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Dynamics of number of Nenets of the Nadym region of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area (1930 beginning of the 21st century)



DINAMIKA of the NUMBER of NENETS of the NADYM REGION OF YAMALO-NENETS AUTONOMOUS AREA

(1930 — the beginning of the 21st century) 1

E.A. Volzhanina

Dynamics of number of Nenets of the Nadym district is presented from the moment of its education prior to the beginning of the 21st century. The carried-out analysis confirms low average annual rates of gain of Nenets in the area. The leading factor of change of their number is the natural movement: high rates of birth rate and mortality. Comparative characteristic of quantitative these 1930th confirms the provision that the group of the Nadym Nenets as a part of the Siberian tundra Nenets developed in the first half of the 20th century with inclusion in its structure "оненечившихся" Khanty.

In ethnographic literature the Nenets whose traditional territory of resettlement is located in administrative borders of the Nadym region of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area received the names "Nadym Nenets" and "Nenets of the Nadym district". They are distinguished from the Siberian tundra Nenets with existence of own dialect (Nadym dialect), the economic and cultural specifics caused by Russian, Khanty and the Komi influence, some features of family and patrimonial structure [Prokofiev, 1937. Page 9; Golovnev, 1993. Page 123-124; Kvashnin, 2004. Page 130; Martynova, 2001. Page 136-138; Native of the Volga region, 2005. Page 302-310]. Consciousness of the difference at them is expressed not in the self-name, and in names for the groups of Nenets, next to them, that was noted at the beginning of the 20th century. According to G. Dmitriyev-Sadovnikov's records made in 1916, Samoyeds of the river Nadym call themselves hazovo, stone Samoyeds — pen-kasokho, local Samoyeds — tasin-nyag ("in the lower reaches happening"), forest Samoyeds — pyan-hazovo, the Yamal Samoyeds — yamalen-cher ("on the end of the earth living") [1919. Page 25].

Now division of the Nadym Nenets in the place of residence — on a peder hasovo (or heels hasovo) and holes-hasovo, i.e. "forest" and "coastal" and also by origin — on hasovo erkar (the Nenets sort) and habi-erkar (the Khanty sort) [Martynova, is fixed 2001. Page 136; PMA, 2005, 2006]. Modern researches demonstrate rather late formation of the Nadym Nenets as ethnic group as a part of the Siberian tundra Nenets, and the majority of their childbirth of a geterogenna on structure [Martynova, 2001. Page 138].

As a result of administrative actions of the 20th century the Nenets living in the Nadym district are distributed between three village councils (rural administrations): Nydinsky (Yavaysko-Gydansky, 1930-1935, Low-Yamal, 1935-1976, center village of Nyda), Norinsky (Nydo-Nadymsky, 1930-1968, center of the item Nori) and Kutopyyugansky (Shuginsky, 1944-1973, center of the item Kutopyyugan). Among city dwellers the Nenets appear after 1972, with education Nadym. Their number in the area began to increase from the second half of the 1980th. According to a census of 1989, them there were 170 people, in 2002 — 343 people that makes less than 10% of the total number of Nenets in the area [Results of the All-Russian census..., 2005. Page 354, 384, 386].

Various aspects of economy, culture, the family and patrimonial structure of this group of Nenets were considered mainly in the general works on ethnography of the Siberian Nenets and people of Western Siberia [Verbov, 1939; Homich, 1966, 1971, 1976, 1995; Long, 1970; Vasilyev, 1985; Golovnev, 1993, 1995]. In recent years there were special works devoted to modern ethnic, demographic and social and economic processes at the Nadym Nenets [Martynova, 2001, 2003, 2005; Pivneva, 2005; Kvashnin, 2003, 2004; Native of the Volga region, 2003a, 2004, 2005]. Such attention from researchers is connected, on the one hand, with implementation of the "Complex Research of the Nadym Ancient Settlement" project located in the territory of the Nadym district [Martynova, 2001], with another — with need of carrying out is-

1

Work is performed with assistance of a grant of the Governor of the Tyumen region 2005, the Forwarding grant of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science of 2005, 2006

toriko-cultural examinations in connection with intensive industrial development [the Report..., 2002, 2004]. On the example of the Nadym Nenets one of models of adaptation of indigenous people of the North in the new economic conditions which developed "during Post-Soviet transformations" [Pivneva, is shown 2005. Page 187; Martynova, 2005. Page 42].

This article continues the author's researches of features of sociohistorical and ethnodemographic development of the Nadym Nenets in the 20th century begun in 2002 and submits the analysis of dynamics of their number in the 20th century. Materials of the Subpolar census and land management expeditions of the 1920-1930th, Lists of rural settlements on the cities and the Areas of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area since 1957 were the main sources [MAU of Nadym and the Nadym district. T. 7. Op. 2. 4-14, 46-73, 128-161, 208-233; T. 10. Op. 2. 10-35; GAYaNAO. T. 12. Op. 1. 189; T. 186. Op. 1. 1; GUTO GATO. T. 1112. Op. 1. 2184, 1616, 2987, 3975, 6090, 6982, 7493, 8943, 10281; Op. 2. 2960, 4156, 849, 1739; Op. 4. 84, 146; Data of Committee of the state statistics of the Tyumen region, 1995-2004; List of settlements., 1928].

Emergence of the data characterizing the quantitative list of the Nadym Nenets belongs to the first third of the 20th century and is connected with education in the Yamal district in 1930. The Nadym district which included the territory of basins of the rivers Nadym and Nyda and the most part of Tazovsky of the peninsula. Till this time in materials of statistical account and notes of travelers of XVIII — the beginnings of the 20th century in the basin of the river Nadym the ostyatsky and ostyako-Samoyed population was fixed, kochevya Samoyeds were located to the north, in the basin of the Nyda River [Martynova, 2001. Page 136-137; Poles, 2002. Page 146-150; Hondazhevsky, 1880. Page 15-16; Yakoby, 1895; Patkanov, 1911. Page 36; Dmitriyev Gardeners, 1919. Page 34]. Nydinsky Samoyeds were among the local Samoyeds (the name of Nenets prior to the beginning of the 1930th) wandering between the Ob and Tazovsky lips, along with Tazy-sky, nizhnepurovsky and "steppe" Samoyeds, paying yasak mainly in the Obdor-sky foreign justice of Berezovsky of the county [Dunin-Gorkavich, 1995. Page 106-116].

As a result of formation of reindeer breeding of krupnotabunny type the territory in the basin of the river Nadym was used as winter pastures by gydansky, tazovsky and Yamal Samoyeds. This area is considered a transitional zone between "stone" and "local" Nenets, "where a considerable part of both the first, and the second met in the winter, and many remained to fish for the summer on the bank of Gulf of Ob here" [Long, 1970. Page 95]. Therefore all population of the Nadym district was divided into constantly living within a year and coming only to the winter period [GAYaNAO. T. 186. Op. 1. 1. L. 37 about.]. At the expense of the coming nomadic farms the population increased almost twice [In the same place].

The approximate number of the Nadym Nenets in the late twenties — the 1930th give materials of the Subpolar census and land management expeditions. For achievement of the maximum accounting of "stone" Samoyeds during the organization of the Subpolar census in 1926 Nadym and Poluysky district was allocated to the certain census site [GASO. F. R-1812. Op. 2. 181. L. 2]. When summing up in the considered territory, two came to light "geographical the region of a kochevaniye" within which the population was grouped in "points of relative (summer) settled life": the basin of the river Nadym, Sands of the Hensky fishing area on the right coast of Gulf of Ob from the Vanuyta River. As of 1926 on sands of the Hensky fishing area in summertime the nomadic population totaled 681 people, from them 394 — Samoyeds, 20 — ostyak, 229 — ostyako-Samoyeds; in the basin of the river Nadym — 51 people, from them 28 — ostyako-Samoyeds, 16 — Samoyeds and 7 — ostyak [The list of settlements, 1928. Page 179, 185]. For the winter these farms removed to depth of the area in a forest zone.

Participants of land management expeditions of the 1930th provide different data on the number of the Nenets living in the Nadym district. In the report of the Nadym expedition of their 1933-1934 there are 1471 people [GAYaNAO. T. 186. Op. 1. 1. L. 37]. The Yamal district executive committee for 1935 had data on 580 Nenets living in the Nadym district [the Report of the Yamal National District committee..., 1935. Page 6]. Data 560 and 1530 people are provided in other sources for 1934 and 1935 [GUTO GASPITO. T. 23. Op. 1. 258. L. 6; GAYaNAO. T. 12. Op. 1. 189. L. 24]. The last figure is received at the rate of 306 farms of the Nenets increased by the average size of economy 5 people [GAYaNAO. T. 12. Op. 1. 189. L. 24 about.]. The most probable, in our opinion, is the number of Nenets in the Nadym district in the 1930-1940th about 1000 people — data together on Samoyeds and ostyako-Samoyeds, last of which are not allocated in separate ethnic group in the 1930th any more (see further).

In 1957 the total number of Nenets in the area according to official statistics was 1425 persons. (Till 1972 the number of Nenets in rural areas corresponded to the total number of Nenets in the area.) On the basis of the information about country people according to pokhozyay-stvenny account dynamics of number of Nenets of the Nadym district in 19572004 (fig. 1) is presented.

♦ All population - - H--Nenets - A-Russians, etc.-©-Коми ^^^^^" Khanty

Fig. 1. Dynamics of number of country people of the Nadym district, 1957-2004

(according to pokhozyaystvenny account)

According to the executed calculations the pure gain of Nenets in rural areas of the area for 1957-2004 was 594 people at the low average annual rate of gain — 0.74%. Their number increased from 1425 to 2019 persons. If to break the specified period into ten-year intervals, then continuous fluctuations of indicators of pure gain, rates of gain and average annual rates of gain from negative to positive values (tab. 1) are found. On graphics to dynamics of number of Nenets there corresponds almost the straight line demonstrating their slow growth. Considering very low migration mobility of Nenets out of borders of the area, we assume that their quantitative changes are caused in the second half of the 20th century mainly by the nature of the natural movement. The Nadym Nenets are not an exception among indigenous ethnic groups for which at the same time high coefficients of birth rate and mortality are noted that leads in certain cases to zero natural increase. The increased mortality is promoted also by traditional occupation fishery when the elements, abuse of alcohol or imprudence, and sometimes everything together leads to death of several people at once.

During the considered period generally positive size of the calculated indicators is characteristic only of the Nenets population. The number of the Russian population living in rural areas since 1980th is constantly reduced (tab. 1). It is connected with obtaining the status of the city by rural settlements which prevailing population makes the alien Russian population, closing of settlements of prospecting expeditions, social and economic and political processes in the country. Dynamics of number of country people, including Russians, shows considerable fluctuations of the population in the area from 1970 to 1987

Table 1

The indicators characterizing changes of number of country people of the Nadym district

Period Nenets Russians All population

D (-0 ^прироста D (-0 ^прироста D (-0 ^прироста

1957-1970 378 26.5 1.82 510 33.2 2.2 905 23.0 1.59
1970-1980 -92 -5.1 -0.52 8929 436.8 16.8 13013 269.2 13.06
1980-1990 50 2.9 0.28 -2262 -20.6 -2.3 -7027 -39.4 -5.0
1990-2000 231 13.1 1.24 -3554 -40.8 -5.2 -275 -2.5 -0.25
2000-2004 27 1.3 0.33 -550 -10.6 -2.8 -1487 -14.1 -0.38

of 1957-2004 594 41.6 0.74 3073 200.3 2.33 5129 130.5 1.77

Notes: D (-0 — the pure gain (decrease) for the period, the people; to "gain — the rate of gain, %; — the average annual rate of gain, %.

Dynamics of number of the Nenets living in the territory of each of village councils testifies to different trends of demographic development. The highest pure gain is noted at nydinsky Nenets, for 1957-2004 — 585 people at the average annual rate of gain of 2.03% (in separate years — 3.62 and 4.17%). At the same time average annual rates of gain in other territories are lower several times. The number of norinsky Nenets was reduced from 1957 to 2004 by 92 people (=-0.6%), and kutopyyugansky Nenets — increased only by 96 people (= 0.27%) (tab. 2). Comparison of indicators on ten-year intervals and also the comparative analysis of family structure is shown that increase in nydinsky Nenets happened mainly due to resettlement of Nenets from other territories for the 1957-1980th. The number of the Nenets living in the territory of Shuginsky s/s after closing of the item. Sludge ice in 1973 decreased by 231 people (=-3.34%). In the next years for them the positive size of average annual gain which exceeds a regional indicator is observed.

Table 2

The indicators characterizing changes of number of Nenets of the Nadym district on village councils

Period Nydinsky s/s Kutopyyugansky s/s Norinsky s/s

D (-0 ^прироста D?-0 ^прироста D?-0 ^прироста

1957-1970 220 60.27 3.62 123 17.8 1.26 35 9.4 0.69
1970-1980 303 51.79 4.17 -231 -28.4 -3.34 -172 -42.36 -5.5
1980-1990 -3 -0.3 -0.03 73 12.5 1.18 -14 -5.9 -0.61
1990-2000 118 13.3 1.25 88 13.4 1.26 14 6.36 0.61
2000-2004 -53 -5.28 -1.35 43 5.79 1.4 45 19.2 4.39
1957-2004 585 160.27 2.03 96 13.9 0.27 -92 -24.7 -0.6

Over the second half of the 20th century there was a redistribution of Nenets between village councils. In 1957 nearly a half of them (48.4%) was registered in the territory of Shuginsky s/s and equally — in territories of the Low-Yamal and Nydo-Nadymsky village councils. In the 1980th most of Nenets more than 30 and about 14% — respectively in Kutopyyugansky (Shuginsky's) territories and Norinsky (Nydo-Nadymsky) village councils (fig. 2) live already in the territory of Nydinsky s/s (Low-Yamal).

Sources give the chance to track change of a share of Nenets as in the total number of country people of the area, and in the population of village councils. As a result of industrial development of the area the share of Nenets in the total number of country people of the area decreased during 1960-1980 from 39.8 to 9.6%. And in the next years it increased up to 22.3% (2004). The last circumstance is connected not so much with growth of number of Nenets how many with reduction of country people in the area in the 1990th. In spite of the fact that a half of Nenets lives in the territory of Nydinsky s/s, they make the smallest share in total population here. On the structure of the population Norinsky (Nydo-Nadymsky) and Kutopyyugansky (Shuginsky) village councils (fig. 3) are Nenets.

1 I I I I I
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

A share in % of the total number of the Nenets living in rural areas

□ Kutopyyugansky s/s □ Nydinsky s/s □ Norinsky s/s

Fig. 2. Distribution of Nenets of the Nadym district across the main territories of accommodation, 1957-2004

♦ Nydinsky r/a ^ Norinsky r/a and Kutopyyugansky r/a

Fig. 3. Change of a share of Nenets in total population by separate administrative-territorial formation of the Nadym district, 1960-2004

The problem of a ratio of the Samoyeds and ostyako-Samoyeds allocated in separate group in materials of the All-Russian census of 1897, All-Union and Subpolar censuses of 1926 Ostyako-samoyedami M.A. Kastren is closely connected with a question of number of the Nadym Nenets in the first half of the 20th century called Selkups, emphasizing their language relationship with Samoyeds, and cultural — with Khanty [Sokolova, Tugolukov, 1983. Page 80]. This term began to be used for designation of all people having the ostyako-Samoyed lines. On the Southern Yamal, in lower reaches of Ob and the basin of the river Nadym carried to them osamoyedivshikhsya the ostyak which lost in pain -

the shinstvo the native language, but keeping the Khanty consciousness and some elements of spiritual and material culture [Verbov, 1939. Page 62-63]. These are representatives of surnames: Sa-linder, Nerkygy, Tibichi, Nyadyngi, Pando, Poronguy, Lahr, finding family relations with the Khanty inhabiting the mouth of Ob and the coast of Gulf of Ob [Verbov, 1939. Page 63; Perevalova, 2004. Page 271]. All of them are united in group of Nenets of the Khanty origin [Verbov, 1939. Page 60-61; Long, 1970. Page 74-75].

Development of fishing industry in the 19th century [Vasilyev, 1976 became the reason of appearance of the Khanty (Ugrian) population from the southern districts of Northern Priobye to lower reaches of Ob. Page 337; Perevalova, 2004. Page 257]. This territory is one of the most northern zones of resettlement of Khanty. Tenants of fishing crafts sometimes brought them as hired workers, some of them remained on the permanent residence [GAYaNAO. T. 186. Op. 1. 1. L. 39]. Not these surnames happen only among the families living on the coast of Gulf of Ob. In the early remained books of pokhozyaystvenny account for 1944-1947 (Shuginsky s/s), 1938, 1945-1948 (Maloyamalky s/s) of Salindera, Nerkagy, Tibichi, Nyadyngi, Pando and Poronguy are written down by Nenets [MAU of Nadym and the Nadym district. T. 7. Op. 2. 4-14, 46-73].

Participants of an expedition of 1933/1934 noted that "in certain cases it is difficult to carry out strict differentiation of Khanty and Nenets as families of the same sort call themselves Nenets, others Khanty (Nerkagy, Porunguy, Solinder, Anagurichi). It is necessary to tell that natives of patrimonial groups of Anagurichi, Porunguy, Solinder, Nerkagy are in effect the Khanty who got on the territory of the Nadym district from the Cisural and Shuryshkarsky district. Living among Nenets, these representatives of Khanty in most cases lost knowledge of the native language and call themselves Nenets. It is often possible to observe mixed marriages of representatives of this Khanty childbirth with Nenets..." [GAYaNAO. T. 186. Op. 1. 1. L. 39]. Noting their difference from Nenets, in the 1930th, nevertheless, they are not allocated in separate group any more [GAYaNAO. T. 12. Op. 1. 189. L. 1]. At the same time the memory of their Khanty origin remains still at the people of the senior generation conducting the origin from this childbirth and also among "clean" Nenets [PMA, 2005]. Some ceremonies characteristic of Khanty (connected with a funeral, a wedding remain; rules of conduct of the married woman, etc.).

In this regard it is interesting to look at dynamics of number of the Khanty population in the area. In 1926 there were 263 ostyako-Samoyeds, 29 ostyak [The list of settlements., 1928. Page 120, 122, 179, 185]. With refusal in the 1930th of old names of peoples of the North the ethnonyms the Samoyed, ostyak, the ostyako-Samoyed ceased to be used in daily and official practice. It is only possible to assume that otherwise a part of ostyako-Samoyeds was attributed to Nenets.

Quantitative data of the 1930th on Khanty in the first years of existence of the Nadym district as well as concerning Nenets, differ in different sources. The information about 560 Nenets and 392 Khanty is provided in reporting materials of the Yamal district executive committee in 1934 [GUTO GASPITO. T. 23. Op. 1. 258. L. 6; Report of the Yamal National District committee..., 1935. Page 6]. In reports of land management expeditions of this time of the Khanty contain no more than 12 farms with the population of 60-61 people in them [GAYaNAO. T. 12. Op. 1. 189. L. 24; T. 186. Op. 1. 1. L. 37].

In the second half of the 20th century the share of Khanty in the total number of country indigenous people of the area does not exceed 5%. Their number was reduced from 67 people in 1957 to 45 people in 2004. In this period official statistics in separate years notes significant fluctuations of their number — till 7-13 the people [GUTO GATO. T. 1112. Op. 1. 2184. L. 110 about. — 111 about.; 1616. L. 117 about. — 119; 2987. L. 99-99 about.; 3975. L. 86 about. — 87; 6090. L. 102 about. — 103; 6982. L. 9 about. — 10; 7493. L. 19 about. — 20; 8943. L. 31; 10281. L. 92; Op. 2. 2960. L. 95-96; 4156. L. 86; 849. L. 81; 1739. L. 78; Op. 4. 84. L. 98 about. — 99; 146. L. 91 about. — 92; Data of Committee of the state statistics of the Tyumen region, 1995-2004]. Their main part lives in the territory of Nydinsky s/s and is late immigrants.

Thus if the number of the Nadym Nenets in the first half of the 20th century is established only approximately, then already for the middle of the 20th century we have more or less exact and systematic data allowing to judge demographic trends. Dynamics of number defined on the basis of data of accounting of country people testifies to low average annual rates of gain of Nenets in the area. In the second half of the 20th century the change of their number happened more at the expense of natural at -

of growth. In the area there was no sharp increase in the indigenous people in the 1990th which is marked out for other territories in connection with introduction of privileges on national sign. Though pure gain was higher in comparison with the last decades, but in the next years returned on the previous level again. At the beginning of the 21st century the number of Nenets in the Nadym district in rural areas was 2014 people

Due to the lack of reliable quantitative data until the end of the 1950th it is not represented to an opportunity to compare the number of the Nadym Nenets of the middle of XX and the beginning of the 21st century to the number of the 1930th. Nevertheless it is possible to claim with confidence that the number of the Nadym Nenets in the middle of the 20th century is result of addition of Nenets and "оненечившихся" the Khanty who lost ethnic consciousness. Quantitative data, in our opinion, allow to draw a conclusion that the Nadym Nenets as the ethnic group as a part of the Siberian tundra Nenets finally developed to the middle of the 20th century

_BIBLIOGRAFICHESKY SPISOK_

Sources

GASO. F. R-1812. Op. 2. 181.

GAYaNAO. T. 12. Op. 1. 189; T. 186. Op. 1. 1.

GUTO GASPITO. T. 23. Op. 1. 258.

GUTO GATO. T. 1112. Op. 1. 1616, 2184, 2987, 3975, 6090, 6982, 7493, 8943, 10281; Op. 2. 849, 1739, 2960, 4156; Op. 4. 84, 146.

Data of Committee of the state statistics of the Tyumen region, 1995-2004

MAU of Nadym and Nadym district. T. 7. Op. 2. 4-14, 46-73, 128-161, 208-233; T. 10. Op. 2. 10-35.

Report on performance of research works "DKS Gas pipeline & #34; Находкинская" — KC-1-2 & #34; Ямбургская"". Assessment of State of Environment (ASE). Assessment of impact of construction and operation of the gas pipeline on the environment (EIA)". Section. "ethnocultural condition of the territory and its monitoring". Tyumen, 2002.

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S. Patkanov. The statistical data showing the breeding structure of the population of Siberia, language and childbirth of foreigners (on the basis of data of special development of material of a census of 1897). T. 2: Tobolsk, Tomsk and Yenisei provinces. SPb., 1911. Page 1-128.

List of settlements of the Ural region. T. 12: Tobolsk district. Sverdlovsk, 1928.

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L.V. Homich. Nenets. SPb.: Russian yard, 1995. 336 pages

N.K. Hondazhevsky. A winter research of the mountain coast of Irtysh from Tobolsk to Samarov and the northern tundra between Gulf of Ob and Surgut//Notes of the West Siberian department of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society. Omsk: Printing house of the district headquarters, 1880. Prince 2. Page 1-32.

A.I. Yakoby. About a missionary camp in the country of Nadym and about possible production of a Christian mission in the countries of the Russian foreign North//the Tobolsk diocesan sheets. 1895. No. 7-8. Page 129-147; No. 10. Page 177-186; No. 11. Page 193-205; No. 12. Page 215-223.

Tyumen, IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

The article represents demographic development of the Nenets from Nadym District from a formation thereof to the early XXIst century. The undertaken analysis testifies to rather low average annual growth rate with the Nenets through the District. A determinative as to changing their number remains natural dynamics, i. e. a high birth rate, and a high letality rate. A comparative description of quantitative data for 1930s supports a thesis that a group of the Nadym Nenets among Siberian tundra Nenets was shaped during the first half of the XXth century, with an inclusion of & #34; Nenetsized" Khanty therein.

Davidsen Roy
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