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Review of the book: M.L. Abramson of people of the Italian Renaissance: Private life and culture. M.: Grew. state. gumanit. un-t, 2005. 428 pages.

abramson M.L. Chelovek of the Italian Renaissance: Private life and culture. M.: Grew. state. gumanit. un-t, 2005. - 428 pages

The sra of l reminds a phrase "person of the Renaissance" to us of Lorenzo Medici, Leonardo da Vinci or Michelangelo. The person of the Renaissance is a universal creator (the artist, the architect, the philosopher). He admires ancient art, is inquisitive questions the nature and believes in human mind. However whether one concrete type can personify all sides of an era whether it can speak on behalf of all the contemporaries? What is the person of the Renaissance and what he differs from the medieval person in?

For the last ten years in Russia the whole series of works on history of the Middle Ages and early Modern times in which name the word "person" appears was published: "Person in the bosom of the family. Essays on stories of private life in Europe prior to the beginning of Modern times" (1996), "The person in the world of feelings. Essays on stories of private life in Europe and some countries of Asia prior to the beginning of Modern times" (2000), "The European person alone with. Essays about the cultural and historical bases and limits personal from an amosoznaniye" (2000), etc. Monograph M.L. Abramson "Person of the Italian Renaissance. Private life and culture" continues this row. The word "person" which costs in its title sends us to a problem of a historical originality of the human person and evolution of forms of consciousness of the individual during various eras.

A research perspective M.L. Abramson is on crossing of the major to an istoriograficha of sky subjects of the last of syatiletiya. Interest in the history of human consciousness on transition from the Middle Ages by Modern times Ya. Burkhar of a dg about the birth of the European individual of modern type in Italy of Renaissance conducts the sorts-word from a classical thesis. Historians-medievalists often do not agree with this thought and also even earlier eras move off in searches of sources of the new European individualism in the 12th century. The second group of problems which is closely connected with discussions around such difficult concepts as "individual" or "personality" is story of the autobiography as forms of introspection and representation human I. Researchers estimated the heuristic potential and richness of autobiographies and notes of figures of the Italian Renaissance long ago and also addressed more poor and difficult

mu for interpretation to material of the Middle Ages. At last, the third source of inspiration M.L. Abramson is story of private life. She convinces us that acquaintance to the world of feelings and emotions, marriage strategy and distribution of family roles in societies of the past and also the world of material objects which surround the person and will organize the cultural environment in which he lives, it appears not less significantly for understanding of historical specifics of a concrete era, than the "big" history of social structures, political forms and military campaigns.

The monograph consists of two equal parts. Zamys ate also keeping of everyone correspond to one of two elements of a subtitle of the book: private life and culture. The second part - "From Dante to Alberti" - represents the classical history of the Italian culture of Renaissance of XIV-of the 15th centuries. It begins with the review of historical I betray references which made possible radical a trance a formation of the medieval world on the Apennine Peninsula. Then before us there passes the gallery of classical types and heroes of Rennesan-sa: Dante, Petrarch, Leonardo Bruni, Kolyuchcho Salyutati, Marsilio Fichino, Leon Battista Alberti... The research program of this part of the book goes back in general to "The culture of the Renaissance in Italy" of Ya. Burkhardga: a gap with the medieval concept of the person and creation of new optimistic anthropology, an ideal of comprehensively developed individual and a noyua a concept of glory, new understanding of history and idealization of classical antiquity.

However the person of the Renaissance is not only the contemplator (the philologist the philosopher, the poet or the artist), but also the person of action: practical merchant or ambitious politician. The first part of the book which is devoted to private life of the Florentine merchants of the 14-15th centuries is represented to us more interesting and innovative, than its continuation. It consists of a series of portraits: Strots-tsi families, Lappo Sirigatti, Paolo dachertaldo, Giovanni Morelli, Bo-nakkorso Piety. Thanks to their personal correspondence, memoranda (psogsts) and to pious lectures which they left to the relatives and descendants we can slightly open a door in their private life, enter their house, see them in a circle of the family, friends and neighbors. The historian is interested in their ideas of family, the matrimonial relations and love, perception by them of an old age and death, daily religiousness and business ethics of the merchant world of the Renaissance Florence.

M.L. Abramson asks about as far as each of her heroes was original in svo I eat behavior, psychology and values as far as its course of life was exclusive or ordinary on the general background of an era and that social environment which each of them left. Some of these people left behind extensive correspondence, others - diary entries or collections of practical manuals. They wrote for themselves, for the family or, much more rare, for more wide range of readers. They sought to keep and pass on to descendants the life experience and worldly wisdom which was a source of their prosperity and a guarantee of reputation of a sort. They were hard-fisted, prudent, often avaricious on emotions and at the same time are honest in affairs and are devoted to the family (if only did not manage to quarrel with them because of money, inheritance or a dowry). The Renaissance merchant is proud of syuy craft, considers it one of the most honourable classes in the world and does not see in it the first in bellows to rescue of soul. He relies in affairs upon own mind. highly appreciates it and at the same time does not forget to ask about the help for God. The author successfully harakternat this type merchant to a blagocha a stiya as Prague-matiche I will hold down religiousness.

The merchant in the house, the merchant in family, the merchant alone with. The person of the Italian Renaissance not only creates, reflects and writes. He is also engaged in trade, cares for enhancement of the capitals and protection of honor of a sort, marries and bargains about a dowry, arranges the fate of the children and cares for relatives. History of private life of a vseshch is interesting that she studies the person in a difficult interlacing of its vital communications and shows multidimensionality really of a sta.

I.G. Venyavkin, M.R. Mayzuls

Kramer Reinhardt
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