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The Russian newspapers in the occupied Soviet territory (1941 1944)


In days of the Great Patriotic War the German command and the occupational authorities created widely branched advocacy device in the occupied territory. Generally it consisted of radio stations and the print media. In Belarus, the Baltics, Moldova and in Ukraine, in the occupied territory of RSFSR the issue of newspapers on Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Moldavian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Estonian and other languages of the people of the USSR was organized. In total in the occupied Soviet territory there were more than 260 collaborationist newspapers and zhurnalov1.

All newspapers which were issued in Russian were editions of collaborators - or the Russian governing bodies, or fighting leaves of headquarters and companies of promotion of the Russian Liberation Army (RLA) and also the Russian voluntary formations which were a part of the German armed forces. But the institution publishing it was not specified in many cases in newspapers. In names remained both Russian pre-revolutionary, and the Soviet traditions: "Bakhmutsky truth", "Bell" (Kursk),

"Kursk news", "Mariupol newspaper", "Rumour" (Odessa), Novaya Gazeta (Roslavl), "Modern times" (Vyazma), "Pyatigorsk echo", "Speech" (Oryol), "Northern word" (Revel), "Smolensk bulletin", etc. Especially often meet New Way and "For the Homeland". Newspapers of the Russian military formations usually were called "Volunteer", "The volunteer's leaf", "The ordinary soldier of ROA", "The Cossack bulletin", etc.

In some cities the issue of newspapers was made by the Russian publishing houses everywhere created by the occupational authorities. In Stavropol the Morning of the Caucasus publishing house, in Belgorod - "Rising", in Novocherkassk - "The Novocherkassk bulletin", in Smolensk and Klintsy - New Way publishing houses worked. Quite often Russian newspapers were issued in common Russian publishing houses and departments of promotion of the German military connections. So, the Melitopol Region newspaper was published by Melitopol Region publishing house and department of promotion "To" Tavriya's group.

Sometimes the large plants were publishers. So, the Mariupol newspaper "Ekho Priazovya" was press organ of the Azov plants No. 1.2, - the largest enterprises of the region. In the small city centers the Russian newspapers could not have the publishing house and were issued on the basis of the German parts as, for example, "the Bakhmutsky messenger".

The typological structure of the Russian collaborationist newspaper press was various. All newspapers had social and political character and were designed for mass audience. Among them there were also editions focused on specific groups of readers - the worker, military, country, women's, etc. The newspapers which are specially intended for officers of ROA, for propagandists of the Russian formations and even for the Soviet guerrillas were issued. There were also satirical and wall newspapers.

Newspapers consisted of three main departments: official, informal and advertizing. Orders of the occupational authorities, orders of the Russian governing bodies were published in official department. In informal transfers and retellings of contents of speeches and speeches of heads of Germany and its allies, articles, letters of readers, data of news agencies, essays and reports, stories and poems and also the letters and diaries found at prisoners or the killed Red Army men were located. In department of advertizing and announcements commercial advertisements, programs of broadcasts, film and playbills and also notices on search of faces of missing persons were placed.

The volume of newspapers was from two to four pages. Single circulations of newspapers reached till 60-70 and even 100 thousand copies. Frequency, as a rule, made 2-3 times a week. There were daily and weekly publications. In the Russian newspapers appearing in Ukraine material often was located on Ukrainian.

Originally newspapers represented small information leaflets by means of which the German command told the population of news from the front and notified on actions occupational

authorities. They were prepared by the departments of headquarters of the German armies responsible for promotion among the population of occupied territories. Gradually editions collaborators from the circle of local community or the Russian emigrants who arrived from Germany were included. So, the Riga newspaper "Russky Vestnik" was edited by the journalist, famous in emigration, and the writer V.V. Leri-Klopovsky who before revolution cooperated in newspapers of Kiev and Odessa, and in emigration lived and worked in Prague, Paris, Berlin and Riga. Editor-in-chiefs of the Russian Kiev newspaper "Posledniye Novosti" were at first associate professor L.V. Dudin, and then professor K.F. Shtepa. The journalist M. Oktan was an editor-in-chief of the Oryol newspaper "Rech". Representatives of occupational administration sometimes were at the head of newspaper editions. So, the director of "The Odessa newspaper" was to S.D. Dimitreshk for a long time (Odessa after its capture by invaders was included in structure of Romania).

As a part of the editorial offices of the Russian newspapers worked hard the former Soviet journalists who "honestly" participated in "the new anti-Soviet press", having become, in fact, active helpers of invaders. However was also much journalists who did not cooperate with Hitlerites. Therefore practically all Russian newspapers tested acute staff shortage. As recognized "the Voice of the Crimea", "journalists in essence to poverty are not enough... Position of the press in the absence of journalists is extremely difficult" 2.

Financially Russian newspapers were provided with the occupational authorities, the information-German propaganda machine. Specially prepared newsletters of the German cable agency, Ministry of promotion and education, other propaganda institutions of Germany in the Russian and German languages came to editions: "Merkblatt fur die freiwilligen russischen Propagandisten", "OPD-Ostpressedinst (Material fur russische Zeitung)", "Ost-Artikeldinst", "Ostdinst. Propaganda Abteilung", "Nachrichtenburo deutscher Zeitungsverleger" and others. The Russian newspapers were exposed to strict military and political censorship from the occupational authorities. The editorial offices recognized it openly when wrote that all press on taken by Germany and its allies of the territory of the USSR and Europe is instructed "from the center of the German notification" 3.

For giving to newspapers of visibility of plausibility and objectivity the reviews and reprints joined materials of periodicals of the countries of the anti-Hitlerite coalition. Except of ermansky news agency and news agencies of allies of Germany, messages of news agencies of Great Britain, the USSR and the USA were located on pages of newspapers. Often reviews and reprints from materials of the German press, the Russian profascist newspapers and also newspapers and magazines of allies of Germany were located. All this material undertook from newsletters which were sent to editions.

Local material gathered editions through network of special, own and war correspondents which much managed to create

to editions. In a number of editions, special instructions for work of correspondents were written.

So, in the newspaper "K Pobede!" issued for the Soviet guerrillas by the Vitebsk publishing house New Way the instruction about collecting materials for the war correspondents working in areas of fighting between chasteners and guerrillas was made. According to the instruction the correspondents had to leave to places of fights, meet commanders and fighters of retaliatory group, to help them to write notes for the newspaper, to write down conversations with them. It was also necessary to interview captured guerrillas and to make record of conversations. The main task of correspondents consisted in collecting of data on activity of guerrilla groups, places of their dislocation, living conditions and arms, work of special departments in groups. Close attention should be paid to the data discrediting guerrillas: confiscations of food at local community, cases of marauding and alcoholism of guerrillas, the conflicts between commanders and ordinary fighters. The instruction underlined that first of all the correspondent "it is necessary to receive concrete material, but not the general" 4. It is remarkable that according to the instruction names and the surnames of chasteners and deserters could be published in the newspaper only from their consent.

However many collaborationist newspapers on the pages admitted that not always editions have "in enough interesting, topical material" 5.

The Russian newspapers sought to establish continuous communications with reader's audience. For this purpose the publishers distributed leaflets in which asked potential readers whether copies reach them and what they would like to see the newspaper, suggested them to write to edition more actively. The publishing house of a company of promotion of one of the Cossack parts distributed among Cossacks the leaflet in which asked readers "to ask the questions and desires concerning promotion and other inquiries... life", also assured them that any request of Cossacks "definitely will not remain without answer" 6.

For the publication of reader's letters the department which usually was called "Letters of our readers" was entered. In it correspondence of readers raising various questions of life were located ". work of the industrial enterprises, life and culture, various city and rural news" 7. Rural heads, burgomasters, fighters and commanders of the Russian formations, prisoners of war and left for work to Germany and also peasants, representatives of the intellectuals and small businessmen were authors of the published letters often. In the majority it were people, victims of the Soviet power during the decossackization, collectivization and mass repressions. However a part of the published letters is obviously composed by the staff of the editorial offices.

The editorial offices often organized literary competitions as it was accepted in the Soviet press of the 1920th. Plots of literary works have to was "truthfully and figuratively" state "human sufferings at the Stalin mode and overcoming these sufferings" after "release" 8.

Newspapers on a subscription and through retail trade extended. The price of a copy fluctuated from 50 kopeks to 3 rub, or from 30 to 50 pfennigs. Town councils created at themselves offices on distribution of the press. According to "the list of workers and employees of the Pskov office on distribution of the press on receiving grain cards for March, 1943", it totaled 42 persons, from them 14 women. 26 people were aged from 15 up to 23 years, 13-from 48 to 59 years. About a half were made by workers of different professions, and other half - the Soviet employees (teachers, accountants, accountants) 9.

Coverage of events had extremely tendentious character. All statements of the editorial offices that they "least of all" are going "to embellish the facts, from black to do white" that on them "to the party it is too much truth" that "it was necessary to resort to a lie", - no more than empty phrase, a camouflage because all newspapers entirely depended on the occupational authorities and were under strict acceptable control. At the same time the analysis of the published materials shows that the messages about situation on fronts, an international situation, a situation in other countries, events in the Soviet back delivered by the German bodies of promotion differ in far bigger falsity, than messages about local events. Publishing local material, editions nevertheless tried not to supply with obviously false information not to lose trust of readers.

First of all, in newspapers the policy of the National Socialist Party of Germany was promoted, in iridescent tones the domestic situation in Germany was described. Readers were tried to be convinced that this policy is "truly socialist". In different ways constantly repeated: "Germany is the socialist and anti-capitalist state" 10. Calculations were made on appeal of these definitions in the opinion of the Soviet population.

In this regard newspapers claimed that leaders of the German communists refuse the beliefs and pass to cooperation with the authorities of the Third Reich. So, in July, 1943 a false note that E. Telman refused the beliefs, regretted and said "desire honestly to serve the homeland was published in the Novaya Zhizn newspaper issued in Roslavl", his repentance was accepted, it is released and works as the chief of "post office in one of the German cities" 11.

The statements of politicians and publicists extended that war which was launched by Germany and its allies has "revolutionary character" and its purpose is in helping the people of Europe to make "radical reorganization of life". This reorganization had to happen on the basis of ideology of national socialism, authoritarianism and a corporate society organization. The liberal and democratic ideas gave nothing to Europe "neither in public order, nor in political" 12.

Wrote about national policy of national socialists of the newspaper in general and it is very contradictory. On the one hand, it was noted that each people after the victory of Germany "will receive national freedom up to self-determination" that each nation "not only is recognized as national socialism, but also it is supported" 13. With another - it was emphasized that in "life of the people only recognition of the principles of merits establishes connection of the separate nation with such general system" 14. What "merits" and what "principles" of their recognition are - it was not explained. It is remarkable that the Russian newspapers did not promote the racial theory of national socialists about superiority of the German nation over all others, however anti-Semitism was inherent in practical all.

Much attention was paid to situation on fronts. Materials about the course of military operations were located in the headings "From Reports of the Supreme Command of the German Army", "On Fronts", "Military Operations in North Africa", etc. In detail, in enthusiastic and laudatory tone of the newspaper wrote about military progress of Germany and its allies, convincing readers that the aspiration of Germany to association of Europe in "one cultural and historical and economic whole" is already close to implementation, the people of the European continent unite around Germany and actively are at war "against the general enemy". They sought to convince readers that Germany with allies has all opportunities to gain a victory in war, and dazzled with headings, like "Germany is the unapproachable center of the powerful European continent" and "the USA cannot prevent a victory of Germany".

Naturally, about defeats of armed forces of the Hitlerite coalition it was reported extremely taciturnly. So, in August, 1943 the newspapers supplied with extremely poor and false information on the Kursk fight. From messages like "Near Oryol tension of the Soviet approach weakened a little" or "The attacks of the Soviet troops are beaten off" the reader could learn nothing about the real situation.

The international situation was extensively lit. Usual headings where similar material was located, were: "Chinese-Japanese cooperation", "International policy", "Danger to Australia", "Defeat of British in Burma", "Events in India", etc. Newspapers assured readers that the American industry does not cope with military orders, economic difficulties and the strike movement grow in the USA, and in the British colonies revolts spread. Much attention was paid to contradictions in the anti-Hitlerite coalition which depth, as a rule, was strongly exaggerated.

One of the central places were occupied by materials about situation in the Soviet back which were printed in two headings: "In Bolshevist Russia" and "Messages from "the Soviet paradise"". Newspapers in detail wrote about economic difficulties in the USSR, the heaviest financial position of the population of the country, a difficult social situation, the wide anti-Bolshevist guerrilla movement. Messages such were constantly published: "The Bolshevist military power is exhausted", "Bolsheviks already lost war", "Poverty behind the Soviet front", "The military economy of councils is destroyed", "Revolts in Chelyabinsk", "Executions and executions", "A revolt in Saratov and Bitter", etc. Telling, in particular, about the evacuated enterprises, newspapers wrote that their workers often "live in terrible conditions...

huddle in holes" 15. Naturally, messages that in December, 1941 the falling of industrial production in the USSR stopped, and then growth of release of military products began, on pages of the Russian collaborationist newspapers it is impossible to meet.

The policy of the occupational authorities in the territory of the USSR was one of the most important subjects. Of an azeta was claimed that the new power seeks to create "in Russia" "new social justice" and all its actions "are directed to one: to improvement of the life of people", and therefore everywhere, "where the leg of the German soldier goes", there come rest and an order - "forerunners of the future happiness and welfare" 16. Respectively, newspapers sought to convince readers that this activity causes active support of the population of the occupied areas. So, it was constantly reported that "thousands of Russian people" in the conditions of the German occupation "with rise and joy" "work on the different directions on creation of new life" 17.

Suppressing scales and a variety of forms of resistance which rendered to invaders the population of the occupied areas of the USSR, the editorial offices of newspapers gave information which said to the acute and thinking reader much more, than that was wanted by publishers and the German propagandists: about sentences of court-martials for concealment of weapon, for hearing of the Soviet radio on the radio receiver, for the help to the Jewish population, for public expression of discontent with actions of the occupational authorities. Guerrillas were represented by bandits who terrorized the population and plundered it. It was claimed that "guerrillas, kind of there are a lot of them was, do not constitute any danger to the German army" 18. But from articles and essays in which there was a speech about "successful" fight against guerrillas to the reader nevertheless it was possible to understand, contrary to intentions of authors and publishers, that the guerrilla movement represents serious force and poses considerable threat for invaders. At the same time, certainly, messages about mass executions, about brutal punishments of civilians were not published during the punitive actions, about destruction of millions of prisoners in concentration camps.

To interest readers, the Russian newspapers sought to show various parties of "peaceful life" of occupied territories. To it served headings: "Health care", "Agriculture", "National education", "Municipal economy", "On city subjects", etc. Journalists wrote about restoration of the industrial enterprises, about repair of roads and bridges. And especially there is a lot of - about development of private business: essays about enterprising people who in heavy wartime were engaged in the organization of the masterful, small plants, trade institutions were one by one published. Newspapers convinced readers that the policy of the occupational authorities is directed to support of "the best undertakings in restoration of normal life" 19.

Attention was paid to agrarian transformations: in articles, notes, correspondence it was much told about reorganization of state farms in "territorial farms" and creation of otrubny and farm country farms, about transformation of MTS to rolling points. At the same time the help of the German authorities to the Russian peasantry was constantly noted. Many articles concerning agronomics, about fight against epidemics of animals, about the advanced methods of managing were located. Also questions of new organization of labor were brought up, and it was claimed that the Soviet organization of labor based on administrative coercion and equalization gave way new when "each honest toiler is able to create for himself and the children happy human life, free and joyful existence" 20. At the same time it was much written about prosperity of the German economy, about diligence of Germans, about their highly effective work. Trips to Germany of representatives of the Russian governing bodies, fighters of the Russian formations, the staff of the Russian editorial offices were widely covered: they were organized by the occupational authorities for promotion of the German way of life.

In newspapers material about cultural life constantly was given: about activity of libraries, theaters and movie theaters, about restoration of schools, about work of scientific, highest and average educational institutions. In the heading "Church Life" it was reported about consecration of orthodox churches. Messages about sports meets and about the art exhibitions organized by the occupational authorities were located. So, readers were regularly informed on chess tournaments in which A. Alyokhin, and tours in the occupied territory of P. Leshchenko participated. Messages about arrival to the occupied areas of actors from Germany and the countries, allied with it, occur in all newspapers.

At the same time newspapers printed many materials on the history of the Russian culture. There were whole "pages" devoted to Old Russian art, the Russian music, great Russian artists, athletes, scientists, travelers. Articles devoted to the 80 anniversary since the birth of the poet I.S. Nikitin and to the 230 anniversary since the birth of M.V. Lomonosov, to the 35 anniversary from the date of K.A. Rimsky-Korsakov's death, to the 50 anniversary from the date of P.I. Tchaikovsky's death were published. Many materials were published about life and creativity of A. Blok, V. Korolenko, A. Pushkin, M. Lermontov, I. Turgenev and other writers. Memories of L. Andreyev, F. Shalyapin other prominent representatives of the Russian culture of the end of XIX - the beginnings of the 20th centuries were printed. At last, compositions of Russians of pre-revolutionary, emigrant and even Soviet writers were published. Most often M.P. Artsybashev, S.A. Yesenin, B.K. Zaytsev, M.M. Zoshchenko, A.I. Kuprin, N.S. Leskov, N.A. Nekrasov, L.N. Tolstoy, F.I. Tyutchev, N.A. Taffy, Yu.N. Tynyanov, I.S. Shmelyov's works meet.

It is characteristic that in parallel with it articles, essays, notes about the famous representatives of the German culture were published in each newspaper: poets, artists, sculptors, architects. Reviews of new movies and theatrical premieres in Germany were located. Communication between the Russian and German cultural traditions was emphasized. In essays, reports and reviews plots on cultural history of Italy, Romania, Finland, Croatia were offered readers.

A specific place on pages of the Russian collaborationist press was held by the Soviet mode. Such detailed publicizing of Bolshevist dictatorship, in opinion of both journalists, and the German propagandists, had to help with a favorable foreshortening to show the policy of the occupational authorities. In publications on this subject it was noted that the Bolshevist management, supporting dictatorship of the proletariat, created "dictatorship over the proletariat and the peasantry" that in the USSR the mode representing a version "the most unlimited absolutism in the world called communism" 21 was created.

In readers it was inspired that "in the world is not present anywhere, more than in the USSR, class inequality". The proletariat, the peasantry and the intellectuals in the USSR, journalists wrote, were oppressed classes: workers actually had "no rights in "the" state and were dependent slaves to a Stalin system", was turned into "the collective-farm slave" the Russian peasant, and the intellectuals in which Bolsheviks saw the main enemy preventing transformation of the person "in the obedient tool" was destroyed. Besides, in the USSR the unitary state in which "the people of Russia were deprived by Bolsheviks of the right to express the national feelings" 22 was created. It was constantly emphasized that the nomenclature is at the head of the Soviet society, the bureaucracy top which turned into new ruling class that the Soviet officials came off the people neglects it interests, and the party device puts forward "on the leading posts of illiterate and impudently free people with party-membership cards" 23.

Journalists wrote that the Bolshevist bureaucratic system is constructed on oppression of the person, on deception and terror that instead of the democratic freedoms promised by Bolsheviks in the USSR such powerful device "a suffocation of mankind what was still not known by history" that the Soviet authorities "killed and put in prisons of the innocent" 24 was created. Messages about detection of places of burials of the victims of mass shootings at People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs were constantly printed: in the Katynsky forest, near Vinnitsey, Odessa, Kharkiv and in other places. According to journalists, because of mass repressions the Soviet mode could not create powerful armed forces that war which the USSR launched against Finland in 1939 convincingly showed: The Red Army weakened by repressions during fighting showed that it "is not ready to long war with the serious opponent" 25.

It was much written also about inefficient command economy which was created in the USSR in the 30th. Journalists noted that such economy cannot provide development of the country in the long term. As for a collective-farm system, it as they wrote, led the country to constant deficiency of food and in spite of the fact that the Russian arable wedge "in enormous quantities gave rise to bread", "the people starved" 26. Inefficiency of command economy, huge military expenses, slowness of the Soviet party and state bureaucracy for which keeping big money was spent, journalists convinced readers, were the main reasons of low living standards of the Soviet people.

It was written also about unhealthy moral climate in the Soviet society: the atmosphere of fear for the wellbeing and life set in, and this fear forced the Soviet person becomes "the egoist and the egoist" that found the expression in mass informing which was supported by party and Soviet bodies. Terror and civil vulnerability, specified journalists, pushed people to drawing up slanderous denunciations in which they accused the relatives and colleagues of political unreliability and in which some authors of denunciations sought "to reduce scores with the neighbors, and others - to escape from the punishing right hand of party terrorists" 27. This criticism of the Stalin mode was perceived by a part of readers with trust. Such review of the newspapers which were issued at Germans is known, for example: "A lot of nonsense is written, of course, well, and about the Bolshevism... quite truly" 28.

At last, the Russian collaborators offered various concepts of reorganization of the country after falling of the Bolshevist mode. These concepts represented eclectic connection of the ideas of national socialism, liberalism, social reformism and the New Economic Policy. Ideologists of collaborationism assumed that after overthrow of the Bolshevist power in Russia "the national and labor Russian independent State" will be constructed. "the congress of national representatives" which will draft the constitution will be for this purpose convened and "will elect the national government". The new government will have social orientation and to proceed from the principles: "All for the people" and "All through the people". In the country democratic freedoms will be established and the 8-hour working day is entered. The right of the nations for self-determination will be recognized, but Jews will be deprived of all rights and will have to either leave Russia, or move in a ghetto. The earth has to be transferred to peasants to a private property, but speculation in it should be forbidden. Large-scale industry has to remain in hands of the state, the small industry and crafts - to pass into a private property. Workers have to become "participants of profits of those enterprises where they will work" 29. For fight against Bolsheviks it was supposed to create influential party, "which could oppose itself to force of the Communist Party" 30.

However despite all efforts, the Russian collaborationist press did not manage to inspire in the vast majority of the population of the occupied areas trust to "a new order". On the one hand, situation on fronts and atrocities of invaders sharply contrasted with the content of the published materials. With another - active propaganda of underground workers and guerrillas, including by means of the newspapers thrown because of the front line did not allow collaborationist editions to affect public consciousness exclusively. By the end of 1942 in the territory occupied by the opponent illegally there were 105 names of newspapers of the Soviet guerrillas and podpolshchikov31. In total during occupation the Soviet underground workers and guerrillas released more than 400 gazet32. In addition to them only in 1942 by the Soviet propaganda bodies it was published and sent to the occupied territory of 52 million copies of brochures, newspapers and listovok33. Occasionally collaborationist newspapers indirectly recognized the failure in propaganda war against the Soviet press, noting that a large number of people in the occupied territory does not support the occupational government and costs "far from public life" 34.

Thus, despite all efforts of the Russian collaborationist press the ideology of the German national socialism and its political practice did not become for most of the Soviet people who appeared in 1941 - 1944 in temporarily occupied territory attractive by an alternative to the Stalin mode.

1 The guerrilla movement (By experience of the Great Patriotic War of 1941 - 1945). M, 2001. Page 96.
2 Fair-haired And. New seal//Voice of Crimea (Simferopol). 1943. March 4.
3 Rostoye Fight against decomposition//the Russian messenger (Riga). 1944. March 21.
4 HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 5861. Op. 1. 37. L. 1.
5 Donetsk bulletin (Yuzovka). 1943. On Aug. 4
6 HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 5861. Op. 1. 47. L. 1-2.
7 Smolensk bulletin. 1941. 8 noyab.
8 Messages for a week (Smolensk). 1942. No. 20.
9 For the Homeland (Pskov). 1943. March 18.
10 See, e.g.: Forward - to new life//the Smolensk bulletin. 1941. 5 noyab.
11 Telman on service of the nation//New life (Roslavl). 1943. July 10.
12 Odessa newspaper. 1942. May 31.
13 National socialism and ethnic question//Voice of Crimea (Simferopol). 1942. On Apr. 2
14 Democracy and Christianity//New Way (Klintsy). 1943. On Apr. 4
15 A catastrophic situation in the Urals//the Smolensk bulletin. 1941. 5 noyab.
16 Ter-Markarian Two years of victorious war//New Way (Klintsy). 1943. July 1.
17 Our way (Oryol). 1943. On Jan. 3
18 Guerrillas are sworn enemies of the people//the Speech (Oryol). 1942. March 13.
19 Price control//Voice of Crimea (Simferopol). 1942. May 14.
20 Destructive world//Speech (Oryol). 1942. On Dec. 2
21 B. Vasilyey. Enemies of the people//Speech (Oryol). 1943. March 31.
22 Octane M. To the released people - the released art//the Speech (Oryol). 1942. March 15.
23 V.A. Yasinsky. Image of new institutions//Modern times (Vyazma). 1942. On Apr. 8
24 From democracy to tyranny//the Speech (Oryol). 1942. On Dec. 11
25 Destructive world//Speech (Oryol). 1942. On Dec. 2
26 Easily soiled P. Pravda of the facts//Speech (Oryol). 1942. July 2.
27 Fate of remained. Run to Germans from red "liberators"//the Dwin bulletin (Riga; Dvinsk). 1943. On Dec. 29
28 A. Kazantsey. The third force: Russia between Nazism and communism. M, 1994. Page 67.
29 Our purpose//For Russia. Body of the Russian volunteers (b. m). 1944. May 6.
30 Manifesto of National socialist labor party of Russia//New Way (Vitebsk). 1944. On Apr. 13
31 Guerrilla movement... Page 41.
32 Guerrilla movement... Page 69
33 Guerrilla movement... Page 40.
34 M.K. Against "internal emigration"//the Donetsk bulletin (Yuzovka). 1943. June 9.
Emily Ruth?
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