of Russia near the Black Sea. In such conditions of Russia it was necessary to conclude with Iran in 1735. The Ganja peace treaty under which the western coast of the Caspian Sea from Gilyan to the fortress of the Sacred Cross passed to Iran. Under the terms of the contract the Russian army had to leave the last strong point in the Northeast Caucasus - the fortress of the Sacred Cross. In the fall of 1735 this fortress was abolished, and it "inhabitants Russian, Georgians and Armenians what there then were is equal both employees regular and irregular" were transferred to fortress Kizlyar [9, page 53].

Kizlyar - one of the oldest cities in Dagestan through which Russia extended the influence in the Caucasus. On the economic and political value Kizlyar, since 40th of the 18th century and within more than hundred years, was "the Russian capital in the Caucasus" [10, page 35] and "long time remained the only thing in all Ciscaucasia the city" [11].

In literature there are a lot of assumptions of origin of the name "Kizlyar". Some consider it the event from the Persian word "kyuzlyar" - an eye (according to the legend, in this place one of the Persian governors blinded the brother in whom saw threat to the greatness); others connect the name "Kizlyar" with the Kumyk word "kyzlar" - the girl (in memory of death of two captives of one Kumyk khan who rushed here to the small river - one of sleeves of Terek); and so on. Let's note also that else in ancient times when in these parts there was no settlement, one of numerous inflows of Terek was called Kizlyarka.

The first written mention of this settlement occurs in documents of the middle of the 17th century. Old Kizlyar, or "The Kizlyar town" as it is mentioned in the Russian sources, was located on an overland caravan track from Persia to Astrakhan and played a large role in development of trade between Russia and Transcaucasia. In 1730 for protection of the southern borders of Russia against attack of mountaineers in Kizlyar the small strengthening was constructed.

After the Ganja contract of 1735 between Russia and Persia there was a need to build near Terek powerful fortress for protection of interests of Russia in this area. To the general Levashov, the participant of many campaigns of Pyotr, the choice of the place and a construction of this fortress were charged. The following specific objectives were set for new fortress: "It had to serve as boundary fortress, protect a way which went on the coast of the Caspian Sea and also to serve as a strong point for the Cossack villages located along border across Terek" [12, page 63].

Levashov's choice fell on Kizlyar located near Agrakhan Bay. It was point, nai-

more answering to the set fortress construction conditions. The general himself developed also the project of new fortress (in the subsequent it changed more than once). Together with the project the idea of new resettlement not only regular bodies, but also randomly scattered tersky Cossack settlements arose. A part of agrakhansky Cossacks was settled in new villages - Borozdinovskoy, Dubovskoy and Kargalin-skoy, having formed so-called Tersky family army, and other part - in Kizlyar and down Terek to the Caspian Sea, having formed the Kizlyar army.

As a result of such resettlement the big strengthened line stretched on the left bank of Terek from Chervlenny to the Caspian Sea with three powerful strong points was formed: Grebenskoye (consisting of 5 villages), Family and Kizlyar. So, "movement of grebensky towns on the left bank, construction of Kizlyar and the settlement Tersky of family army between Kizlyar and Grebensky army laid the foundation of the great Caucasian line where then centenary Caucasian war was played..." [13, and 269].

As the subsequent events, the Kizlyar fortress and all strengthened line showed gained great strategic value.

The civilian population of fortress consisted of the Cossack families and also immigrants - Armenians, Georgians, the Kazan Tatars and representatives of a number of the Caucasian nationalities including Chechens. The earth under an arable land and 10 rubles was allocated to each immigrant for arrangement around fortress. About 100 and more tithes of the best lands were allocated for the highest military ranks, ecclesiastics and also representatives of other privileged estates making a support of the power.

When settling Kizlyar in special "Warrant" that "to avoid offense and a quarrel between the different nations of inhabitants", were given what detailed instructions of "nation" where to lodge as the issue of the neighbourhood in one "nation" has to be resolved: "to whom beside whom to have the estate to order to throw a lot and who beside whom will voluntarily lodge pokhotit. and in that to a dispute will not. be, that of a vozbranenye not to repair" [13; 14, page 250].

With growth of the population around fortress the first quarters of houses appeared. Yu. Shidlovsky writes in "Notes about Kizlyar" that the city consisted of several settlements: Armenian (Armentir), Georgian (Kurtseaul), office of novokreshchenets (Kristizul), the Tatar settlement occupied by Nogais and Kumyks (Okochiryaul), the Kazan Tatars (Kazanteaul) and villages of tersky Cossacks [15, page 165].

However at the beginning of the 19th century in connection with strengthening of colonizer aspirations of a tsarism, the wide commercial relations of Russia with the people of Dagestan and other areas of the Northeast Caucasus which were carried out through Kizlyar began to weaken considerably. Trade with "rebellious" was forbidden, assigned implementation of strict supervision of transportation of handicrafts of mountaineers to the Kizlyar customs.

Besides, the combat operations in East Caucasus developed during this period caused the necessity of promotion of the strengthened points of royal troops from steppe areas to the advanced spurs, and then in depth of the Caucasian ridge. These circumstances promoted gradual transformation of Kizlyar from a boundary outpost to the rear city.

In 1857, shortly before the end of the Caucasian war, once terrible Kizlyar fortress was as superfluous abolished. Having lost former strategic and trade value, Kizlyar turned into one of the district cities of the Stavropol province. Being put into words D. Vasilyeva, "in the subsequent history kind of passed by this city" [16].

Despite this, it is worth to remember that Kizlyar, carrying on traditions of the Tersky town and the Sacred Cross, represented complex and peculiar multilingual conglomerate of the people, and for representatives of the Northeast Caucasus from the moment of the basis had exclusive value not only as political and economic, but also as the cultural center of the region. It on advantage was called "the Russian capital in the Caucasus", and all huge territory including a northern part modern the Republics of Dagestan, Chechnya, Ingushetia, Kabardu and a part of North Ossetia - the Kizlyar region.


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2. V.G. Gadzhiyev. Century friendship of fraternal peoples//From the history of relationship of Dagestan with Russia and with the people of the Caucasus: sb. station Makhachkala, 1982.
3. Chechen republic (population, economy, history). All about Chechnya and its people. Grozny, 1995.
4. History of the people of the North Caucasus since the most ancient times until the end of the 18th century of M., 1988.
5. History of Dagestan. M, 1967. T. 1.
6. M.Sh. Rizakhanova. Dagestan Russians. XIX - the head of the 20th century Makhachkala, 2001.
7. V.A. Potto. Two centuries of the Tersky Cossacks (1577-1801). Stavropol, 1991.
8. L.N. Tolstoy of Half-N of SOBR. soch. T. 47. M, 1937.
9. D.V. Aganesova, I.A. Suzdaltseva. The Armenian communities of Dagestan in XVSh-XIX of centuries Makhachkala, 2007.
10. Documents on relationship of Georgia with the North Caucasus in the 18th century / sost. V.N. Gamrekeli. Tbilisi, 1968.
11. AKAK. 1869. Preface.
12. A.V. Fadeyev. Essays of economic development of steppe Ciscaucasia. M, 1957.
13. A.N. Kazhlayev. Emergence and economic development of the cities of Dagestan ASSR. Makhachkala, 1971.
14. Materials for the history of engineering art in Dews - 16. D. Vasilyev Kizlyar under capitalism//Kizlyar is right - these. SPb., 1865. Part 3. Page 250. yes. 1969. June.
15. Yu. Shidlovsky. Notes about Kizlyar//Zhurn. Ministry of Internal Affairs. 1843. Part 4. Page 165.

Came to edition On May 14, 2009

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